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THE  INTER-ALLIED 
GAMES  1919 


ALBERT  R.  MANN 

LIBRARY 

AT 

CORNELL  UNIVERSITY 


Cornell  university  Library 
GV  721.16 
Theinter-a.HedM-Si^:?l.ia.fir 


Cornell  University 
Library 


The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


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(Design  of  bronze  badge  described  on  page  151). 


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Compiled  under  the  direction  of 

MAJOR  GEORGE  WYTHE 
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Edited  by 

CAPTAIN  JOSEPH  MILLS  HANSON 
Field  Artillery 

Art  Editor 

CAPTAIN  CARL  V.  BURGER 
Infantry 


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The  Games  Committee.  Top  ?c/<— Lieut.  Col.  D.  M.  Goodrich,  G.  S.,  Chief  Liaison  Section. 
Top  center— Col.  Wait  C.  Johnson,  G.  S.,  Chief  Athletic  Officer  A.  B.  F.  and  Chairman  of 
Games  Committee.  Top  righi—W.  A.  Reynolds,  Associate  Director  Dept.  of  Athletics, 
y.  M.  C.  A.  Bottom  left— Ueut.  Col.T.  C.  Lonergan,  G.  S.,  Chief  Technical  Section.  Bottom 
right— Elwood  S.  Brown,  Director  Dept.  of  Athletics,  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and  Director  General  of 

the  Games. 


ORIGIN     OF     THE     INTER-ALLIED     GAMES 


o  result  was  ever  yet  achieved  without  a  cause;  no  end 
ever  accomplished  without  a  beginning.  The  present 
volume  records  the  history  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games ;  impor- 
tant in  themselves  because  of  their  magnitude,  unparal- 
leled in  the  annals  of  sport  by  reason  of  the  circumstances  under 
which  they  were  held,  and  memorable  for  the  good  feeling,  the  pre- 
cision of  execution  and  the  close  adherence  to  pre-arranged  plans 
which  marked  their  progress.  These  Games  signalized  to  a  vast 
number  of  soldiers  of  the  various  -Armies  of  the  Allies  the  end  of  the 
Great  War  and  the  beginning,  in  this  unique  love  feast  of  divers  races 
and  nationalities,  of  a  greater  and  more  hopeful  peace  than  the  world 
had  yet  known.  But  how,  at  the  first,  was  conceived  that  ultimate 
objective  so  clearly  that  it  could  be  kept  in  constant  focus  throughout 
a  long  period  of  preparation  ?  How  was  devised,  and  through  what 
previous  experiences  was  there  an  agency  capable  of  devising,  the 
mechanism  by  which,  from  millions  of  men,  strong  but  weary  from  war- 
fare, were  sifted  out  the  few  hundred  physically  elite  who  finally  stood, 
clean-limbed  and  lithe,  upon  the  oval  of  the  Pershing  Stadium  and  con- 
tended before  tens  of  thousands  of  the  Allied  peoples  for  the  highest 
athletic  honors  of  the  armed  hosts  of  civihzation  ?  If  the  Inter-Allied 
Games  are  to  be  seen  in  that  sort  of  perspective  from  which  alone  events 
can  be  truly  understood,  it  is  necessary  that  these  questions  be  answered. 

In  a  sense  by  no  means  fanciful  the  Inter-Allied  Games  of  1919 
may  be  said  to  have  originated  with  a  volleyball  and  an  indoor  base- 
ball lying  in  a  trunk  whieh  arrived  in  the  harbor  of  Manila,  Philippine 
Islands,  one  day  in  1910.  This  trunk,  together  with  the  volleyball 
and  the  baseball,  belonged  to  Elwood  S.  Brown  who  at  that  time 
went  to  the  Philippines  as  Physical  Director  of  the  American  Y.M.C.A. 
at  Manila  to  see  what  could  be  done  in  the  way  of  building  up  sports 
among,  the  American  civilian  population  in  the  Philippines  and  later 
among   the   natives. 

Naturally,  baseball  was  much  in  vogue  with  American  civihans 
and  soldiers  stationed  in  the  Islands.     This  rather  highly  specialized 


12  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

game,  however,  did  not  reach  the  great  majority  of  the  Filipinos,  to 
whom  mass  sports  of  any  sort  were  an  unknown  quantity.  That 
summer  at  Baguio,  the  mountain  "  summer  capital  "  of  the  Philippines, 
where  the  American  officials  took  refuge  from  the  intense  heat  in 
^Manila,  the  Filipino  clerks  and  other  attaches  of  the  government 
were,  as  usual,  very  discontented  and  uncomfortable,  the  cool  weather 
of  the  place  being  as  disagreeable  to  them  as  it  was  refreshing  to  the 
Americans.  They  knew  nothing  of  occupying  their  idle  time  in  vigor- 
ous physical  exercises,  but,  bringing  out  his  volleyball  and  indoor 
baseball,  Mr.  Brown  induced  a  group  to  begin  playing  with  them.  The 
sport  interested  them;  very  soon  it  enthused  them.  Every  day  more 
and  more  Filipinos,  not  only  men  but  women,  came  out  to  play  and 
more  and  more  wanted  to  take  part.  Games  between  different  groups 
representing  different  departments  were  very  soon  in  popular  vogue. 
More  volley  balls  and  indoor  baseballs  were  imported  from  the  United 
States  but  the  supply  could  hardly  keep  up  with  the  demand.  The 
games  were  carried  back  to  Manila  and,  encouraged  by  Governor 
General  Forbes,  Mr.  Brown  introduced  them  and  gradually  other  sports 
into  the  Government  departments  and  into  the  public  schools  and  their 
popularity  spread  rapidly  throughout  the  archipelago.  The  Filipinos, 
ignorant  of  general  play,  became  enthusiastic  participants  as  soon  as 
they  discovered  that  skill  was  not  a  prerequisite  to  enjoyment  of 
such  games.  During  the  seventh  year  of  mass  play  development, 
one  dealer  alone  in  Manila  sold  11,000  volleyballs,  practically  all 
of  them  to  natives,  and  manufacturers  in  the  Philippines  were  making 
them  in  quantity  in  the  cheaper  grades. 

Taking  advantage  of  the  newly  aroused  spirit,  Mr.  Brown  organized 
during  1911  and  1912,  competitive  games  between  Americans  and 
Fihpinos  in  which  the  natives  performed  very  creditably.  In  1912, 
at  the  invitation  of  the  Manila  Tennis  Club,  Kumagae,  the  Japanese 
tennis  champion,  came  to  the  Philippines  and  played  against  resident 
Americans  and  the  few  Filipinos  who  had  developed  some  skill  in  the 
game.  It  was  a  thing  unprecedented  for  no  Japanese  athlete,  as  such, 
had  ever  visited  the  Phihppines  before.  In  1913,  through  efforts 
made  in  various  trips  to  China  and  Japan,  both  nations  were  induced 
to  send  small  groups  of  athletes  to  take  part  in  a  series  of  Far  Eastern 
Games,  staged  at  Manila,  the  Chinese  delegation  being  accompanied 
by  Wu  Ting  Fang,  the  distinguished  former  Chinese  minister  to  the 
United  States.  The  distrust  and  dislike  between  the  three  races  was 
a  matter  of  tradition;  it  had  never  seemed  possible  that  a  Filipino,  a 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  13 

Chinese  and  a  Japanese  could  come  together  except  to  transact  neces- 
sary business.  But  on  the  field  of  sport  they  found  that  not  only 
could  they  meet  amicably  but,  each  learning  that  the  other  was  not 
such  a  bad  fellow  after  all,  a  new  and  mutual  respect  each  for  the 
other  was  engendered. 

The  first  Far  Eastern  Games  consisted  of  track  and  field  events, 
baseball,   volleyball,   basketball,   swimming  and  tennis.     They  were 
so  successful  that  a  permanent  organization  was  formed  and  largely 
through  the  agency  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  and  other  associations  having 
to  do  with  athletics,  more  extensive  activities  were  begun  in  each 
country  which  had  participated.     The  games  were  made  permanent 
biannual    events,    the  second  meet  occurring  at  Shanghai  in   1915, 
the  third  at  Tokio,  Japan,  in  1917,  and  the  fourth  at  Manila  in  1919.  At 
the  Shanghai  Games  from  15,000  to  20,000  spectators  daily  attended 
the    events,    which    roused    such    widespread    interest    that    when 
Mr.  Brown    and    the    delegation    of    athletes   from    the    Phihppines 
arrived  at  Peking  for  the  purpose  of  giving  some  exhibition  games, 
they  were  summoned  to  an  audience  by  Yuan  Shi  Kai,  the  President 
of  China.     Escorted  through   a  maze  of  circuitous  passages  into  the 
center  of  the  Presidential  palace  and  surrounded  by  burly  Manchu 
guards  whose  presence  made  the  visitors  anything  but  at  their  ease, 
the  interview   was,   nevertheless,   highly  interesting  and  the  Chinese 
President  learned  the  truth  of  the  report,  which  previously  he  had  been 
unable  to  credit,  that  the  medium  of  athletics  had  induced  Chinese 
from  such  politically  hostile  districts  as  Canton,  Shanghai  and  Peking, 
to  stand  shoulder  to  shoulder  as  the  champions  of  a  common  China. 
Thenceforward  the  Far  Eastern  Games  have  commanded  the  hearty 
support  of  the  Chinese  Government.     In  Japan  they  have  aroused 
great  popular  interest  and  enthusiasm  and  in  consequence  modern 
athletics  have  made  much  headway  despite  the  fact  that  at  first  they 
had  to  combat  the  powerful  counter-influence  upon  the  people  of  the 
school  of  Judo,  the  semi-religious  combination  of  philosophy,  art  and 
individual  physical  development  whose  expression,  in  the  last  named 
phase,  is  more  or  less  understood  in  foreign  countries  as  Jiu-Jitsu. 
Through  the  men  and  the  agencies  working  with  him  and  through 
Mr.  Brown's  own  efforts  during  the  latter  part  of  his  time  in  the  Far 
East,  modern  athletics  were  also  introduced  and  started  on  the  road 
to  healthy  development  in  Siam  and  through  the  Malay  Archipelago. 
In  April,  1918,  America  being  in  the  World  War  and  having  a 
rapidly  expanding  army  in  Europe,  Mr.  Brown  requested  war  service 


14  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

and  was  brought  to  France  as  one  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  athletic  directors. 
At  that  time  little  had  been  done  in  the  way  of  organizing  athletic 
relaxation  among  the  troops  resting  near  the  front  or  waiting  to  go 
in  the  line,  chiefly  because  of  demands  which  seemed  more  pressing 
for  work  in  other  lines.  But  with  this  physical  director  from  the 
Philippines  came  wide  experience  in  organizing,  full  knowledge  of 
the  psychology  of  sport  and  a  vision,  founded  upon  practical  demon- 
strations, of  the  possibilities  of  bringing  divers  peoples  together  in 
friendship  upon  the  field  of  sport.  Becoming  a  Field  Secretary  the 
new  man  began  urging  in  influential  quarters  more  widespread  and 
systematic  athletic  activity  in  the  army.  There  being  no  difficulty 
in  arousing  the  interest  of  General  Pershing  and  securing  full 
cooperation  from  the  Army  and  the  Y.M.C.A.  headquarters,  in  a  com- 
paratively short  time  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  themselves 
were  being  fairly  well  equipped  and  directed  for  the  enjoyment  of  the 
sports  in  which  Americans  will  always  indulge  if  they  are  given  the 
opportunity. 

But  his  underlying  aims  far  outran  the  mere  encouragement  of 
athletics  in  their  most  natural  field,  among  the  young  men  of  the 
forces  of  his  own  country.  In  the  armies  of  the  Allies,  struggling 
in  varied  and  widely  separated  fields  all  over  Europe,  Mr.  Brown  saw 
multitudes  of  men  bound  together  by  strong  ties  of  sympathy  in  the 
common  ideals  for  which  they  were  fighting,  yet  often  knowing  each 
other  not  at  all.  He  believed  that,  after  the  triumph  of  the  cause 
for  which  they  all  were  striving,  as  many  of  these  men  as  possible 
should  be  brought  together  in  order  that  they  might  know  each  other 
face  to  face  and  thus  lay  the  foundations  for  those  enduring  friendships 
which  can  come  only  from  personal  contact  and  which,  in  this  case, 
were  of  such  fundamental  importance  to  the  future  welfare  of  the 
world.  In  what  manner  could  they  be  brought  together  which  would 
be  most  revealing,  most  harmonizing,  most  natural  ?  The  answer 
was  obvious:  by  bringing  them  together  as  athletes.  If  a  Chinese, 
a  Japanese  and  a  Filipino  could  be  induced  to  sink  their  racial  antip- 
athies when  they  met  on  the  field  of  sport,  men  animated  in  advance 
by  interest  in  and  admiration  for  one  another  would  be  certain  to  find 
such  a  gathering  pleasant  and  profitable  in  many  ways. 

To  bring  this  basic  idea  to  fruition  was  not  so  easy,  however. 
But,  watching  the  developments  of  the  war  and  beginning,  early  in 
October,  to  discern  the  unmistakable  signs  of  coming  collapse  on  the 
part  of  the  Central  Powers,  Mr.  Brown,  who  in  the  meantime  had 


Membprs  of  the  advisorv  committee  of  the   Inter- Allied  Games,  in  the  garden  of  the  Cercle 

Xnter-Allies,  33,  rue  du  Faubourg  Saint-Honore,  May,  25,    1919.  after  the  luncheon  given  by 

the  Americans  in  honor  of  the  Allied  representatives. 


10. 
11. 
12, 

13. 

14. 
1.5 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 


Lt.  Col.  H.  G.  Mayes,  C.  B.  E.  (Canada). 

Col.  Arturo  Leone  (Italy). 

Maj.  J.  A.  Cameron  (New  Zealand). 

Lt.  Mario  da  Cunha  (Portugal). 

Maj.  Andrea  Gastaldi   (Italy). 

Maj.  S.  A.  Greenwell,  S.  C. 

Lt.  Col.   David  M.  Goodrich,  G.  S. 

Lt.  Col.  See  (French). 

Maj.  Barbier  (France). 

Lt.  Col.  C.  Watson,  D.  S.  O.  (Australia). 

Col.  Wait  C.  .Johnson,  G.  .S. 

Maj.    Raoul  Daufresne  de   la   Chevalene 

(Belgium). 
Capt.  Antonio   Mascarenhas   de    Menezes 

(Portugal) . 
Lt.  Nelson  Pell,  A.  S. 
Capt.  Horace  Bremie  (Roumania). 
Lt.  Col.  E.  Martin  (Belgium). 
Capt.  Andritch  (Serbia). 
Mr.  Popovitch  (Serbia). 
Mr.  Gradeojovitch  (Serbia) 
Capt.  Richard  H.  Waldo,  Inf. 
Mr.  W.  A.  Revnolds,   Y.  M.  C.  A. 


22.  Lt.  Col.  T.  C.  Lonergan,  G.  S. 

23.  Capt.  E.  D.  Toland.  Inf. 

24.  Maj.  Charles  C.  Bull,  Inf. 

25.  Lt.  Col.  Norman  Marshall  (Australia). 

26.  Capt.  M.  Stern  (Roumania). 

27.  Lt.  F.  R.  Miller,  Inf. 

28.  Capt.  Ray  Harrison,  P.  A. 

29.  Mr.  Blwood  S.  Brown,  Y.  M.  0.  A. 

30.  Lt.  R.  R.  Townsend,  P.  A. 

31.  Maj.  L.  B.  Rogers,  M.  C. 

32.  Lt.  Hajny  (Czecho-Slovakia). 

33.  Lt.  Col.  Paul  Watson,  F.  A. 

34.  Maj.  G.  C.  Woodruff,  Inf. 

35.  Capt.  W.  Delaney,  A.  G.  D. 

36.  Lt.  Horace  R.  Palmer. 

37.  Lt.   Col.  .7.  A  McDermott,  Inf. 

38.  Lt.  Col.  R.  M.  Hardaway,  M.  C. 

39.  Maj.  George  Wythe,  Inl. 

40.  Maj.  J.  J.  McConviUe,  Inf. 

41.  Maj.  B.  V.  Graves,  Q.  M.  C. 

42.  Capt.  Ken  Wang  (China). 

43.  Maj.  N.  A.  D.  Armstrong,  O.  B.  E. 

(Canada). 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  17 

become  Director  of  the  Department  of  Athletics,  A.E.F.— Y.M.C.A., 
on  the  15th  of  that  month  launched  his  campaign  by  writing  the 
following  letter  to  the  First  Section  of  the  General  Staff,  G.H.Q,  A.E.F. : 

October  15,  1918. 

From  :  Elwood  S.  Brown,  Department  of  Athletics,  Y.M.C.A.,  Paris. 

To  :  Colonel  Bruce  Palmer. 

SUBJECT  :  Proposed  Athletic  Program  for  Demobilization  Period. 

CONDITIONS. 

Peace,  whether  it  comes  tomorrow  or  many  months  from  now,  should  find 
us  in  a  state  of  preparedness  against  the  inevitable  period  of  relaxation  that 
must  be  met  when  hostilities  cease.  This  period  will  bring  about  an  increased 
danger  from  moral  temptations,  will  be  a  time  of  impatient  waiting  for  the  day 
of  departure  for  America  and  will  call  for  very  constructive  and  interesting 
bodily  activity  if  the  dangers  of  disorderly  physical  expression  are  to  be  avoided. 

Fundamentally  our  Army  in  France  is  a  physical  machine.  Physical  vital- 
ity is  the  chief  element,  the  most  important  asset.  Two  million  men  are  now 
engaged  in  the  strenuous  game  of  beating  the  Hun.  They  are  in  hard  daily 
labor,  intensive  military  training  or  engaged  in  actual  fighting  —  physical 
expression,  nearly  all  of  it.  When  this  is  suddenly  taken  away  no  mental, 
moral  or  social  program  however  extensive  will  meet  the  need.  Physical 
action  will  be  the  call;  games  and  play,  informal  and  competitive,  will  be  the 
answer.  It  is  assumed  that  a  certain  amount  of  military  work  will  be  contin- 
ued but  it  is  not  believed  that  this  will  be  found  either  sufficient  or  the  best 
way  to  offset  the  certain  reaction  that  will  come  about  when  the  fighting  is 
over. 

SUGGESTIONS. 

Four  activities  are  suggested  below  for  which  in  co-operation  and  conjunc- 
tion with  the  necessary  army  committees  the  Y.M.C.A.  through  its  Department 
of  Athletics  is  prepared  to  assume  the  initial  responsibility  in  promotion  and 
organization.  It  should  be  said  that  the  underlying  principle  would  be  to 
conduct  a  two-sided  effort  coordinating  the  athletic  play  program,  both  informal 
and  competitive,  for  which  the  Association  would  be  primarily  responsible,  with 
the  strictly  military  effort  looking  towards  the  accomplishment  of  the  same 
results  and  for  which  it  is  recognized  the  Army  will  have  a  program. 

ITEMS. 

1.  Great  mass  games  and  play  for  every  possible  man  —  "  Athletics  for 
everybody." 

2.  Official  A.E.F.  championships  in  a  wide  variety  of  competitive  sports 
including  military  events,  beginning  with  elimination  regimental  contests, 
ranging  upwards  through  the  divisions,  possibly  the  army  corps,  and  culminating 
in  great  finals  in  Paris. 


18  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

3.  Physical  pageants  and  demonstrations  to  be  held  in  many  centers  demon- 
strating to  our  allied  friends  America's  best  in  sport,  her  great  play  spirit  and 
incidentally  her  finest  in  physical  manhood. 

4.  Interallied  athletic  contests— open  only  to  soldiers  of  the  Allied  Armies 
—  a  great  set  of  military  Olympic  games. 

Item   No.    1. 

This  item  represents  the  major  portion  of  the  program  and  unquestionably 
the  most  important  part.  The  Y.M.C.A.  is  in  a  strong  position  to  handle  a 
purely  recreative  effort  of  this  kind.  It  would  introduce  the  play  spirit  and 
would  keep  the  activities  free  from  a  strictly  military  aspect ;  that  is,  its  recrea- 
tive work  could  be  semivolunteer  in  character  and  hence  would  not  be  regarded 
by  the  men  as  one  more  duty  in  the  military  day's  order. 

This  item  involves  for  the  Association  : 

1.  The  immediate  arrangement  with  at  least  one  hundred  of  its  strongest 
and  best  trained  experts  in  mass  play  now  in  France  to  remain  for  the  entire 
demobihzation  period.  Most  of  these  men  are  now  on  contracts  reading  "for 
the  duration  of  the  war." 

•2.  The  placing  of  an  order  by  cable  for  at  least  |500,000  worth  of  additional 
athletic  supplies.  An  order  amounting  to  $1,085,000  for  1919  has  already 
been  placed. 

3.  The  immediate  preparation  of  the  necessary  instruction  handbooks  and 
other  technical  printed  matter  that  would  be  required. 

For  the  Army  is  involved  : 

1.  Plans  to  detail  a  considerable  group  of  noncoms  whom  our  trained  athletic 
directors  could  instruct  in  the  promotion,  organization  and  conduct  of  the 
groups  games  adopted. 

2.  The  detailing,  after  hostilities  cease,  of  a  number  of  trained  athletic 
directors  now  in  the  Army  who  would  supplement  the  efforts  of,  and  work  in 
cooperation  with,  the  Association  directors. 

3.  The  appointment  of  a  committee  of  officers  with  which  and  through 
which  the  Association  representatives  could  work. 

Item  No.  2. 

Division  rivalry  of  every  sort  is  characteristic  of  our  Army  and  is  a  whole- 
some incentive  to  better  effort.  This  is  particularly  true  in  competitive  ath- 
letics and,  it  is  understood,  in  purely  military  sports  as  well.  It  is  believed  this 
rivalry  can  be  most  constructively  capitalized  through  official  A.E.F.  cham- 
pionships sanctioned  and  recognized  as  such  by  the  Commander-in-Chief. 

This  item  involves  for  the  Association : 

1.  Technical  direction  of  the  ehmination  athletic  contests  within  the  regi- 
ments and  divisions  of  their  equivalent  units. 

2.  The  securing  of  suitable  grounds,  equipment  and  the  necessary  prizes 
for  the  finals. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  19 

3.  The  general  responsibility  for  the  handhng  of  the  many  details  such  as 
entry  lists,  arrangements  of  heats,  events,  officials  and  the  hke. 

For  the  Army  is  involved : 

1.  Committees  of  athletic  officers  within  the  divisions  to  conduct  the 
strictly  military  events  desired  and  to  coordinate  these  with  the  athletic  events. 

2.  A  group  of  officers  to  sit  as  members  of  a  representative  A.E.F.  Cham- 
pionships Committee  in  general  charge  of  the  finals. 

Item  No.  3. 

The  French  soldiers  as  well  as  the  civilian  population  are  keenly  interested 
in  American  sports  and  the  fine  play  spirit  that  permeates  them.  There  is 
also  unusual  interest  in  American  calisthenic  drills  and  a  number  of  other  of  our 
best-known  activities.  There  is  particular  interest  in  baseball  and  track  and 
field  sports.  Through  the  Foyer  du  Soldat  baseball  has  been  quite  generally 
introduced  in  the  French  Army.  The  American  Army  could  make  a  lasting 
impression  on  French  sports  as  well  as  a  most  definite  contribution  to  them  by 
demonstrating  in  various  great  centers  in  France  our  popular  National  games, 
and  by  putting  on  great  pageants  such  as  are  frequently  used  in  our  munici- 
palities at  home  to  typify  the  spirit  and  traditions  of  the  community.  If  mili- 
tary band  concerts  or  competitions  together  with  male  chorus  singing  could  be 
added,  the  net  result  would  be  at  once  physically  stimulating  and  strongly  artistic. 

This  would  involve  for  the  Association  : 

1.  Bringing  over  from  America  a  number  of  specialists  on  events  of  this 
kind. 

2.  The  drilling  of  many  large  groups  of  men  in  the  various  pageants.  The 
general  conduct  of  the  games  and  demonstrations. 

3.  Furnishing  of  the  necessary  suits  for  the  athletic  activities  and  costumes 
for  the  pageants. 

For  the  Army  is  involved  : 

1.  Committee  with  authority  to  treat  with  the  French  officials  in  the  loca- 
tions decided  upon  as  to  the  use  of  buildings  or  fields,  permission  for  parades 
and  other  required  items  about  which  it  would  be  necessary  to  deal  with  local 
authorities. 

2.  A  general  committee  of  officers  to  work  in  conjunction  with  a  similar 
Association  committee. 

Item  No.  4. 

A  Military  "  Olympic  "  would  bring  together  the  best  athletes  in  every 
sport  from  all  of  the  Allied  Armies  and  would  undoubtedly  be  the  greatest 
gathering  of  athletes  ever  seen.  Entry  would  be  restricted  to  men  who  had 
seen  military  service  in  the  present  war.  The  amateur-professional  question 
would  be  ignored.  Such  an  athletic  meeting  would  unquestionably  be  a  great 
factor  in  cementing  on  the  field  of  sport  those  friendly  ties  between  the  men  of  the 


■20  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Allied  Armies  that  have  sprung  up  on  the  common  field  of  battle.     International 
sports  of  this  kind  have  always  developed  mutual  respect  and  understanding. 

For  the  Association  this  involves  : 

1.  Securing  and  arranging  a  suitable  stadium. 

2.  The  general  responsibility  for  the  technical  details. 

3.  The  furnishing  of  symbolic  and  artistic  prizes. 

For  the  Army  is  involved  : 

1.  Responsibility  for  the  training  of  its  men  entered  in  these  International 
events. 

2.  As  the  initiative  in  promoting  the  Games  would  be  taken  by  the  American 
Army,  the  meet  should  be  of  an  invitation  nature  and  therefore  it  is  suggested 
that  if  this  item  is  approved,  the  Commander-in-Chief  formally  invite  the  Com- 
manders of  the  Allied  Armies  to  send  entries  and  to  participate  extensively 
in  the  contests. 

3.  The  organization  of  a  suitable  Interallied-Army  Committee  to  work 
with  a  technical  committee  from  the  Association  forming  a  general  operating 
unit  for  the  games. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  adoption  of  any  or  all  of  the  above  items  calls 
for  immediate  and  definite  plans  and  also  financial  appropriations  by  the  Asso- 
ciation. These  things  it  is  prepared  to  do,  as  well  as  to  supply  further  details 
whenever  necessary,  if  the  general  outline  is  approved  by  the  Army  authorities 
and  the  definite  responsibihty  now  placed  upon  the  Association  by  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief for  the  operation  of  the  volunteer  athletic  program  with 
the  A.E.F.  be  continued  to  include  the  period  under  discussion  and  the  items 
suggested. 

An  early  reply  will  be  appreciated. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

Elwood  S.  Brown, 
Department  of  Athletics. 


As  American  General  Headquarters  could  not  at  this  time  offi- 
cially recognize  the  possibility  of  an  armistice,  no  action  was  taken 
on  the  letter  but  it  was  placed  in  the  files  for  future  reference.  Imme- 
diately after  the  signing  of  the  Armistice,  the  Director  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Athletics,  Y.M.C.A.,  renewed  to  G.H.Q.  the  expression  of  the 
readiness  of  his  organization  to  put  into  effect  the  plan  suggested  on 
15  October,  and  on  27  November,  1918,  the  following  letter  was 
written  to  the  Commander-in-Chief,  further  elaborating  the  reasons 
not  only  for  holding  Inter-Allied  Games  but  for  holding  them  through 
the  initiation  and  at  the  invitation  of  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces  : 


Opening  Day.     Toy   left    fo    right — Colonel   Johnson,   General  Pershing,    President    Poineare. 

Center  left — General  Pershing  presenting  Stadium    to    French    government.      Center   right — 

M.  Georges  Leygues  accepting  Stadium  from  General  Pershing  in  name  of  Pi'ench  government. 

Bottom  left  to  right — Colonel   Johnson,  General  Pershing,  President  Poineare 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  23 

A.E.F.— Y.M.C.A. 

November  27,  1918, 
From  :  Chief,  Y.M.C.A. 

To  :  Commander-in-Chief,  G-1. 

SUBJECT  :  Inter-Allied  Games— "Military  Olympics." 

1.  In  a  memorandum  previously  submitted  relative  to  a  general  athletic 
program  during  demobilization,  for  which  the  Y.M.C.A.  was  prepared  to  under- 
take the  responsibility  in  promoting,  directing  and  financing,  one  of  the  items 
suggested  was  a  great  set  of  interallied  competitive  athletic  contests,  which 
might  be  termed  "Military  Olympics."  It  was  urged  that  these  games  be 
held  at  the  invitation  of  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  A.E.F.  to  the 
Commanders-in-Chief  of  the  Allied  Armies.  Reasons  in  support  of  this  sugges- 
tion follow  : 

a.  Invitation  games  avoid  the  customary  preliminary  meetings  which, 
experience  in  international  games  has  invariably  shown,  involves  long-drawn- 
out  and  difflcult  conferences  before  general  agreement  is  possible. 

b.  Inasmuch  as  the  A.E.F.  would  be  prepared  to  be  responsible  through 
the  Y.M.C.A.  for  the  promotion,  direction  and  financing  of  the  project,  imposing 
no  financial  obligation  on  the  Allied  Armies  other  than  that  involved  in  sending 
their  athletes,  it  is  perfectly  logical  for  the  A.E.F.  to  take  the  initiative  in  extend- 
ing the  invitation. 

c.  Such  games  would  be  invaluable  in  still  further  streilgthening  mutual 
understanding  and  friendship  amongst  soldiers  of  the  Allied  Armies.  Infor- 
mation is  at  hand  indicating  that  such  games  would  be  welcomed  by  many 
English,  French,  Australian  and  Canadian  officers  responsible  for  physical 
training. 

d.  Such  games  would  focus  the  interest  of  the  athletic  world  both  in  Europe 
and  in  America;  would  give  a  striking  illustration  of  the  place  of  athletics  in  the 
military  training  of  the  Allied  Armies  and  would  be  of  absorbing  interest  to 
great  numbers  of  troops  during  the  somewhat  restless  period  waiting  their 
return  home. 

2.  It  is  recommended  that  the  Commander-in-Chief  extend  a  formal  invi- 
tation to  the  Commanders-in-Chief  of  the  Allied  Armies  to  participate  in  a 
series  of  interalhed  athletic  games,  open  only  to  officers  and  men  who  have 
served  in  the  Great  War;  that  the  games  take  place  in  Paris  during  the  month 
of  April,  1919;  that  they  be  under  the  joint  control  of  an  Executive  Committee 
representing  the  A.E.F.  and  the  Y.M.C.A.  and  that  the  Allied  Commanders 
be  invited  each  to  send  two  suitable  delegates  to  become  members  of  an  Advisory 
Committee  charged  with  the  responsibility  of  suggesting  appropriate  events. 

3.  In  response  to  tentative  inquiries  the  Y.M.C.A.  has  discovered  that  the 
Great  National  Racing  Club  of  France  is  prepared  to  place  the  Colombes  Stadium 
at  the  disposal  of  the  A.E.F.  for  the  proposed  games,  provided  the  Y.M.C.A. 
will  undertake  the  financing  and  responsibility  of  repairing  the  stadium  and 
putting  it  in  flrst-class  physical  condition.  The  stadium,  which  is  fourteen  kilo- 
meters from  Paris,  was  the  site  of  the  1900  Olympic  Games. 


24  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

4  Speedy  action  is  desirable  regarding  the  whole  proposition  as  it  is  possible 
that  a  somewhat  similar  proposal,  but  on  a  less  satisfactory  basis,  may  be  forth- 
coming from  another  source. 

We  believe  that  if  the  Commander-in-Chief  were  to  inform  the  French 
authorities  that  he  desired  to  arrange  for  such  games  unless  the  French  had 
objection,  that  an  affirmative  answer  would  be  forthcoming. 

(Signed)   E.   C.   Carter. 

Chief  A.E.F.— Y.M.C.A. 

On  1  December,  Colonel  Wait  C.  Johnson,  General  Staff,  an 
expert  in  athletic  matters  and  in  his  own  person  an  athlete  of  wide 
Army  repute,  was  transferred  from  the  Intelligence  Section,  G.H.Q., 
in  which  he  had  been  chief  of  the  subsection  charged  with  coordinating 
information  concerning  the  enemy  order  of  battle  (G-2-A),  and  made 
Chief  Athletic  Officer  of  the  A.E.F.  His  work  in  this  highly  impor- 
tant capacity  will  be  further  mentioned  presently.  But,  as  connected 
with  the  present  subject,  on  16  December,  1918,  the  Director  of 
the  Department  of  Athletics,  Y.M.G.A.,  addressed  to  him  a  letter 
making  some  very  clear  and  definite  proposals  concerning  the  projected 
Inter-Allied  Games.  The  exactness  with  which  these  proposals  were 
executed  shows  how  clearly  the  Director  had  thought  out  the  problem 
and  how  thoroughly  conversant  he  was  with  the  elements  of  the  situa- 
tion.    He  says  : 

It  is  recognized  that,  in  the  event  of  a  favorable  attitude  on  the  part  of 
the  Commander-in-Chief  to  the  proposal  that  he  invite  the  Commanders-in- 
Chief  of  the  Allied  Armies  to  send  men  to  participate  in  a  series  of  interallied 
athletic  competitions,  certain  details  will  need  to  be  available  for  his  information. 

Basis  for  games. 

The  direct  invitation  of  General  Pershing  to  the  Commanders-in-Chief  of 
each  of  the  Allied  Armies  to  send  men  to  participate  in  a  series  of  interallied 
athletic  competitions  to  be  held  in  the  coming  spring  at  a  time  and  place  to  be 
designated  by  the  American  Army  and  at  no  expense  to  the  Armies  invited  other 
than  that  involved  in  the  training,  transportation  and  billeting  of  their  own 
representative  teams.  The  various  Dominion  Units  of  the  British  Forces  to  be 
considered  as  separate  Armies  for  purposes  of  these  Games. 

Operating  unit. 

A  General  Games  Committee  of  Army  Officers  and  Young  Men's  Chris- 
tian Association  Athletic  Directors,  totalling  not  more  than  five,  one  of  the 
number  to  act  as  Director  General.  This  Committee  would  be  the  deciding 
agency  and  the  flnal  authority  on  all  matters  pertaining  to  the  games. 

This  Committee  would  invite  the  various  Armies  to  send  two  delegates  each 
to  an  Advisory  Council  which  would  be  asked  to  submit  any  proposals  desired 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  25 

to  the  Games  Committee,  to  make  any  suggestions  it  saw  fit  and  to  render 
any  general  assistance  possible  looking  to  the  success  of  the  competitions.  The 
active  cooperation  of  such  a  council  would  do  much  to  make  the  games  popular 
and  constructive. 

Finances. 

As  hereinbefore  suggested,  the  various  Armies  would  be  expected  to  carry 
all  of  the  expense  in  connection  with  the  training,  equipping,  transporting, 
housing  and  rationing  of  their  own  competing  athletes;  this,  it  is  believed,  each 
Army  would  prefer  to  do.  The  cost  of  a  suitable  site  for  the  Games,  the  neces- 
sary prizes  (other  than  such  trophies  as  might  be  donated),  printed  matter,  and 
all  miscellaneous  expenses  would  be  underwritten  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  It  is 
expected  that  the  American  Army  could  join  with  the  Association  in  providing 
the  necessary  stenographic  services,  certain  office  help  and  like  incidentals. 

Site. 

The  great  Colombes  Stadium  near  Paris,  the  site  of  the  1900  World's  Olym- 
pic Games,  is  available.  It  is  equipped  with  an  excellent  running  track,  a 
number  of  playing  fields  suitable  for  baseball,  football  and  other  games,  has 
grandstands  seating  more  than  20,000  persons,  dressing-rooms,  and  other 
accessories.     Certain  other  sites  may  be  available,  notably  Longchamps  Field. 

Cooperation  indicated. 

The  Chief  Physical  Training  Officer  of  the  British  Army  in  France,  Lieut. 
Col.  H.  S.  Huntington,  has  made  inquiry  by  letter  as  to  the  probability  of  inter- 
allied games.  The  Director  of  Recreative  Training,  Australian  Imperial  Force, 
Col.  Alderson,  has  stated  in  person  to  the  undersigned  that  the  Australian  Army 
would  welcome  an  opportunity  to  enter  games  such  as  those  suggested,  and  that, 
if  necessary,  he  was  prepared  to  hold  in  France  the  required  men  to  represent 
them.  The  official  French  national  society,  "  Comit6  National  d'Education 
Physique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygifene  Sociale,"  of  which  Premier  Clemenceau 
is  the  Honorary  President,  is  interested  in  the  project  and  has  expressed  the 
hope  that  the  American  Commander-in-Chief  would  find  it  possibe  to  extend 
the  proposed  invitations. 

The  Games  would  furnish  a  splendid  incentive  to  our  own  American  athletes 
to  enter  largely  in  the  A.E.F.  championships  as,  normally,  the  winning  men 
and  teams  in  these  competitions  would  earn  the  honor  of  representing  the 
whole  American  Army  in  the  great  interallied  competitions. 

This  project,  if  approved,  will  bring  real  results  in  physical  efficiency,  inter- 
est in  athletics  in  general,  pride  in  physical  skill  as  well  as  mutual  respect  and 
understanding  between  the  soldiers  of  the  armies  of  the  Allies. 

The  Commander-in-Chief  was  heartily  in  sympathy  with  the 
proposed  Games  from  the  day  the  idea  was  first  presented.  But  he 
was  confronted  with  one  difficulty.  Should  he  accept  the  suggestions 
of  the  Y.M.C.A.  and  invite  the  Alhed  nations  to  enter  their  militarized 
athletes  in  the  Games  as  Commander-in-Chief  of  an  American  Army 


26  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

in  France,  he  would  be  in  the  position  of  a  person  inviting  his  friends 
to  a  party  in  another  man's  house  without  first  receiving  assurances 
that  it  would  be  agreeable  to  the  owner.  Before  any  such  invitations 
could  be  extended,  therefore,  it  became  necessary  to  ascertain  whether 
such  a  procedure  would  be  acceptable  to  the  French  Army  and  Govern- 
ment, even  though  little  doubt  could  be  entertained  that  it  would. 
So  the  Y.M.C.A.  entered  into  communication  with  the  Comite  Natio- 
nale  d'Education  Physique,  Sportive  et  de  1' Hygiene  Sociale  and 
asked  that  it  ascertain  from  Marshal  Petain  his  views  on  the  subject. 
On  2  January,  1919,  the  Comite  Nationale  addressed  the  following 
letter  to  the  Marshal  : 

We  are  informed  that  one  of  the  welfare  organizations  oflicially  connected 
with  the  physical  recreation  of  the  American  Army  has  suggested  the  idea  of 
the  organization  of  athletic  competitions  between  the  Allied  Armies  to  take 
place  in  May  or  June  of  1919.  They  have  presented  this  idea  to  the  Commander- 
in-Chief  of  their  army,  suggesting  that  he  invite  the  Commanders-in-Chief  of 
all  of  the  Allied  Armies  to  authorize  the  Armies  under  their  command  to  parti- 
cipate in  these  games. 

The  Comite  Nationale  d'Education  Physique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygiene 
Sociale,  under  the  high  patronage  of  the  President  of  the  Council,  Minister  of 
War,  has  the  honor  to  call  your  sympathetic  attention  to  the  importance  that 
such  a  manifestation  would  have  in  the  diffusion  of  the  wholesome  practice 
of  physical  education  and  hygiene,  which  is  the  basis  of  their  program  for  the 
regeneration  of  the  French  race. 

It  will  not  escape  you  that  independent  of  the  good  that  France  will  receive 
from  this  effort  along  the  lines  of  general  physical  education  and  the  brotherhood 
of  arms  on  the  field  of  sport,  there  would  also  be  happy  results  in  the  general 
relations  of  the  various  countries.  On  the  other  hand  the  preparation  and 
selection  are  events  which  would  create  a  wholesome  rivalry  among  our  units, 
small  or  large.  They  would  uphold  in  physical  form  and  be  an  excellent  moral 
influence  to  the  soldiers,  whom  the  cessation  of  hostilities  has  transferred  sudden- 
ly from  the  intensive  life  of  the  battle  to  the  waiting  period  of  demobilization. 

The  organization  of  the  military  games  is  assured  financially  and  materially 
by  our  American  Allies.  The  American  Army  would  like  the  moral  support, 
advice  and  public  and  private  help  that  might  be  needed,  for  example,  in  the 
matter  of  obtaining  suitable  ground.  In  this  latter  case  the  Stadium  prepared 
and  used  would  be  left  without  cost  at  the  disposal  of  the  French  youth,  as  a 
permanent  witness  of  the  ineffaceable  friendship  uniting  the  two  democracies. 

Please  accept.  Monsieur  Marechal,  the  assurances  of  our  respectful  consi- 
deration. 

The  results  of  this  inquiry  were  embodied  in  a  letter  dated  7  Jan- 
uary from  the  Comite  Nationale  to  the  Director,  Department  of 
Athletics,  Y.M.C.A.,  as  follows  : 


Dedication    Ceremonies.— Parade   of  troops.     Top— Frcncii   Chasseurs.     Center— Composite 
regiment   of    American    troops.     Bottom — French    Zouaves. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  29 

We  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  the  Government  of  the  Republic 
in  the  presence  of  Mr.  Georges  Clemenceau,  President  of  the  Council,  Minister 
of  War,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  French  armies, 
in  the  person  of  Mar6chal  Petain  on  the  other  hand,  following  a  visit  made  to 
them  by  a  representative  of  the  Comite  Nationale  d'Education  Physique, 
Sportive  et  de  I'Hygiene  Sociale  have  given  their  entire  support  to  the  principle, 
organization  and  conduct  of  the  great  athletic  competitions  to  be  opened  to  the 
soldiers  of  the  Allied  Armies  as  set  forth  in  the  attached  letter. 

Marechal  Petain  awaits  the  invitation  and  later  the  program  that  he  under- 
stands are  to  be  presented  to  him  by  the  American  Army. 

We  beg  you  to  please  inform  General  Pershing,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
American  Army,  of  this  fact,  and  we  are  pleased  that  the  Comite  Nationale 
d'Education  Physique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygiene  Sociale  has  been  able  help- 
fully to  aid  towards  the  realization  of  such  a  magnificent  project. 

The  acceptability  of  the  Games  to  the  French  on  the  basis  proposed 
being  thus  warmly  assured,  the  Commander-in-Chief  duly  issued 
invitations  to  the  Commanders-in-Chief  of  the  various  Armies  of  the 
AlUes  to  participate,  with  the  happy  results  set  forth  in  the  first  chapter 
of  this  volume  following. 

While  the  present  work  is  designed  to  be  primarily  a  record  of  the 
Inter-Allied  Games,  in  order  to  have  a  proper  background  for  the 
story,  it  will  be  of  interest  to  indicate  in  a  general  way  the  methods 
pursued  and  the  results  achieved  in  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces  during  the  preliminary  period  of  training  before  entering  upon 
the  narrative  of  the  culminating  event,  particularly  as  the  American 
preliminaries  resembled,  to  a  great  extent,  those  which  occurred  in 
other  competing  armies. 

When  Colonel  Johnson  became  Chief  Athletic  Officer  of  the  A.E.F. 
he  brought  with  him  the  conviction  that  something  was  needed  to 
replace  fighting  as  the  stimulus  for  united,  organized  effort.  It  was 
evident  that  a  schedule  of  compulsory  military  drills  and  exercises 
could  not  grip  the  imagination  or  maintain  the  enthusiasm  of  a 
civilian  army  after  the  purpose  for  which  the  majority  of  officers 
and  men  had  enlisted  had  been  achieved  by  the  defeat  of  the  Central 
Powers.  While  waiting  to  go  home,  something  purely  voluntary, 
but  forming  an  integral  part  of  the  military  schedule  to  the  extent 
of  excusing  participants  from  other  duties,  was  needed  as  an  outlet 
for  Yankee  energies  which  would  absorb  the  interest  of  all  ranks  and 
at  the  same  time  be  of  a  beneficial  nature. 

Colonel  Johnson  had  informally  mentioned  his  idea  to  a  member 
of   the  Training  Section   of  the   General   Staff,  G-5,    who   in    turn 


30  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

presented  it  to  Brigadier  General  H.B.  Fiske,  head  of  the  Training 
Section.  General  Fiske  sent  for  Colonel  Johnson  and  asked  him  to 
elaborate  his  plan.  The  outcome  of  this  conference  was  that  on  1 
December,  1918,  Colonel  Johnson  was  transferred  from  G-2  to  G-5 
and  made  Chief  Athletic  OfTicer  of  the  A.E.F. 

Lt.  Col.  David  M.  Goodrich  G.  S.,  who  had  been  associated 
with  Colonel  Johnson  in  G-2,  was  transferred  with  the  latter.  These 
officers  immediately  came  in  contact  with  the  Director  of  the 
Department  of  Athletics,  Y.M.C.A.,  and  between  the  three  of  them  an 
athletic  program  fort,he  A.E.F.  was  worked  out  which  was  embodied  and 
published  in  G.O.  241,  G.H.0.,  on  29  December,  1918.  The  portion 
of  the  order  relating  to  athletics  follows  : 

G.H.Q.  AMERICAN  EXPEDITIONARY  FORCES 

General  Orders 

No.  241  France,   Dec.   29,    1919. 

The  Commander-in-Chief  directs  the  attention  of  all  concerned  to  the  impor- 
tance of  encouraging  the  development  of  general  and  competitive  athletics, 
for  the  purpose  of  keeping  up  the  morale,  fostering  and  developing  organization 
esprit  de  corps,  and  improving  the  physical  fitness  of  the  army. 

I.     Athletics. 

1.  An  officer  of  the  5th  Section,  General  Staff,  at  these  headquarters,  has 
been  detailed  to  take  general  charge  of  this  work.  He  will  further  the  develop- 
ment and  secure  the  application  of  a  uniform  system  of  athletic  training,  and 
also  coordinate  the  military  efforts  along  these  lines  and  the  work  of  the  several 
welfare  agencies  throughout  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces. 

Each  Army,  corps  and  division,  and  such  units  in  the  S.O.S.  as  the  Com- 
mander thereof  shall  determine,  will  detail  similar  officers  who  shall  be  respon- 
sible for  the  general  conduct  of  athletic  activities  in  their  units. 

Commanders  of  regiments  and  other  similar  units  will  also  detail  suitable 
oflicers  to  supervise  the  athletic  activities  of  their  units.  Company  athletic 
officers  will  in  all  cases  be  assigned  and  in  addition  company  sports  managers, 
noncommissioned  officers  and  privates,  for  each  of  the  various  athletic  activi- 
ties. 

The  attention  of  all  commanders  is  directed  to  the  desirability  of  selecting, 
for  the  various  details  hereinbefore  mentioned,  officers  and  men  who  in  the  past,, 
either  before  or  after  their  entry  into  the  service,  have  demonstrated  their 
special  fltness  for  this  work. 

2.  Mass  Athletics  and  Competitions.  All  commanders  will,  as  far  as  con- 
sistent with  mihtary  duties,  encourage,  in  every  way  possible,  athletic  sports 
and  competititons  of  all  kinds,  especially  those  in  which  the  greatest  number 
of  participants  are  actively  engaged. 

With  a  view  to  securing  the  entry  of  the  entire  personnel  of  companies  or- 
similar  units,  division  athletic  officers  will  arrange  mass  athletics  and  group- 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  31 

competitive  game  schedules  in  which  the  number  of  men  entering,  as  well  as 
the  individual  effort  of  each  man  in  the  various  events  in  which  he  enters,  will 
be  taken  into  consideration  in  determining  the  company  or  unit  winning  the 
event  or  schedule. 

Programs  for  games  and  instructions  regarding  their  conduct  will  be  pub- 
lished from  time  to  time  by  these  headquarters.  They  will  embrace  such 
games  as  volleyball,  indoor  baseball,  tug-of-war,  cross-country  runs,  relay, 
obstacle,  rescue,  equipment,  shuttle,  potato,  leapfrog  races,  and  other  sports. 
The  division  athletic  officers  will,  however,  consider  these  programs  as  guides 
only  and  will  supplement  the  events  hsted  therein  with  such  other  contests  as 
may  seem  to  them  most  suitable  to  the  needs  of  their  organizations. 

In  addition  to  these  local  games  an  all-point  company  championship  will 
be  held  under  regulations  to  be  issued  later  by  these  headquarters  for  the  com- 
pany championship  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces.  A  suitable  trophy, 
emblematic  of  this  championship,  will  be  presented  to  the  successful  unit,  and 
individual  prizes  to  those  representing  that  unit. 

3.  A.E.F.  Athletic  Championships.  OfTicial  championships  in  the  following 
sports  will  be  conducted  under  rules  and  regulations  to  be  pubhshed  later. 
They  will  consist  of  track  and  field  events,  baseball,  football,  basketball,  tennis, 
boxing  and  wrestling.  These  contests  will  be  conducted  in  general  on  an  eli- 
mination basis,  beginning  with  the  company  and  progressing  through  the  bat- 
talion, regiment,  brigade  and  division.  These  events  will  culminate  in  a  series 
of  finals  for  the  athletic  championships  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces, 
winners  of  the  divisional  championships  to  be  eligible  to  enter  these  finals. 

As  much  latitude  as  possible,  consistent  with  military  duties,  should  be 
allowed  all  those  representing  their  units  in  competition  for  the  purpose  of 
training  and  developing  team  play. 

The  athletic  officers  of  divisions  and  smaller  units  will  keep  careful  records 
of  the  athletic  performances  of  the  units  under  them  and  these  shall  be  consi- 
dered along  with  their  military  record  and  general  efficiency  in  determining 
upon  the  selection  of  units  to  represent  each  division  called  upon  to  participate 
in  any  international  triumphal  ceremonies  that  may  be  held  upon  the  conclusion 
of  peace. 

4.  The  Y.M.C.A.,  with  the  approval  of  the  Commander-in-Chief,  has  organ- 
ized a  Department  of  Athletics  and  is  prepared  to  give  every  assistance  in  the 
development  of  general  athletics  and  the  arrangement  and  management  of 
competitions  between  military  units.  It  has  a  large  number  of  specially  trained 
physical  directors  with  wide  experience  in  mass  play  and  in  other  athletic  activ- 
ities now  in  its  ranks  in  France.  One  of  these  will  be  attached  to  the  staff  of 
each  division  and  separate  unit  and  will  be  designated  in  orders  as  Divisional 
(or  Unit)  Athletic  Director  and,  under  supervision  of  Division  Athletic  Ofiicer, 
will  be  charged  with  the  responsibility  for  the  arrangement,  management  and 
general  conduct  of  athletic  activities  throughout  the  unit. 

5.  Offlcers,  noncommissioned  officers  or  privates  desired  for  duty  in  con- 
nection with  athletics  may  be  detailed  for  such  duty  and  ordered  to  report  to 
the  division  or  unit  athletic  officer.  Details  of  officers  are  to  be  made  only 
by  these  headquarters  on  request  stating  the  special  qualifications  of  the  officer 


32  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

requested,  the  number,  if  any,  already  detailed  from  his  command  for  such 
duty,  and  that  the  services  of  the  officer  requested  can  be  spared.  Details  of 
noncommissioned  officers  and  privates  may  be  made  by  division  headquarters 
on  similar  request.  When  it  is  impracticable  for  soldiers  so  detailed  to  be 
assigned  for  rations  or  quarters  to  any  organization  they  may  be  paid  commu- 
tation of  rations  or  quarters  in  accordance  with  existing  regulations  and  orders. 
Noncommissioned  officers  and  privates  detailed  as  hereinbefore  indicated 
shall  not  at  any  time  exceed  four  to  the  battalion  and  shall  remain  on  said  duty 
not  to  exceed  four  months,  except  as  this  time  may  be  extended  upon 
application  to  these  headquarters. 

II 

III.  [  Cooperation  of  Welfare  Agencies.  ] 

1.  In  carrying  out  the  work  outlined  in  this  order  the  Y.M.C.A.  will  seek 
the  participation  and  assistance  of  the  personnel  of  the  other  auxiliary  welfare 
agencies  in  such  a  way  as  to  obtain  the  maximum  efficiency  and  results. 

IV 

V.  [  Excuses  from  Military  Duty.  ] 

1.  With  a  view  to  making  it  possible  for  all  the  men  who  so  desire  to  take 
part  in  the  athletic  activities  herein  provided  for,  G.O.  No.  236,  c.s.,  these 
headquarters,  is  so  modified  as  to  authorize  all  commanding  officers  to  excuse 
from  all  military  training  in  excess  of  four  hours  per  day  all  of  the  men  of  their 
commands  who  take  part  actively  each  day  in  any  of  the  athletic  sports  approved 
by  the  divisional  or  unit  athletic  officer.  The  provisions  of  this  paragraph 
shall  only  apply  to  those  organizations  that  have  completed  one  month's  com- 
plete course  of  training  under  G.O.  No.  207. 

By  command  of  General  Pershing  : 

James  W.  McAndrew, 

Chief  of  Staff. 
Official  : 

Robert  G.  Davis, 

Adjutant  General. 

Athletic  officers  and  welfare  workers  carried  out  this  order  for  the 
realization  of  the  same  end:  to  keep  the  men  overseas  profitably 
employed,  their  exuberant  energies  directed  in  wholesome  channels, 
and  most  important  of  all,  to  carry  out  the  Commander-in-Chief's 
determination  to  return  the  citizen  army  to  the  United  States  "  pre- 
pared to  take  an  active  and  intelHgent  part  in  the  future  progress  of 
the  country." 

The  athletic  program  itself  may  be  divided  into  three  successive 
phases,  the  second  and  third  each  being  a  logical  outgrowth  of  the  one 
preceding  and  each  designed  to  accomplish  a  specific  end.  These  phases 
were  :  1,  Mass  Athletics  and  Competitions;  2,  A.E.F.  Athletic  Cham- 


Opening  Day.     Top — U.  S.  athletes  passing  in  reveiw.     Center  Ze/<— Australian  entrants  in 
line.     Center  right — Dedication  ceremonies.     Bottom — Serbia's  representatives. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


35 


pionships,  and  3,  The  Inter-Allied  Games.  From  the  standpoint  of 
the  welfare  of  the  A.E.F.  alone,  the  first  of  these  was  the  most  impor- 
tant and  the  other  two  phases  of  the  program  were  the  more  specta- 
cular features  which  were  the  logical  outcome  of  the  success  of  the  first 
phase.  What  was  really  important  was  that  every  man  be  induced 
to  play,  and  that  every  man  should  become  so  interested  in  the  game 
that  he  would  receive  the  maximum  physical  and  mental  benefit. 
The  purpose  of  the  championship  games,  therefore,  was  not  to  single 
out  the  individual  athletic  stars  from  the  fighting  ranks,  not  to  set 
up  comparisons,  not  to  furnish  material  for  newspaper  stories,  but  to 
provide  the  element  of  competition  which  was  necessary  to  furnish 
an  incentive  to  play  on  a  large  scale.  The  Yankee,  more  than  any 
other  man,  loves  to  best  someone  at  something,  and  he  puts  into  his 
game  the  same  fighting  spirit,  the  same  unconquerable  zeal  that  he 
displayed  at  Belleau  Woods,  at  St.  Mihiel,  in  the  Argonne  and  along 
the  Meuse. 

While  it  is  impossible  to  summarize  the  achievements  in  statistics, 
it  will  at  least  be  illuminating  to  make  a  note  of  the  fact  that  figures 
carefully  compiled  by  the  Y.M.G.A.  Department  of  Athletics  show  that 
during  the  first  five  months  of  1919  the  entire  A.E.F.  was  reached 
fifteen  times  over  both  as  participants  and  spectators.  The  tables 
follow   : 

PARTICIPANTS 


Activities. 


Baseball,  Standard 

Baseball,  Indoor 

Basketball 

Boxing 

Football,  Intercollegiate.  . 

Football,  Rugby 

Football,  Soccer 

Quoits 

Setting-up  Drill 

Tennis 

Track  and  Field  Athletics. 

VolIeybaU 

Wrestling 

Tug-of-War 

CagebaU 

Informal  Games 

Walking  Trips 

Golf 

Swimming 

Totals 


Jan. 


105,350 
646,066 
331,277 
142,866 
305,467 

43,299 

209,020 

6,770 

40,996 

322,314 

52,596 

8,490 

65,100 

2,170,154 

133,400 


5,140,409 


Feb. 


107,187 

259,365 

225,838 

137,405 

227,993 

1,485 

303,738 

110,992 

1,100,291 

8,584 

73,303 

367,265 

41,859 

800 

196,710 

3,612,519 

39877 

,85 


6,816,066 


March. 


738,841 
603,129 
735,124 
126,263 
176,389 

369,818 

61,801 
162,982 

26,162 
921,436 
348,916 

46,688 
2,986 

88,480 
i,019,964 

46,071 


27,530 


7,502,580 


April. 


1,081,931 

453,146 

210,431 

84,504 

29,276 

245^229 

123,500 

75,054 

57,083 

558,853 

330,980 

33,117 

'  isisso 

1,758,203 

25,243 

37  0 

32,220 


5,112,990 


May. 


1,300,752 

381,190 

98,116 

51,741 

4,571 

690 

81,898 

142,440 

80,938 

66,955 

137,398 

256,233 

6,776 

3,362 

749,561 

20,882 

320 

95,117 


3,478,940 


Total. 


3,334,061 

2,342,896 

1,600,786 

542,779 

743,696 

2,175 

1,557,927 

482,032 

1,628,285 

165,554 

1,731,986 

1,625,708 

181,036 

12,276 

367,502 

11,310,401 

265,473 

1,545 

154,867 


28,050,985 


36 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 
SPECTATORS 


1919 


Activities. 


Baseball,  Standard 

Baseball,  Indoor 

Basketball 

Boxing 

Football,  Intercollegiate.. 

Football,   Rugby 

Football,  Soccer 

Quoits 

Setting-up  Drill 

Tennis 

Track  and  Field  Athletics. 

VolleybaU 

Wrestling 

Tug-of-War 

Oageball 

Informal  Games 

Swimming • . . 

Totals...'. 


Jan. 


197,180 

194,496 

453,459 

1,179,260 

1,218,054 

201  [496 
6,548 

18,770 

36,300 
118,936 
250,008 

25,000 
5,800 

79,349 


3,984,656 


Feb. 


237.497 
129,379 
359,094 
844,391 
876,966 
7,120 
250,709 

11,865 
2,460 

29.203 

126,971 

162,012 

422,262 

5,000 

82,550 
144,769 


3,692,248 


March. 


861,241 

320,227 

710,321 

1,237,961 

1,523,063 

357,625 
31,735 

'  54^892 
388,665 
274,630 
473,779 
10,000 
85,500 
332,259 


April. 


2,644,848 
457,757 
548,956 

1,275,864 
116,237 

258,671 

80,712 

182 

96,568 

435,815 

288,330 

271,663 

106,166 

298,745 

1100 


6,661,898  6,881,548 


May. 


4,158,457 

432,932 

265,910 

1,263,443 

11,418 

18,000 

130,435 

204,601 

147,'6i6 
296,009 
289,438 
133,309 

"isigso 

610,667 
15,791 


Total. 


8,0P9,223 

1,534,791 

2,337,740 

5,800,919 

3,745,738 

25,120 

1,198,936 

335,461 

2,642 

346,449 

1,283,760 

1,133,346 

1,551,021 

40,000 

293,900 

1,465,789 

16,891 


7,991,376   29,211,726 


The  aim  expressed  in  the  slogan,  "Every  Man  in  the  Game," 
was  thus  carried  out.  Every  manner  of  mass  games  was  played, 
volleyball,  indoor  baseball,  oageball,  tug-of-war,  and  a  long  series  of 
nonequipment  games  for  unskilled  men. 


A.  E.  F.    CHAMPIONSHIPS    SERIES 

Championships  series  were  held  in  the  following  sports :  Football, 
basketball,  boxing  and  wrestling,  golf,  shooting,  soccer,  tennis,  track 
and  field  events,  swimming  and  baseball,  roughly  in  the  order  named. 
The  first  general  championship  event  was  in  Football,  the  finals  being 
held  at  Paris  on  29  March.  However,  there  had  been  held  an  officers' 
tennis  tournament  at  Nice  prior  to  that  time,  19  February-4  March. 
The  Baseball  championship  was  the  last  to  be  determined,  the  "  big 
league"  opening  after  the  conclusion  of  the  championship  events  in 
the  other  sports  and  continuing  through  the  Inter-Allied  Games  them- 
selves. The  Basketball  finals  was  the  second  championship  event, 
and  was  held  in  the  Palais  de  Glace,  Paris,  7-11  April. 

The  method  of  conducting  the  championships  was  very  similar 
in  all  cases  although  there  were  slight  variations  on  account  of  the 
nature  of  the  sport,  the  size  of  the  teams  and  the  manner  of  playing 
the  game.  The  most  important  fact  to  be  noticed  was  that  the  title 
could  be  won  only  after  long  and  gruelhng  competitions,  beginnings 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  37 

in  most  cases,  as  low  as  the  company  and  continuing  through  larger 
army  units  until  the  final  arena  was  reached.  The  general  rule  fol- 
lowed at  first  was  the  running  off  of  preliminaries  in  large  units  which 
were  called  regions.  For  the  purpose  of  convenience  the  A.E.F. 
was  divided  at  the  beginning  of  the  program  into  eight  such  regions, 
each  containing  approximately  the  strength  of  an  Army  or  about 
175,000  men.  Later  on,  as  demobilization  proceeded  and  the  1st  and 
2nd  Armies  ceased  to  exist,  the  policy  was  followed  of  selecting  more 
than  one  team  from  the  regions  which  remained  in  Europe.  The  eight 
regions  were  :  G.H.O.,  1st  Army,  2nd  Army,  3rd  Army,  Le  Mans  For- 
warding Area,  District  of  Paris,  Advance  Section  S.O.S.,  and  the 
Intermediate  Section  S.O.S. 

After  the  regional  titles  had  been  settled  two  teams  were  selected 
by  a  series  of  semifinals  for  the  championship  game.  The  rule  was 
followed  that  the  teams  which  went  into  the  semifinals  and  finals 
were  not  all-star  aggregations  picked  from  the  entire  personnel  of  the 
various  regions  which  they  represented,  but  were  the  original  teams 
which  had  fought  their  way  to  victory.  The  advantage  of  this  method 
was  that  every  organization  thus  had  an  equal  opportunity  to  be 
represented  by  name  in  the  finals  —  a  procedure  which  greatly  fos- 
tered organization  esprit  de  corps,  as  was  manifested  by  the  enthu- 
siasm and  loyalty  with  which  the  winning  teams  were  backed  and 
encouraged  by  the  units  from  which  they  were  selected.  As  evidence 
of  this,  witness  the  spirit  of  Wood,  Winn  and  Wright's  Middle  West- 
erners, who  cheered  the  89th  Division  to  victory  through  sternly 
contested  prehminaries  and  the  final  game  against  the  36th  Division 
at  Paris. 

The  four  months'  struggle,  from  the  time  the  first  football  teams 
were  formed  until  the  question  of  which  was  the  best  in  the  A.E.F. 
was  decided,  illustrates  the  interest  which  marked  every  step  of  the 
various  championships  series.  In  the  Army  of  Occupation  the  com- 
petition was  particularly  keen  as  the  issue  narrowed  down  to  the 
team  of  the  89th  Division,  headed  by  Capt.  Paul  Withington,  the 
team  of  the  2nd  Division  captained  by  Harry  Legore  of  Yale,  and 
the  team  of  the  4th  Division  led  by  Hamilton  Fish,  the  Harvard 
Captain  and  ail-American  tackle.  The  games  were  played  before 
crowds  so  immense  that  the  number  of  spectators  could  not  have 
been  increased  except  by  the  use  of  aeroplanes  or  observation  balloons. 
In  the  2nd  Army  four  no-score  games  were  played  between  the  5th 
and  28th  Divisions  before  the  28th  finally  nosed  out  a  victory  by  a 


38  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

field  goal;  then  the  28th  was  in  turn  adjudged  the  loser  to  the  7th 
Division  on  a  yardage  basis  because  neither  division  was  able  to  score. 
The  St.  Nazaire  team,  representing  the  S.O.S.,  presented  a  galaxy  of 
stars,  coached  by  Eddie  Hart,  the  gritty  Princeton  tackle,  and  includ- 
ing in  the  lineup  such  men  as  Eddie  Mahan,  formerly  of  Harvard, 
and  Johnny  Beckett,  Captain  of  the  University  of  Oregon  team. 

The  semifinals  at  Bar-sur-Aube  between  the  teams  of  the  1st 
and  2nd  Armies  were  witnessed  by  General  Pershing  and  the  King 
of  the  Belgians,  as  well  as  approximately  25,000  soldiers  brought 
by  special  trains.  The  outcome  of  the  final  game  between  the  89th 
and  36th  Divisions  at  Auteuil  Velodrome,  Paris,  was  awaited  by 
thousands  in  Europe  as  anxiously  as  ever  the  score  in  the  great  Harvard- 
Yale  or  Army-Navy  contests  was  awaited  by  the  American  public. 

A  feature  worthy  of  note  in  the  football  tournaments  is  that, 
although  more  than  75,000  officers  and  men  took  active  part,  and 
despite  the  fact  that  some  games  were  played  on  fields  covered  with 
snow  or  ice,  there  was  not  a  single  serious  accident  and  only  one  broken 
bone  was  reported. 

Games  were  played  wherever  Americans  were  found,  whether  on 
the  rain-soaked  fields  of  France,  under  the  balmy  Italian  skies,  along 
the  downs  of  the  Kentish  coast,  on  Luxembourg's  neutral  soil,  or 
on  islands  in  the  Rhine  with  the  castles  of  the  Hohenzollerns  looking 
down  from  rugged  chfTs.  Champs  de  Mars,  where  have  trod  Roman 
legionaries  commanded  by  imperialistic  Caesar,  or  French  hosts  led 
by  the  saintly  Jeanne  d'Arc,  were  the  scenes  of  friendly  gridiron  con- 
tests. German  prisoners  of  war  laid  out  straightaways  under  the 
direction  of  U.S.  Engineers  and  cleared  off  grounds  for  baseball  dia- 
monds. Detachments  of  students  at  the  most  famous  universities  of 
the  Continent  and  England  introduced  not  only  their  favorite  games 
but  also  their  contagious  and  noisy  "  ataboys.  " 

So  widespread  did  the  athletic  fervor  become  that  the  Paris  news- 
papers printed  in  Enghsh,  truly  reflecting  the  topics  of  the  times, 
devoted  more  space  to  games  than  to  the  Peace  Conference,  and  the 
baseball  league,  organized  in  June,  held  its  own  as  a  conversational 
subject  in  Army  circles  with  the  League  of  Nations. 

The  spirit  with  which  all  games  were  conducted  was  truly  sports- 
manlike. When  dressed  for  the  game  all  ranks  met  on  a  universal 
plane  where  "a  man's  a  man  for  a'  that."  A  general,  an  assort- 
ment of  all  grades  of  field  and  line  officers,  first  sergeants  and  "  bucks, " 


'•-~'^^^  r. 


|. 


...■■-J..'-  '■ 


4l  ^  t/-^^  ^^ji^^i 


Openiii''  D^iy— Parade    of  athletes.     Top— Hetljaz.     Center    Zc/<— Upper,    Italy;  lower,  Serljia. 
'  Center  rif/Zti — Upper,  Belgium;  lower,   America,     Bottom— U:i\j. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  41 

all  in  golf  togs,  contended  for  honors  on  the  Cannes  links,  eight  kilo- 
meters west  of  Nice  in  the  middle  of  April.  A  sergeant  emerged  as 
champion. 

The  results  achieved  in  boxing  were  particularly  gratifying.  The 
success  with  which  the  matches  were  conducted  under  the  new  A.E.F. 
rules,  reducing  the  length  of  rounds  to  two  minutes  and  reclassifying 
fighters  with  special  rules  for  bouts,  established  this  sport  on  an 
entirely  new  plane  and  gave  it  an  impetus  which  bids  fair  to  result  in 
a  cleansing  of  boxing  in  the  United  States.  The  fact  that  hundreds 
of  officers  have  received  practical  experience  in  managing  bouts  in 
the  A.E.F.,  and  are  returning  to  civil  life  as  warm  supporters  of  boxing, 
will  elevate  the  sport  and  insure  to  it  an  established  position. 

The  spirit  manifested  by  the  contestants  was  worthy  of  the  highest 
commendation.  Voluntarily  subjecting  themselves  to  the  most  gruel- 
ling training,  receiving  no  return  other  than  soldiers'  pay,  the  men 
buckled  down  to  a  long  series  of  preliminaries  in  which  all  gave  a  good 
account  of  themselves.  Every  bout  staged  was  a  real  exhibition  — 
there  was  no  shamming.  Out  of  the  thirty-nine  contests  in  the  cham- 
pionship series,  twenty-two  were  decided  on  points  after  the  full  ten 
rounds  had  been  fought;  two  went  to  eleven  rounds,  one  to  twelve 
rounds,  and  one  to  thirteen  rounds.  Only  five  men  were  knocked 
out,  one  in  the  tenth  round,  one  in  the  eighth  round,  and  three  in  the 
sixth  round.  Boxing  may  be  called  the  favorite  soldier  sport.  Packed 
crowds  gathered  around  every  ring.  Many  exhibitions  were  given 
in  France,  Germany,  England,  Italy  and  Luxembourg  in  addition 
to  the  competitions. 

It  was  within  a  stone's  throw  of  Napoleon's  Tomb  that  the  finals  in 
Boxing  and  Wrestling  were  held  7-26  April,  1919.  They  occurred  in  the 
Cirque  de  Paris,  reserved  for  the  purpose — the  place  where  Georges 
Carpentier,  the  French  idol,  won  his  fame.  On  the  final  night 
General  Pershing,  in  a  short  address,  summarized  the  achievements 
of  these  sports:  "The  results  of  this  type  of  athletics,"  he  said, 
"are  sure  to  create  a  higher  type  of  athletics  at  home.  Two  million 
men  are  going  to  carry  back  home  a  better  notion  of  what  clean  sport 
should  be." 

The  track  and  field  stars  of  the  A.E.F. ,  picked  out  wherever  they 
could  be  found  by  "scouts,"  whether  in  the  Army  of  Occupation, 
among  the  universities,  scattered  along  the  S.O.S.,  or  bogged  in  the 
mud  of  the  Le  Mans  Forwarding  Area,  were  brought  to  Paris,  organized 
into  a  training  detachment  at  Chgnancourt  Barracks,  and  put  through 


42  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

a  period  of  training  and  elimination  prior  to  the  A.E.F.  champion- 
ship event.  This  procedure  made  possible  the  high  standard  of  per-, 
formance  in  the  A.E.F.  Championship  Series  and  served  as  well  the 
purpose  of  seasoning  them  for  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  The  finals 
at  Colombes  Stadium,  30  May-1  June,  were  spectacular.  The  indi- 
vidual star  of  the  meet  was  Lt.  Alma  W.  Richards,  who  was  a  member 
of  the  U.  S.  team  at  Stockholm  in  1912.  The  winners  received  their 
prizes  from  the  hands  of  General  Pershing. 

Shooting  and  musketry  were  held  at  d'Auvours  Rifle  Range,  Bel- 
gian Camp,  near  Le  Mans.  There  were  competitions  in  rifle,  pistol, 
machine-gun  and  automatic-rifle  shooting,  and  a  musketry  match. 
The  finals  were  run  off  5-17  May. 

Soccer  finals  began  at  Colombes  Stadium  on  12  May  and  lasted 
four  days.  As  the  1st  and  2nd  Armies  had  been  broken  up,  only  five 
regions  were  represented.  The  Tennis  championship  was  fought  out 
at  the  Racing  Club  of  France  20-26  May.  In  addition  to  the  A.E.F. 
championship  at  Paris  and  the  officers'  tournament  at  Nice,  strong 
American  teams  went  to  England  and  Belgium  to  play  in  those  coun- 
tries. Swimming,  the  last  event  on  the  program  with  the  exception 
of  baseball,  occurred  5-7  June  at  St.  James  Lake,  in  the  Bois  de  Bou- 
logne, Paris. 

ORGANIZATION 

As  regards  the  organization  which  directed  the  vast  athletic  pro- 
gram, it  will  be  necessary  to  add  but  little  to  the  official  statement 
of  General  Orders  241.  x\t  the  head  of  the  system  was  the  Chief  Athletic 
Officer,  a  member  of  the  Fifth  Section  of  the  General  Staff,  G.H.Q., 
and  the  activities  were  supervised  by  specially  detailed  athletic  officers 
in  units  from  armies  down  to  platoons.  In  addition,  these  athletic 
officers  had  associated  with  them  quahfied  athletic  directors  repre- 
senting militarized  societies  serving  with  the  A.E.F.  Just  as  the 
Y.M.C.A.  had  played  a  large  part  in  originating  the  program,  so  there 
fell  to  its  lot  the  privilege  of  having  a  cooperative  share  in  the  conduct 
of  the  Games  themselves.  On  1  March  there  were  327  trained  Y.M.C.A. 
physical  directors  with  the  A.E.F.  The  Knights  of  Columbus  devoted 
its  efforts  particularly  to  boxing  and  brought  from  America  some  of 
the  most  prominent  boxing  managers,  trainers  and  referees. 

The  method  of  using  the  personnel  varied  with  the  different  stages 
of  development.  During  the  period  of  mass  games  the  important 
matter  was  field  work;  the  overhead  organization   at   headquarters 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  43 

was  small.  But  the  staff  of  G-5  Athletics  G.H.Q.,  which  consisted 
of  Colonel  Wait  C.  Johnson,  Lieutenant  Colonel  Goodrich  and  an 
enlisted  man  stenographer  only,  was  greatly  expanded,  necessarily, 
during  the  early  period  of  mass  games  development  in  order  to  take 
care  of  the  many  details  involved  in  the  championships  series.  As 
practically  all  finals  were  held  in  or  near  Paris,  and  because  it  is  liter- 
ally true  that  "  all  roads  lead  to  Paris, "  the  French  capital  was  chosen 
as  the  logical  center  for  the  A.E.F.  athletic  organization.  Accord- 
ingly, about  the  middle  of  March,  1919,  offices  were  removed  from 
Chaumont,  American  G.H.Q.,  to  Paris. 

G-5  Athletics  G.H.O.,  played  a  dual  role  in  that  it  was  charged 
with  conducting  both  the  American  athletic  program  proper  and, 
through  the  Games  Committee,  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  In  order 
to  adjust  the  machinery  to  the  requirements  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games, 
a  reorganization  and  distribution  of  duties  was  made  on  19  April. 
The  diagram  approved  by  the  Games  Committee  on  that  date,  with 
modifications  and  additions,  remained  fundamentally  unchanged. 
About  the  middle  of  May,  as  it  became  increasingly  evident  that  a 
larger  force  would  be  necessary  to  handle  the  innumerable  details 
connected  with  a  meet  of  such  importance,  authority  was  obtained 
to  call  for  such  additional  personnel  as  was  needed.  When  the  Games 
opened  there  were  261  officers,  18  field  clerks  and  168  enlisted  men 
on  duty  with  G-5  Athletics,  a  total  Army  personnel  of  447,  aided  by 
20  Y.M.C.A.  athletic  specialists,  26  women  secretaries  and  a  large 
number  of  women   assistants   at  the   entertainment    huts. 

An  operating  fund  sufficient  to  cover  the  cost  of  prizes,  decorations, 
entertainments,  printing  and  Hke  general  expenses  was  placed  at  the 
disposal  of  the  Finance  Committee  by  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  This  fund  was 
used  in  defraying  all  expenses  which  could  not  properly  be  met  through 
Army  channels. 

ATHLETIC    GOODS 

Some  indication  of  the  popularity  of  athletics  in  the  A.E.F.  is  given 
by  the  figures  showing  the  distribution  of  athletic  goods.  Prior  to 
15  March  the  goods  were  distributed  by  the  Y.M.C.A.,  the  Knights 
of  Columbus,  and  representatives  of  the  Training  Camp  Commission. 
On  that  date  control  of  the  distribution  was  given  to  the  Army  by  all 
of  the  agencies  having  athletic  goods  to  supply,  approximately  90 
per  cent   being    furnished    by   the   Y.M.C.A. 


44 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Below  is  an  itemized  statement  of  leading  types  of  athletic  supplies 
distributed  in  April  and  May. 

Baseballs 58,963 

Baseball  bats 12,646 

Boxing  Gloves,  prs 8,359 

Field  Gloves 14,385 

Indoor  Baseballs  and  Playground  Balls 8,171 


Opening  Day  at  Pershing  Stadium  as  seen  from  the  air. 


CHAPTER  I 
AN  ATHLETIC  TOURNAMENT  OF  THE  ALLIED  NATIONS 


RISING  out  of  the  epochal  circumstances  of  the  greatest 
war  of  history,  the  Inter-Allied  Games  stand  out  as  an  event 
unique  in  the  annals  of  modern  sport.  Never  before 
in  recent  times  has  there  been  such  a  gathering  of  athletic 
stars  with  a  setting  so  unusual,  and  it  is  safe  to  assume  that  the  occa- 
sion will  not  be  duplicated  within  the  niemory  of  the  participants. 
Those  who  love  to  draw  comparisons  or  have  a  passion  for  searching 
for  obscure  origins  in  the  dim  past  may,  indeed,  find  a  parallel  in  the 
classic  games  of  the  Homeric  age  when  the  armies  of  Agamemnon, 
"intrenched"  before  the  walls  of  Troy,  amused  themselves  with  games 
and  sports  not  unlike  the  competitions  at  Pershing  Stadium. 

That  an  athletic  tournament  of  any  sort  could  have  been  held 
after  fifty-two  months  of  devastating  war,  with  the  Allied  countries 
impoverished  by  heavy  losses,  exhausted  by  long-sustained  effort, 
weary  after  a  seemingly  interminable  period  of  fighting,  was  in  itself 
a  remarkable  exhibition  of  the  sportsmanlike  spirit  which  had  distin- 
guished the  peoples  leagued  against  the  Central  Powers. 

Inspired  by  love  of  the  game,  a  desire  to  recognize  the  share  that 
athletics  played  in  making  possible  the  victory,  and  the  wish  to  con- 
tinue and  strengthen  the  ties  of  comradeship  developed  on  the  battle 
field,  the  countries  which  had  suffered  most  from  the  war's  desola- 
tion entered  the  tournament  with  the  same  whole-hearted  enthusiasm 
as  nations  emerging  from  the  conflict  in  a  less  exhausted  condition. 

The  meet  was  "mihtary  "  only  to  the  extent  that  every  participant 
had  been  an  officer  or  enlisted  man  in  one  of  the  Allied  armies.  The 
question  of  eligibility  was  answered  by  an  affirmative  reply  to  the 
interrogation,  "Were  you  a  soldier  in  the  Great  War  ?  "  The  ehgi- 
bility  clause  of  the  rules  read,  "  Each  nation  participating  may  enter 
any  officer,  non-commissioned  officer  or  private  soldier,  who  has  at 
any  time  between  4  August  1914  and  11  November  1918  been  a 
member  of  the  military  forces  of  that  nation."  The  amateur-pro- 
fessional question,  which  is  usually  a  fruitful  source  of  argument,  was 
not  raised. 


48  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Although  the  meet  was  directly  the  outgrowth  of  the  war,  was 
designed  to  serve  a  need  of  the  Armies,  and  formed  an  integral  part 
of  the  military  program  of  the  host  and  guests  alike,  there  was  nothing 
about  the  Games  themselves,  to  suggest  the  champs  de  bataille.  The 
sports  were  the  standard  events  usually  held  in  great  meets  and 
in  no  way  reflected  the  gigantic  contests  fought  out  on  the  battlefields 
of  the  Western  Front.  The  only  exceptions  were  the  rifle  and  pistol 
competitions    and    the    handgrenade-throwing   contest. 

The  invitation  to  participate  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games  was  issued 
by  General  Pershing,  as  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American  Expe- 
ditionary Forces,  on  9  January  1919,  less  than  five  and  one-half  months 
before  the  opening  of  the  events  themselves.  The  letters  sent  to  the 
Commanders  of  the  Armies  with  which  the  A.E.F.  was  associated 
were  in  all  cases  the  same  as  the  following  one  addressed  to  the 
Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Armies  of  France  : 

AMERICAN  EXPEDITIONARY  FORCES 
Office  of  the  Commander-in-Chief. 

January  10,  1919. 

Sir  : 

The  officers  and  men  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  being  keenly 
appreciative  of  the  splendid  relations  which  exist  among  those  who  have  borne 
arms  in  a  great,  common  cause,  and  which,  in  the  present  instance,  have  so 
happily  developed  into  such  deep  feelings  of  mutual  respect  and  admiration, 
are  most  anxious  to  preserve  and  strengthen  this  relationship  in  every  way 
possible. 

Now  that  active  military  operations  have  ceased,  they  believe  that  nothing 
could  be  more  conducive  to  this  end  than  to  gather  in  friendly  competition  on  the 
field  of  sport,  representatives  of  the  Armies  of  each  of  the  nations  which  have  so 
long  been  associated  together  in  the  stern  struggle  for  right. 

Accordingly,  they  have  decided  to  organize  an  Inter- Allied  Athletic  Meeting, 
to  be  held  in  the  Colombes  Stadium,  Paris,  during  the  month  of  May  or  June, 
1919,  in  which  the  officers  and  men  of  all  of  these  Armies  shall  be  eligible  to  take 
part. 

As  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  I  have  the 
honor,  therefore,  to  invite,  through  you  as  their  Commander-in-Chief,  the  offi- 
cers and  men  of  the  armies  of  France  to  participate  in  these  contests  and  to 
express  the  earnest  hope  that  many  of  them  may  do  so,  so  that  the  ties  of  the 
much  cherished  spirit  of  comradeship  which  have  sprung  from  the  gallant  joint 
effort  of  our  forces  on  the  battlefield  may  thus  be  even  more  closely  cemented. 

Respectfully, 

John  J.  Pershing. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  49 

The  twenty-nine  nations,  colonies  and  dependencies  receiving  this 
letter  were  as  follows  : 

Australia,  Japan, 

Belgium,  Liberia, 

Brazil,  Montenegro, 

Canada,  Nicaragua, 

China,  Newfoundland, 

Cuba,  New  Zealand, 

Czecho-Slovakia,  Panama, 

France,  Poland, 

Great  Britain,  Portugal, 

Greece,  Roumania, 

Guatemala,  Russia, 

Haiti,  Serbia, 

Hedjaz,  Siam, 

Honduras,  South  Africa. 
Italy, 

Eighteen  acceptances  were  received,  the  other  countries  finding 
themselves  forced  to  decline  the  invitation  owing  to  the  fact  that  they 
had  a  very  small  number  of  men  in  France  and  the  date  set  for  the 
games  was  too  near  to  allow  time  for  training  and  transporting  others, 
or  for  the  reason  that  their  troops  had  already  left  French  soil  and 
were  being  demobilized  at  home. 

The  fine  spirit  which  animated  all  the  countries  entering  the 
games  is  reflected  in  the  following  replies : 

AUSTRALIA 

14  May,   1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  have  to  thank  you  very  much  for  your  kind  letter  of  the  6  May,  which  I 
have  not  answered  earlier  as  I  have  been  away  from  my  Headquarters  seeing 
outlying  detachments  of  the  Australian  Forces,  and,  I  am  glad  to  say,  bidding 
Godspeed  to  some  half  dozen  transports  of  men  returning  to  their  homes,  in 
the  knowledge  that  they  have  accomplished  that  which  we  all  set  out  to  do. 

I  so  fully  agree  with  all  you  say  as  regards  the  splendid  relations  which  have 
existed  between  all  our  troops  throughout  this  great  fight  for  freedom,  and  I 
am  very  glad  to  know  that  you  are  so  anxious,  as  we  all  are,  to  strengthen  the 
ties  which  have  been  formed  in  the  field.  I  quite  agree  that  Inter-Allied  Games 
of  the  nature  you  are  organizing  will  do  much  to  foster  the  good  cause  we  have 
at  heart,  and  I  should  be  only  too  glad  to  do  all  that  I  possibly  could  to  help 
in  the  matter  in  regard  to  the  Australian  troops  whom  I  have  the  honour  to 
command. 


50  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

So  many  Australian  athletes  answered  the  call  at  the  outbreak  of  hostilities 
—  in  a  great  number  of  cases  unfortunately  making  the  supreme  sacrifice  —  and 
so  manyalso  have  been  away  from  home  so  long,  and  are  above  all  thmgs  anxious 
to  return,  that  I  fear  our  team  of  athletes  will  not  be  as  strong  as  we  would  all 
like  to  send  you;  but  every  effort  will  be  made  to  send  the  most  representative 
athletes  in  the  A.I.F.  to  compete  at  this  classic  gathering  of  warrior  sportsmen. 

The  matter  of  selection  of  teams  will  be  immediately  taken  up  by  my  Sports 
Control  Board,  and  I  think  we  can  count  on  being  represented  in  some  of  the 
events  under  Boxing,  Cross-Country  Running,  Rowing,  Rifle  Shooting,  Swim- 
ming, Tennis,  Track  and  Field  Sports,  and  possibly  Wrestling. 

In  accepting  the  invitation  on  behalf  of  the  officers  and  men  of  the  A.I.F. 
I  wish  to  express  my  belief  and  sincere  wish  that  this  great  sporting  venture 
will  be  the  unquahfied  success  it  so  richly  deserves. 

Yours  sincerely, 

(Signed)  W.  R.  Birdwood. 

BELGIUM 

Brussels,  25  January  1919. 
Dear  General  Pershing: 

I  have  been  greatly  touched  by  the  contents  of  your  kind  letter. 
The  officers  and  men  of  the  Belgian  army  will  keenly  appreciate  the  expressed 
desire  of  their  comrades  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  to  commemorate 
by  an  Inter-Allied  Athletic  Meeting  the  long  struggle  in  close  cooperation  on 
the  battlefleld. 

They  will  be  proud  to  meet  the  representatives  of  the  Allied  Armies  in  these 
peaceful  contests. 

Believe   me   always,    dear   General    Pershing, 

Your  affectionate, 

Albert. 

BRAZIL 

Paris,  20  January,  1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  kind  letter  of  the  9th 
instant.  If  I  am  still  in  France  at  the  time  of  the  establishment  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Meeting  you  may  well  count  on  me  and  rest  assured  that  I  shall  do  all 
in  my  power  to  draw  closer  the  bonds  that  unite  our  two  countries.  We  have 
just  seen  what  President  Wilson  has  done  for  Brazil. 

Constant  attention  to  physical  and  moral  development  is  the  most  commend- 
able work  a  country  can  devote  itself  to,  for  it  prepares  its  own  future  as  well 
as  that  of  humanity. 

Please  accept,  my  dear  General,  in  my  name  and  in  that  of  my  officers,  the- 
expression  of  my  highest  feehng  of  admiration  and  thanks. 

(Signed)  J.  Nazoleao  Felippe  d'Ache, 
General. 


Poster  used  to  advertise  the  Games.     Designed  by  First  Lieutenant  J.  H.  Dulin.  F.  A. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  53 

CANADA 

Canadian  Corps  H.Q. 
Oxford  Circus  House  145,  Oxford  Street, 
London,  W.l.  I4th  May.  1919. 
G-5. 
The  Chairman, 

Games  Committee  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games, 
53  Avenue  Montaigne,  Paris. 
Dear  Sir: 

In  the  absence  of  Lieut.  General  Sir  A.  W.  Currie,  G.C.M.G.,  K.C.B.,  I  write 
to  thank  you  for  so  courteously  extending  to  Canadians  the  privilege  of  com- 
peting in  the  Inter- Allied  Games  organized  by  you. 

We  shall  be  pleased  to  send  : 

Lt.  Colonel  H.  G.  Mayes,  C.B.E. 
Major  N.  A.  D.  Armstrong,  O.B.E. 
as  Canadian  representatives  on  the  Advisory  Committee,  and  these  two  officers 
will  be  in  Paris  in  time  to  take  part  in  the  first  meeting  of  the  Committee  on 
the  25th  inst. 

Most  respectfully  yours, 

(Signed)  J.  M.  Prower. 
Lieut.  Colonel,  General  Staff,  Canadian  Corps. 

CZECHO-SLOVAKIAN    REPUBLIC 

Ministerstvo  Valky,  Minist6re  de  la  Guerre. 
34  rue  Bonaparte,  Paris. 

16  January,   1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  am  deeply  touched  by  the  most  flattering  invitation  made  in  your  kind 
letter  of  9  January  to  officers  and  men  of  the  Czecho-Slovak  Army  to  participate 
in  the  Inter-Allied  Athletic  Meeting  to  be  held  in  the  Colombes  Stadium,  Paris, 
during  the  month  of  May  or  June,  1919. 

Our  regiments,  which  have  had  the  high  honor  of  fighting  on  the  side  of 
your  splendid  boys  in  Champagne  and  at  Vouziers,  have  now  left  for  their  home, 
and  I  am,  therefore,  transmitting  your  kind  letter  to  our  Government  at  Prague. 

Words  cannot  express  the  great  deep  admiration  our  whole  nation  at  home 
feels  for  the  unequalled  effort  and  high  ideals  put  forth  by  American  troops  in 
France.  Your  men  have  been  true  champions  of  Right  and  best  friends  to  ours 
in  their  hardship.  Nothing  could  fill  our  officers  and  men  with  deeper  satisfac- 
tion than  your  invitation  to  meet  once  more  here  in  France  with  their  comrades 
of  past  common  struggle  in  a  friendly  competition  on  the  field  of  sport,  and  I 
am  certain  that  they  will  do  their  best  to  show  themselves  worthy  of  this  favor. 

For  the  Secretary  of  War, 

(Signed)  Dr.  Eduard  Benes,  Jr. 

Secretary  of  Foreign  Affairs. 


54  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

CHINA 

Chinese  Military  Mission, 
7    Square    Thiers,    Paris    (16^). 

20  January,   1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  have  the  pleasure  of  aclinowledging  receipt  of  your  favour  of  the  9th 
instant.  We  are  certainly  appreciative  of  the  splendid  relation  with  you  in  the 
great  common  cause  and  as  keenly  preserve  and  strengthen  this  relationship 
as  you  do. 

As  chief  of  Chinese  Military  Mission,  I  have  the  honour  to  forward  your 
message  and  kind  invitation  of  the  Inter-Allied  Athletic  Meeting  to  be  held 
in  the  Colombes  stadium,  Paris,  during  the  month  of  May  or  June,  1919,  to 
our  officers  here  at  present. 

With  anticipation  of  the  great  honor  to  attend  on  the  field  of  sport  in 
friendly  competition,  I  hope  that  some  of  us  shall  be  able  to  participate  in 
these  contests. 

Allow  us  to  express  our  heartiest  thanks  and  earnest  hope  to  the  success 
in  near  future. 

[  am.  Yours  most  sincerely, 

(Signed    Tang-Tsai-Li. 

fNo.  2) 

Hotel  Lutetia,  Paris. 

T.        o.  5  May,  1919. 

Dear  Sir:  ■' 

I  have  been  instructed  to  present  through  you  three  trophies  for  competition 
during  the  Inter-AUied  Games  to  be  held  in  June  and  July.  The  trophies  are 
the  following  : 

One  gold  cup  on  behalf  of  General  Chin  Yun  Pen,  Minister  of  War. 

One  silver  cup  on  behalf  of  H.E.  Lou  Lseng  Tsiang,  Chief  of  the  Chinese 
Peace  Delegation. 

One  Chinese  vase  on  behalf  of  H.  E.  Hoo  Wei  Teh,  Minister  to  France. 

It  is  requested  that  you  designate  the  athletic  events  for  which  the  trophies 
shall  be  awarded. 

I  regret  to  say  that  China  will  be  unable  to  enter  teams.  But  I  beg  to  assure 
you  that  we  shall  always  be  glad  to  do  everything  we  can  in  cooperation  with 
the  American  authorities  towards  making  the  Games  a  success. 

I  have  the  honor  to  remain.  Sir, 

Yours  most  respectfully, 

(Signed)  S.  T.  Liang, 
Brigadier  General  Chinese  Army. 
Technical    Delegate,    Chinese    Peace    Delegation. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  55 

FRANCE 

Grand  Quartier  G6n6ral  des  Arm6es  Frangaises  de  I'Est. 
Le  Mar6chal  de  France  Commandant  en  Chef. 

G.H.Q.,   17  February,   1919. 
Dear  General: 

You  inform  me  that  the  American  Army  is  organizing  a  great  program  of 
sports,  to  be  held  in  Paris  in  May,  at  which  it  is  desirable  that  the  officers  and 
men  of  the  French  Army  take  part  in  as  large  numbers  as  possible  in  order  to 
keep  up  the  excellent  relations  formed  in  the  battle. 

I  am  entirely  of  your  opinion  and  I  am  giving  orders  that  every  facility  be 
given  the  Armies  under  my  command. 

It  will  be  necessary,  however,  that  your  directing  officers  establish  connec- 
tions with  my  First  Bureau  and  furnish  it  the  details  concerning  the  sort  of 
contests  which  will  take  place. 

Most  sincerely  yours, 

(Signed)    Charles    P^tain. 

GREECE 

General  Headquarters  Hellenic  Army. 
Salonica,  20  January,  1919. 
My  General: 

It  is  with  great  pleasure  that  the  officers  and  other  ranks  of  the  Hellenic 
Army  received  the  kind  invitation  from  you  to  participate  in  the  Inter-Allied 
Games  which  will  take  place  in  Paris  in  order  to  cement  our  glorious  victory 
and  make  more  binding  the  links  of  our  mutual  esteem  and  sacred  friendship, 
which  grew,  sprinkled  by  the  noble  blood  of  those  who  fell  so  gloriously  during 
the  present  struggle,  the  most  sacred  struggle  that  Humanity  has  ever  seen. 

The  officers  and  other  ranks  of  the  Hellenic  Army  will  be  proud  to  compete 
with  the  heroes  of  the  Eastern  front.  The  rivalry  between  the  contestants  will 
be  of  the  highest  order  because  in  these  Games  will  participate  the  descendants 
of  ancient  Greece  whose  antiquity  found  so  many  fervent  admirers  in  your 
beautiful  country. 

As  in  ancient  times,  the  barbarous  were  excluded  from  the  Games,  it  is  the 
same  today.  In  these  Games  will  participate  only  the  soldiers  of  the  nations 
which  fought  for  Right  and  the  Liberty  of  the  World.  The  thought  makes  us 
especially  proud  of  your  honorable  invitation. 

My  General,  I  should  be  very  much  obliged  if  you  would  kindly  give  me  infor- 
mation concerning  the  events  of  the  competition. 

It  would  be  an  exceptional  honor  for  us,  the  Greeks,  if  you  would  accept  a 
branch  of  Olympia's  laurel,  and  also  a  branch  of  the  Acropolis  olive  tree,  to  be 
among  the  other  prizes  which  will  crown  the  brows  of  the  victors,  considering 
as  a  continuation  of  the  beautiful  games  of  Ancient  Greece,  the  games  of  today 
which  will  be  undertaken  at  your  noble  initiative. 

L.  Paraskevopoulos. 
Commander-in-Chief 
The  Allied  Forces  of  Salonica. 


56  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

GUATEMALA 

Paris,  5  May,  1919. 

From:  Legation^of  the  Republic  of  Guatemala. 

To      :  General  Pershing,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  A.E.F. 

The  Government  of  the  Republic  of  Guatemala  directs  me  to  thank  you  for 
the  kind  invitation  you  were  kind  enough  to  send  him,  in  order  to  have  this 
Government  represented  at  the  Inter-Allied  Games  which  will  be  held  in  the 
near  future,  at  Colombes  Stadium. 

I  have  also  the  pleasure  to  say  that  the  Guatemalan  Army,  grateful  and 
proud  to  find  itself  at  the  side  of  the  gallant  American  Army,  will  be  represented 
by  a  Captain  of  the  Staff,  Mr.  Miguel  Ydigoras,  Military  Attache  of  the  Special 
Mission  of  Guatemala  which  is  already  in  Paris. 

I  take  this  opportunity  to  assure  you  of  my  deep  respect. 

Matos  Pacheso. 

HEDJAZ 

Paris,  20  March,   1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  am  deeply  sensible  of  the  honour  you  paid  the  troops  under  my  command  in 
inviting  us  to  take  part  in  the  Inter-Allied  Athletic  Meeting  to  be  held  shortly 
in  Paris.  It  will  give  us  the  greatest  pleasure  to  participate.  I  have  sent  Gen- 
eral Nuri  Pacha  Said  of  my  staff  to  Damascus  to  choose  such  team  as  we  can 
supply,  and  will  send  you  details  of  our  entry  as  soon  as  possible. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be,  sir 

Yours  very  faithfully, 

Faissal. 

ITALY 

Paris,  29  May,  1919. 
Dear  General: 

I  have  greatly  appreciated  the  invitation  which  I  have  received  from  the 
ofiicers  and  men  of  the  American  forces  to  the  officers  and  men  of  our  forces 
asking  them  to  take  part  in  an  Inter-AUied  Athletic  Meeting. 

It  is  also  my  opinion  that  to  gather  together  in  a  friendly  athletic  contest 
the  representatives  of  the  courageous  armies  which  contested  fraternally  on 
the  battlefield  in  a  spirit  of  sacrifice  and  of  military  virtue,  would  contribute 
to  uphold  and  increase  these  bonds  of  comradeship,  of  deep  respect  and  of 
reciprocal  admiration  which  made  of  the  combined  forces,  different  in  race, 
language  and  habits,  a  united  and  a  most  efficient  army,  and  an  unbreakable 
bulwark. 

Permit  me  to  express  my  most  lively  pleasure  for  the  proposal  of  your  offi- 
cers and  soldiers  and  I  beg  to  inform  you  that  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  the 
Italian  army  are  pleased  to  accept  the  invitation  which  has  been  extended  to 
them,  and  that  they  are  proud  to  participate  in  the  proposed  athletic  meet. 

Please  accept  the  expression  of  my  most  sincere  comradeship  and  regards. 

Yours  devotedly, 

(Signed)    A.    Diaz. 


K^/rt^ 


yriy^^ 


/  / 

r/ ^  /Afi    <-/lf/"//y    ^/ 


■fv^J 


2^  '.'/'^'.y-f^i/f    /(//O. 


C  r^/j  //l/f  ?/fr^ffii  ^'/ 


CARTE    POSTALE 


La  correspondance  au  recto  n'esi  pas  accept ^e  par  tous  les  pays  e'trangen 


,     FACTS  ABOUT  INTER-ALLIED  GAMES 

jfe^  formal  Opening  :  22  June. 

W'"  Closing  ceremonies  :  6  July. 

Placa  ;  Pershing    Stadium,    on   outskirts  of  Paris,   in  Bois  de 

Viaccnnes  n*ar  Join vtHc-Ie- Pont. 
The    Stadium  :   Erected   specially    for    the    Games    by  the 

Y.M.C.A.   and  presented  to   the  A.E.F. ;  seating  capacity 

a5,DCo-,  concrete  structure  completed  by  U.S.   troops ;  field  . 

graded  and  tiack  laid  by  French  engineers.  To  be  presenied 

to  Prance  on  completion  of  Games. 
Competltftins  in  the  Stadium  :  Baseball,  baskelbalf,  boxing, 

cricket,  tyo^s  country  race,  fencing,  soccer,  Rugby  football, 

hand  grenade  throwing*  horse-rid: ng,  track  and  field  »port$, 

tug-of-war,  wrestUog. 
Competitions  not  In  the  Stadium  :  Tennis^  swimmiug,  rifle 

and  pistol  thootiag^  (owing, 'and  golf. 
Nations  Partlclpattng  :  Araerfca,  Aumralia,  Belgium,  Brazil, 

Caoada,     Chltut.     Czecho-Slovakia,     France,     Guatemala, 

Hedjaz,  Italy,  New  2caland,   Portugal,   Rounun/a,  Serbia. 
.  CMUans  and  Scldters  of  all  Allied  countries  invited  ;  no 

charge  for  tickets,  Informatron  bureaus  will  be  operated  at 

all  prominent  points  th  l-'.^ris  befure  and  during  O&mes. 


ADRESSE 


M. 


DEVAMBCZ,    ^ARra 


Top — General  invitation  to  the  Games.    Bottom — Mailing  card  for  disseminating  information 

relative  to  the  Games. 


58  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

NEW  ZEALAND 

Administrative  Headquarters. 
New    Zealand    Expeditionary    Force. 
29,   30    &  31   Bloomsbury  Square,   London, 
W.C.I. 

16  May,  1919. 
My  dear  General  Pershing: 

In  reply  to  yours  of  the  6th  inst.,  I  have  very  great  pleasure  in  accepting, 
on  behalf  of  the  ofTicers  and  men  of  the  New  Zealand  Expeditionary  Force, 
the  very  kind  invitation  you  have  extended  to  them  to  take  part  in  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  to  be  held  in  Paris  from  22  June  to  6  July  next. 

We  have  already  many  friends  amongst  the  American  Forces,  particularly 
with  the  3 1 7th  Infantry,  who,  under  the  command  of  Brigadier  General  Jamieson, 
were  attached  to  us  for  a  considerable  period  in  the  Hebuterne  Sector. 

It  is  sincerely  to  be  hoped  that  these  old  friendships  may  be  renewed  and 
new  ones  formed. 

Yours  sincerely, 

(Signed)   C.   W.   Melville. 

PORTUGAL 

Roquetoise-sur-la-Lys,  France,  2  May,  1919. 
Dear  General  Pershing: 

Having  taken  over  the  command  of  the  Portugese  Expeditionary  Corps  a 
few  days  ago,  I  beg  to  be  allowed  to  present  to  you  my  compliments  as  the 
Commander  of  the  American  Troops  in  France,  and,  above  all,  to  thank  you  for 
the  honour  conferred  upon  us  by  your  letter,  sent  to  the  Commander  of  the 
Portugese  Expeditionary  Force,  inviting  us  to  take  part  in  the  coming  athletic 
sports. 

It  was  with  the  greatest  pleasure  that  I  received  your  invitation,  and  I 
follow  the  organization  of  the  sports  with  the  maximum  interest  and  enthu- 
siasm. 

I  am  at  this  moment  employing  all  my  efforts  to  ensure  that  the  Corps  under 
my  command,  and  my  nation,  will  enter  with  the  highest  possible  number  of 
competitors  and  in  the  most  brilliant  manner. 

With  my  greatest  consideration,  believe  me.  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

AUGUSTO     ROCADAS. 

ROUMANIA 
Roumanian  General  Headquarters. 
My  dear  General  Pershing:  ^^^'^^  ^'   ^®^®- 

The  officers  and  soldiers  of  Roumania  are  profoundly  touched  by  the  kind 
attention  of  their  American  comrades,  who  fought  so  valiantly  on  the  French 
front,  by  mvitmg  them  to  take  part  in  the  Inter-Allied  Athletic  Contests. 
Although  the  sports  have  only  recently  been  introduced  in  our  country,  they 
will  be  glad  to  participate. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  59 

They  pray  you  to  accept  for  yourself  and  to  transmit  to  their  American 
comrades  their  cordial  thanks  for  the  great  honor  bestowed  upon  them  and 
the  joy  which  they  feel  in  being  considered  by  the  Allied  Armies  and  especially 
yours  upon  whom  the  admiration  of  the  entire  world  has  been  drawn  by  the 
superb  bravery  and  exemplary  endurance. 

Please  accept,  dear  General,  the  expression  of  my  best  regards. 

(Signed)  Presan. 

SERBIA 

General  Headquarters  of  the  Serbian  Army, 

General    Chief   of   Staff. 

Belgrade,    12   January,    1919. 
My  dear  General: 

I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  9th  inst.,  by 
which  you  were  kind  enough  to  invite  the  Serbian  officers  and  soldiers  to  take 
part  in  the  sport  contests  which  will  take  place  at  Paris. 

I  send  you  my  hearty  thanks  for  the  happy  initiative  which  you  took  in 
organizing  this  gathering,  and  in  thus  procuring  for  all  the  Allied  Armies  the 
opportunity  of  linking  more  closely  the  bonds  of  comradeship  and  friendship, 
by  which  they  are  already  so  closely  bound. 

The  Serbian  Army,  in  particular,  will  be  very  glad  to  make  a  more  intimate 
acquaintance  with  their  comrades  of  the  great  and  heroic  American  Army, 
not  having  had  the  honor  to  fight  side  by  side  with  them  in  that  epic  struggle, 
and  always  avowing  enthusiastic  admiration  for  their  chivalrous  and  nobly 
disinterested  intervention,  which  has  contributed  so  much  to  the  splendid  vic- 
tory won  over  the  enemy. 

Please  believe  in  my  most  affectionately  devoted  sentiments. 

(Signed)  Voivode  Michitch. 

The  difficulties  connected  with  the  making  of  all  arrangements 
for  an  athletic  tournament  of  such  proportions  within  the  short  time 
allowed  were  so  innumerable  that  the  very  project  of  an  interaUied 
meet  seemed  almost  too  audacious.  But  such  a  task  did  not  daunt 
the  architect  of  the  plan  nor  the  leaders  who  had  given  to  the  world 
a  demonstration  during  the  fighting  days  of  how  seemingly  impossible 
problems  can  be  solved  by  organization,  industry  and  determination 
appHed  to  the  realization  of  a  dream.  All  the  difficulties  melted  away 
before  that  same  invincible  spirit  which  had  overcome  even  greater 
obstacles  in  achieving  a  military  victory  over  Germany  and  her  allies 
and,  in  the  realm  of  sport,  in  estabhshing  the  Far  Eastern  Games. 

It  will  be  sufficient  to  indicate  only  a  few  of  the  many  problems 
which  had  to  be  solved.  The  chief  difficulty,  of  course,  was  that, 
inasmuch  as  all  participants  in  the  games  were  officers  or  soldiers 


60  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

the  competitors  had  to  be  selected  from  the  ranks  of  troops  part  of 
whom  were  still  engaged  in  important  military  duties  on  many  fronts, 
and  the  remainder  of  whom  were  being  returned  to  their  homes  as  fast 
as  possible  to  be  demobilized.  Discharge  from  the  service  was  not  a 
disqualification,  but  the  attempt  to  select  and  transport  men  out  of 
mihtary  control  rendered  the  problem  more  difficult. 

The  state  of  military  affairs  on  some  fronts  was  so  unsettled  that 
Allied  commanders  were  unwilling  to  withdraw  many  officers  or  men. 
However,  in  spite  of  this  handicap,  the  new-born  nationalities  in  the  heart 
of  Europe ,  and  in  the  traditionally  turbulent  region  of  the  Balkans,  recog- 
nized the  Games  as  of  sufficient  importance  to  warrant  the  taking 
of  heroic  steps  to  select  their  athletes  from  their  fighting  ranks  and 
send  them  to  Paris  to  participate  in  the  contests  at  Pershing  Stadium. 
Noteworthy  was  the  action  of  such  countries  as  the  Czecho-Slovak 
Republic  which  entered  a  strong  team  in  spite  of  the  fact  that 
100,000  men  were  still  pent  up  in  Siberia,  that  the  country  was  almost 
encircled  by  enemies  requiring  the  maintenance  of  troops  on  all  fronts, 
and  that  there  were  moments  when  Red  armies  from  the  south  seemed 
to  threaten  her  very  existence.  Roumania,  after  having  been  overrun 
during  the  war,  and  still  open  to  danger  from  several  directions, 
manifested  an  enthusiastic  interest,  not  only  in  the  Inter- Allied  contests 
themselves,  but  also  in  the  furtherance  of  sports  in  every  manner 
possible. 

The  romantic  career  during  the  war  of  the  soldier  athletes  of  the 
smaller  countries,  the  difficulties  which  their  teams  encountered  in 
equipment,  transportation  and  training,  are  topics  worthy  of  chapters 
in  themselves  and  will  be  treated  more  fully  at  other  places  in  this 
book. 

All  nations  felt  keenly  the  absence  from  the  Games  of  some  of 
their  best  athletes,  who,  like  hundreds  of  thousands  of  their  comrades 
in  arms,  had  been  eliminated  forever  by  death,  by  wounds  or  by 
disease,  from  all  the  competitions  of  life.  In  many  cases  the  series 
of  hard-fought  competitions,  employed  by  the  Armies  as  the  basis  of 
selecting  their  teams,  by  drawing  into  the  field  of  sport  men  who  had 
never  before  participated  in  championship  events,  succeeded  in  filling 
in  an  equally  creditable  manner  places  left  vacant  by  better  known 
athletes.  The  spirit  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  was  characterized  by 
the  action  of  such  men  as  Vermeulen  of  France,  who  won  the  cross- 
country and  modified  Marathon  in  spite  of  numerous  wounds  one  of 
which  practically  paralyzed  an  arm  and  left  it  limp  and  useless. 


CHAPTER  II 

ORGANIZATION    AND    DISTRIBUTION    OF    DUTIES 
OF  THE  GAMES  COMMITTEE 


3  host  of  the  Games  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
A.E.F.  appointed  a  Games  Committee  charged  with  full 
responsibility  for  the  Games  and  all  matters  relating  thereto. 
The  Games  Committee  held  its  first  official  meeting  on 
4  February,  1919,  although  there  had  been  informal  discussions  among 
its  members  prior  to  that  date.  It  was  composed  of  the  same  men 
who  had  been  most  active  in  making  the  A.E.F.  athletic  program  a 
success  :  Col.  Wait  C.  Johnson,  Lt.  Col.  David  M.  Goodrich  and 
Lt.  Col.  T.  C.  Lonergan,  representing  the  Army,  and  Mr.  Elwood 
S.  Brown  and  Mr.  W.  A.  Reynolds,  of  the  Department  of  Athletics  of 
the  Y.  M.  C.  A. 

Associated  with  the  Games  Committee,  which  was  composed 
entirely  of  Americans,  was  the  Advisory  Committee,  formed  of  two 
representatives  of  each  country  participating  in  the  meet.  Its  duties 
may  best  be  explained  by  quoting  the  address  by  which  Col.  Wait  C. 
Johnson,  Chairman  of  the  Games  Committee,  opened  the  first  meeting 
of  the  Advisory  Committee  in  his  office  at  53  Avenue  Montaigne  on 
25  May,  1919.     He  said: 

"As  Chairman  of  the  Games  Committee,  I  take  great  pleasure  in 
wel-coming  you  at  this  opening  meeting  of  the  Advisory  Committee 
of  which  you  are  members.  In  accordance  with  the  desires  of  my 
Commander-in-Chief  and  on  behalf  of  the  Games  Committee  I  ask 
of  you  your  hearty  cooperation.  The  Games  Committee  will  no  doubt 
frequently,  from  time  to  time,  call  upon  you  for  advice  and  assistance. 
ReaHzing  the  pitfalls  which  have  heretofore  always  lain  in  the  path 
of  international  athletic  competitions,  we  feel  sure  that  with  your 
cooperation  and  assistance  many  of  these  difficulties  will  be  obviated. 
We  shall  be  grateful  to  receive  your  suggestions  as  to  reception,  enter- 
tainment and  attendance  of  your  military  and  government  officials, 
with  recommendations  as  to  the  ceremonies  attending  such  meeting. 
We  have  in  the  past  received  your  suggestions  as  to  added  events. 
Where  suggestions  have  come  relative  to  rules  and  competitions  from 


62  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

various  sources,  we  have  tried  to  coordinate  them  to  the  fullest  degree, 
meeting  the  desires  of  all  concerned.  Your  response  to  our  future 
requests  for  advice  or  assistance  will  be  deeply  appreciated,  not  only 
by  the  Committee  itself  but  by  our  Commander-in-Chief,  and  the 
forces  which  he  represents,  and  will  materially  aid  in  the  success  of 
this  friendly  competition  among  the  Allied  Nations  at  Pershing  Sta- 
dium. 

"  The  organization  of  our  Games  Committee,  as  indicated  in  the 
charts  furnished  you  all,  has  three  general  sections  for  the  conduct 
of  the  Games  and  all  matters  connected  therewith.  The  Liaison 
Section,  with  which  you  gentlemen  as  members  of  the  Advisory  Com- 
mittee will  come  most  closely  in  contact,  has  been  organized  as  the 
medium  through  which  your  written  suggestions  are  to  come,  also  to 
assist  and  aid  you  and  your  competing  athletes  in  all  ways  possible. 
We  trust  that  you  will  command  its  services.  " 

Under  the  direction  of  General  Pershing,  the  athletic  branch  of 
the  Training  Section  of  the  General  Staff,  G.H.Q.,  G-5  (Athletics), 
and  the  Y.M.C.A.  Department  of  Athletics  worked  as  partners  in  pro- 
moting the  Inter-Alhed  Games.  The  available  resources  of  both 
agencies  in  personnel,  finances,  and  materials,  were  pooled  for  the 
common  purpose.  The  joint  responsibility  was  given  recognition  in 
the  membership  of  the  Games  Committee  itself  and  also  in  the  roster 
of   subordinate   departments. 

Having  anticipated  the  athletic  program  of  the  American  Expedi- 
tionary Forces,  the  Y.M.C.A.  had  made  provision  for  its  needs  by 
increasing  its  force  of  trained  physical  directors,  by  placing  orders 
for  the  requisite  amount  of  athletic  goods,  and  by  setting  aside  funds 
to  defray  expenses  for  prizes,  special  equipment,  and  a  stadium  suit- 
able for  the  championship  games.  As  regards  the  Inter-Allied  Games 
alone  a  fund  of  1,000,000  francs  was  appropriated  to  be  expended 
as  follows :  450,000  francs  for  the  preparation  of  a  site  for  the  Games; 
150,000  francs  additional  for  necessary  expenses  in  connection  with 
the  equipping  of  the  Stadium;  50,000  francs  for  prizes,  and  350,000  francs 
for  general  operating  expenses  of  the  Games,  including  welfare  and 
entertainment  service  to  American  troops  and  to  competitors  of  all 
the  nations. 

On  22  June  the  roster  of  officers  of  G-5  (Athletics)  G.H.Q.,  and 
members  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  Department  of  Athletics  directly  associated 
with  the  Games  was  as  follows 


'■yi^yi/j^  KSM 


Form  of  personal  Invitation  to  the  Games. 


64  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

GAMES     COMMITTEE 

Col.  Wait  G.  Johnson,  G.S. 
Lt.  Col.  D.  M.  Goodrich,  G.S. 
Lt.  Col.  T.  C.  Lonergan,  G.S. 
Mr.  Elwood  S.  Brown,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  W.  A.  Reynolds,  Y.M.C.A. 

EXECUTIVE    OFFICE 

Capt.  Richard  H.  Waldo,  Inf.,  Secretary. 
Major  J.  J.  McConville,  Assistant. 
2nd  Lt.  R.  E.  Mickel,  Engr.,  Supply  Officer. 
R.  G.  Hinckley,  Y.M.C.A.,  Treasurer, 

TECHNICAL    SECTION 

Lt.  Col.  T.  C.  Lonergan,  G.S. 
Major  G.  M.  Gillet,  Jr.,  Cav. 

GROUND   AND    BUILDINGS    •   TRANSPORTATION 

Major  Chas.  C.  Bull.,   Inf. 
Major  M.  Browne,  Inf. 
Capt.  K.  J.  Boyd,  Engrs. 
1st  Lt.  A.  J.  Kelly,  T.C. 
1st  Lt.  Robert  Orr,  Engrs. 
Major  P.  S.  Holmes,  M.T.C. 
2nd  Lt.  J.  R.  McCluchion,  A.S. 


EQUIPMENT    AND     SUPPLIES 

Majoi 

•  E.  V.  Graves,  O.M.C. 

Capt. 

J.  S.  Switzer,  Inf. 

Capt. 

Lamar  Jeflers,  Inf. 

Capt. 

P.  L.  Bramblett,  Inf. 

Capt. 

W.  S.  Redhed,  F.A. 

Capt. 

H.  L.  Harllee,  F.A. 

Capt. 

E.  R.  Mclver,  F.A. 

1st  Lt.  E.  E.  Spencer,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Jas.  H.  Scott,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  J.  P.  Walden,  A.S. 
A.  M.  Gelston,  Y.M.C.A. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  65 

COMPETITIONS 

Lt.Co].  Benj.  F.  Castle,  A.S. 

1st  Lt.  D.  A.  Montgomery,  S.G. 

2nd  Lt.  F.  S.  Haberly,  C.A.C. 

F.  C.Brown,  Y.M.C.A. 

C.    F.   Williams,    A.F.C. 

A.  G.  Estes,  A.F.C. 

H.    S.    Spingler,    A.F.C. 

OFFICIALS 

Major  Roland  F.  Walsh,  Inf. 
Capt.  Sanford,  F.A. 
Lt.  Krugh. 

FIELD     MANAGER 

Colonel  J.   H.  Thompson. 
Capt.  E.  C.  Shively. 
Capt.  R.  G.  Stephens. 
F.  C.  Brown,  Y.M.C.A. 

PROGRAMS    AND    STATISTICS 

Major  Philip  Fox. 
Lt.  Col.  Earl  D.  Church,  Ord. 
Lt.  Wallace  Campbell,  Inf. 
Lt.  Wm.  H.  Jones,  Inf. 

BASEBALL 

Major  R.  F.  Hyatt,  F.A. 

Al.  Orth,  Y.M.C.A. 

Capt.  G.  M.  Roudebush,  Inf. 

BASKETBALL 

Capt.  Morgan,  Inf. 

A.  E.  Marriott,  Y.M.C.A. 

Capt.  W.  Austin  Bennett. 

Lt.  H.  G.  Sydenham. 

Lt.  C.  K.  Brownell,  M.T.C. 


66  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

BOXING    AND     WRESTLING 

Capt.  0.  B.  Cardwell,  F.A. 
Lt.  W.  J.  Hall,  Inf. 
Jimmie  Bronson,  Y.M.C.A. 

FENCING 

Capt.  F.  M.  Van  Natter, 
Lt.  Eugene  Cook,  Engr. 

GOLF 

Maj.  E.  L.  White,  Ord. 
Capt.  A.  L.  Hawley. 

HAND-GRENADE     THROWING 

Capt.  Wint.  Smith,  Inf. 

HORSE-RIDING    COMPETITIONS 

Col.  H.  R.  Richmond,  G.S. 
Col.  C.  E.  Hawkins,  Inf. 
Lt.  Col.  T.  M.  Knox,  Inf. 
Lt.  Col.  D.  D.  Gregory,  S.C. 
Capt.  A.  B.  Custis,  Cav. 
Capt.  de  Sugny,  French  Army. 
Lt.  W.  D.  Van  Ingen,  Cav. 
Lt.  Col.  Ches.  B.  Amory,  Cav. 
Lt.  Col.  E.  F.  Graham,  Cav. 
Col.  H.  J.  Bull,  Inf. 

ROWING 

Capt.  G.  D.  Wiman,  F.A. 
Lt.  Albright. 

RUGBY    FOOTBALL 

Capt.  H.  R.  Stolz,  M.C. 

W.  F.  Hopkins,  Y.M.C.A. 

1st  Lt.  Sherman,  Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  W.  0.  Fletcher,  Engrs. 

SOCCER    FOOTBALL 

Capt.  Lynn  Reynolds,  A.S. 
Geo.  B.  Cole,  Y.M.C.A. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  67 

SWIMMING   AND    WATER    POLO 

Gapt.  W.  F.  Redfield,  Inf. 
Lt.  J.  A.  Ridley,  Inf. 
J.  E.  Beckett,  Y.M.G.A. 

TRACK  AND    FIELD 

Major  A.  D.  Surles,  Cav. 
Geo.  E.  Goss,  Y.M.G.A. 
Major  G.  G.  Ghilds,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  A.  D.  Lightbody,  F.A. 

CAMPS 

Lt.  Gol.  0.  W.  Griswold,  G.S. 
Major  G.  A.  Shannon,  Inf. 
Gapt.  F.  A.  Little,  Inf. 
Gapt.  L.  F.  Buttolph,  Inf. 
Gapt.  W.  A.  Jacques,  M.G. 
1st  Lt.  G.  S.  Powell,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  Achille  Ganguet,  Inf. 

MEDICAL    ARRANGEMENTS 

Lt.  Gol.  Robert  M.  Hardaway,  M.G. 

Gapt.  Wm.  A.  Jacques,  M.G. 

1st  Lt.  G.  F.  Gelston,  M.  G. 

1st  Lt,  G.  Braun,  M.G. 

1st  Lt.  H.  A.  Moncreif,  M.G. 

LIAISON  SECTION 

Lieut.   Gol.   David   M.   Goodrich,  G.  S. 

Major  Lester  B.  Rogers,  M.G. 

Gapt.  William  W.  Hoyt,  M.G. 
Australia:  Gapt.  Richard  N.  Piatt,  M.G.,  1st  Lt.  L.  D.  Mordridge, 

A.D.C. 
Belgium :  Gapt.  Ray  Harrison,  F.  A. 
Brazil :  Gapt.  George  A.  Gordon,  F.A. 
Canada :  Gapt.  James  Gould,  F.  A. 
Ghina:  1st  Lt.  Percy  T.  Strong,  G.  of  I. 
Czecho-Slovakia :  1st  Lt.  Roger  R.  Townsend,  F.  A. 
France :  Gapt.  Thomas  K.  Finletter,  F.A.,  Gapt.  J.  Andre  Feuilhoux, 
F.A.,  1st  Lt.  William  S.  Reid,  F.A. 


68  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Great  Britain :  Gapt.  Edmund  L.  Kagy,  Inf. 

Greece:  1st  Lt.  Clarence  D.  Brenner,  G.  of  I. 

Guatemala :  1st  Lt.  J.  B.  Carroll,  A.S, 

Hedjaz:  2nd  Lt.  Terence  R.  Johnston,  A.S. 

Italy:    1st  Lt.  Albert  M.  C.  McMaster,  C.   of  I.,    1st   Lt.   John 

b.  Steen,  G.  of.  I. 
Newfoundland :  Gapt.  James  Gould,  F.A. 
New  Zealand  :  Gapt.  Will  Shafroth,  F.A.' 
Poland :  1st  Lt.  Nelson  Fall,  A.S, 
Portugal:  1st  Lt.  Harold  J.  Hotton,  F.A. 

Roumania  :  Capt.  Henry  0.  Silsbee,  F.A.,  IstLt.  Fred  R.  Miller,  Inf. 
Serbia  :   Gapt.  James  D.  Basey,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  L.  J.  Le  Tourneau,  Inf.,  Secretary. 

1st  Lt.  Joseph  B.  Corboy,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Jeremiah  J.  Hagerty,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  W.  H.  Hamilton,  F.A. 

1st  Lt.  Robert  H.  R,  Loughborough,   Inf. 

Capt.  Allan  H.  Muhr,  A.A.S.-M.C. 

Gapt.  Edward  D.  Toland,  Inf. 

GENERAL    SECTION 

Lt.  Col.  J.  A.  McDermott,  Inf. 
Capt.  Harry  0.  Ware,  Cav. 
2nd  Lt.  W.  R.  Callaway,  Inf. 

RECEPTIONS    AND    ENTERTAINMENTS 

Col.  J.  W.  Beacham,  Inf. 
Lt.  Col.  Paul  Watson,  F.A. 
Major  W.  F.  Donnelly,  Inf. 
Major  Sam  R.  Epperson,  Inf. 
Major  N.  B.  Ewing,  Inf. 
Major  A.  W.  Kipling,  U.S.A.A.S. 
Major  L,  F.  Stone,  Inf. 
Capt.  E.  S.  Donoho,  Inf. 
Capt.  K.  W.  Firman,  Inf. 
Capt.  J.  P.  Holmes,  Inf. 
Capt.  E.  T.  Miller,  Inf. 
Capt.  F.  H.  Stafford,  Inf. 
Capt.  J.  M.  Whittaker,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Melville  Booz,   Inf. 


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70  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAiMES    —    1919 

1st  Lt.  E.  G.  Burkhead,  O.M.C. 
1st  Lt.  A.  F.  Carter,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Henry  Carter,  A.S. 

1st  Lt.  R.  Herrick,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Wm.  Kelly,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Charles  J.  La  Marre,  U.S.A.A.S. 

1st  Lt.  J.  A.  O'Neil,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Percival  Roberts,  U.S.A.A.S. 

1st  Lt.  E.  S.  Sandmeyer,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  0.  F.  Triplett,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  Geo.  Warren,  U.S.A.A.S. 

2nd  Lt.  Claud  M.  McCue,  Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  W.  J.  Wilkins,  Inf. 

Lt.  H.  Haye,  French  Army. 

Lt.  De  Gretry,  French  Army. 

Wm.  M.  Berry,  Y.M.C.A. 

CEREMONIES   AND    PARADES 

Major  J.  B.  Wogan,  C.A.C. 

Major  H.  T.  Creswell,  Inf. 

Major  G.  H.  Gray,  Inf. 

Capt.  G.  H.  Bryan,  Aviation. 

Capt.  H.  B.  Butler,  Inf. 

Capt.  C.  K.  Clark,  Inf. 

Capt.  L.  H.  De  Baun,  Ord. 

Capt.  J.  D.  Matthews,  Artillery. 

1st  Lt.  J.  W.  Charlton,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  J.  J.  Conroy,  Inf. 

1st.  Lt.  H.  E.  Higginson,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  H.  W.  Hildebrand,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  D.  H.  Hilliker,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  N.  H.  Hunter,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  H.  S.  Messick,  Inf. 

1st  Lt.  P.  A.  Villere,  C.A.C. 

1st  Lt.  Fred  Yeager,   Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  L.  H.  Black,  Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  M.  L.  Fowler,  Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  H.  G.  Gosselin,  Ord. 

2nd  Lt.  A.  F.  Kelly,  Inf. 

2nd  Lt.  Alfred  R.  Harris,  Aviation. 


.     PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  71 

2nd  Lt.  W.  S.  Taylor,  Artillery. 
2nd  Li.  J.  W.  O'Brien,  Ord. 
2nd  Lt.  R.  Neumuller,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  S.  B.  Galey,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Boutieller,  French  Army. 
J.  K.  Croft,  Y.M.C.A. 

PRIZES 

Major  C.  C.  Woodruff,  Inf. 
Gapt.  W.  B.  Sparks,  A.C.D. 
Gapt.  Clifton  W.  Toms,  Jr.,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  G.  Roome,  Gav. 
1st  Lt.  Caster  Lowenstein,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  Donald  V.  Shuhart,  F.A. 

PRESS    AND    PUBLICITY 

Major  Samuel  A.  Greenwell,  S.C. 
Major  Owen  J.  Watts,  A.C.D. 
Gapt.  Theo.  H.  Tapping,  Inf. 
Gapt.  Robert  B.  Smallwood,  F.A. 
Gapt.  Corliss  G.  Mosely,  A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Errol  G.  Chase,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  John  F.  Williams,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Fred  M.  Williams,  F.A. 
1st  Lt.  Alfred  M.  Uhler,  U.S.A.A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Archie  G.  Swanson,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  John  B.  Stearns,  U.S.A.A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Samuel  D.  Smoley,  F.A. 
1st  Lt.  Gregory  D.  Smith,  F.A. 
1st  Lt.  Earl  E.  Pardee,  U.S.A.A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Allen  E.  Peck,  A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Russell  M.  Page,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Adolph  S.  Ochs  Jr.,  Gav. 
1st  Lt.  Roujet  D.  Jenkins,  Q.M.C. 
1st  Lt.  Benjamin  H.  Hall,  Q.M.C. 
1st  Lt.  Louis  H.  Frohman,  O.M.C. 
1st  Lt.  Jason  C.  Easton,  C.  of  I. 
1st  Lt.  Galen  B.  Croxton,  A.S. 
1st  Lt.  Gordon  W.  Cameron,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  Minott  Saunders,  A.S. 


72  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

2nd  Lt.  Samuel  T.  Williamson,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  Paul  Watkins,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  J.  Smith  Thomas,  A.S. 
2nd  Lt.  Horace  Ray  Palmer,  F.A. 
2nd  Lt.  James  Milton  Newell,  A.S. 
2nd  Lt.  Wra.  D.  Hise,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  Leshe  N.  Hildebrand,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  John  H.  Gray,  F.A. 
2nd  Lt.  Hugh  ElHott,  Engrs. 
2nd  Lt.  Rollin  E.  Chapman,  A.S. 
2nd  Lt.  Francis  J.  Buckley,  A.S. 
2nd  Lt.  Carlton  K.  Brownell,  M.T.C. 
2nd  Lt.  Walter  J.  Blum,  Inf. 
WiHiam  Unmack,  Y.M.C.A. 

HISTOmCAL    BRANCH 

Major  George  Wythe,   Inf. 
Capt.  Joseph  Mills  Hanson,  F.A. 
Capt.  Rex  Byerley  Shaw,  F.A. 
1st  Lt.  Stephen  A.  Walser,  C.  of  I. 
2nd  Lt.  Wm.  B.  Ruggles,  Inf. 
Capt.  Carl.  V.  Burger,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  H.  B.  Peare,  Q.M.C. 
1st  Lt.  R.  M.  Rice,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  A.  W.  McFarland,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  R.  H.  Scannell,  Engrs. 
1st  Lt.  S.  H.  Moise,  Inf. 
2nd  Lt.  W.  C.  Halbert,  Engrs. 
2nd  Lt.  A.  C.  Webb,  F.A. 
2nd  Lt.  H.  H.  Wertz,  F.A. 

TICKETS 

Capt.  Ward  Delaney,  A.G.D. 
Capt.  Ralph  W.  Baker.    Engrs. 
Capt.  E.  H.  Spencer,  Inf. 
Capt.  J.  A.  Given,  Engrs. 
Capt.  Howard  Warner,  Engrs. 
Capt.  W.  W.  Foreman,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  Kenneth  W.  Reed,  Inf. 
1st  Lt.  G.  I.  Lubben,  Inf. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  73 

1st  Lt.  W.  S.  Hoover,  Inf. 
1st  Lt,  R.  I.  Poole,  Engrs. 
2nd  Lt.  Wm.  B.  Blanfuss,  A.S. 

ADVISORY    COMMITTEE 

America:  Brig.  Gen.  H.  B.  Fiske  ;  Brig.  Gen.  W.  W.  Harts,  Chair- 
man. 

Australia:  Lt.  Col.  C.  V.  Watson,  D.S.O. ;  Maj.  S-  A.  Middleton, 
D.S.O. 

Belgium:  Lt.  Col.  E.  Martin;  Maj.  Raoul  Daufresne  de  la  Cheva- 
lerie. 

Brazil:   Maj.  Breant. 

Canada:  Lt.  Col.  H.  G.  Mayes,  G.B.E. ;  Maj.  N.  A.  D.  Armstrong, 
O.B.E. 

China:  Brig.  Gen.  S.  T.  Liang ;  Brig.  Gen.  P.  T.  Dan. 

Czecho-Slovakia:  Maj.  PierHnger;  Capt.  Smutny. 

France:  Lt.  Col.  See,  Vice-Chairman ;  Maj.  Barbier. 

Great  Britain:  Maj.  H.  C.  Hartley;  Maj.  F.  K.  Hardy,  D.S.O. 

Greece:  Maj.  George  Bellias  ;  Lt.  Jean  Rozis. 

Guatemala:  Dr.  Rodolfo  Robles  ;  Capt.  Miguel  Ydigoras, 

Hedjas:   Mr.  Aouni  Abdul-Hadi. 

Italy:   Col.  Arturo  Leone;  Maj.  Andrea  Castaldi. 

New  Zealand:  Maj.  J.  A.  Cameron. 

Portugal:  Capt.  Antonio  Mascarenhas  de  Menezes ;  Lt.  Marie  de 
Cunha. 

Roumania:  Lt.  Col.  V.  I.  Badulescu ;  Capt.  Horace  Eremie. 

Serbia:  Capt.  Andritch ;  Lieut.  Matitch ;  Maj.  L.  B.  Rogers,  M.C. 
Secretary. 

The  duties  of  the  various  departments  and  the  relation  of  each 
department  to  other  branches  of  the  organization  is  seen  at  a  glance 
in  the  table  of  organization  of  date  of  21  June,1919. — (See  diagram, 
"The  Games  Committee,  Inter-Allied  Games — Organization  and 
Distribution  of  Work,"  opposite  page  80.) 

The  responsible  head  of  the  organization  was  Colonel  Johnson, 
chairman  of  the  Games  Committee.  Closely  associated  with  him  was 
Mr.  Brown  of  the  Y.M.C.A.,  who,  as  the  originator  of  the  plan  for 
athletics  in  the  A.E.F.  and  the  Inter-AlHed  Games,  and  one  of  the 
hardest  workers  for  the  success  of  the  program,  had  a  clear  vision  of 
the  end  to  be  accomplished  and  knew  the  best  means  to  be  used  for 


74  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

its  realization.  Mr.  Brown  was  Director  General  of  the  Games. 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Goodrich,  who  had  been  charged  with  the  issuance 
of  the  original  invitations  to  the  Allied  Armies  to  participate  in  the 
meet,  retained,  throughout,  the  direction  of  all  matters  of  liaison.  The 
Liaison  Section,  of  which  Colonel  Goodrich  was  chief,  was  the  interme- 
diary between  the  guests  of  the  Games  and  all  the  various  departments 
of  the  Games  organization. 

In  February,  1919,  when  it  was  realized  that  a  few  officers  at  Chau- 
mont  would  not  be  able  to  handle  the  multitudinous  details  of  the 
A.E.F.  championship  series,  Captain  Richard  H.  Waldo  was  made 
Secretary  of  G-5  (Athletics)  for  the  purpose  of  forming  the  necessary 
organization.  G-5  (Athletics)  was  at  that  time  organized  with  a  divi- 
sion of  duties  along  the  same  lines  as  given  in  the  table  of  organization 
of  the  Inter-AUied  Games,  although,  of  course,  modifications  and 
enlargements  were  necessary  for  the  culminating  event  at  Pershing 
Stadium.  As  Secretary  of  The  Games  Committee,  Captain  Waldo 
acted  as  the  interpreter  of  the  flexible  organization,  which  had  rapidly 
developed  and  expanded,  and  as  the  "buffer"  between  the  Games 
Committee  and  its  many  points  of  contact. 

The  duties  connected  with  any  great  athletic  meet  are  naturally 
grouped  around  two  facts:  the  event  and  the  setting  for  the  event. 
In  accordance  with  this  logical  division  of  labor  all  departments 
charged  with  the  Games  themselves  such  as  the  competitions,  the  site 
for  the  competitions,  equipment  and  supphes,  camps  for  the  athletes 
of  all  countries,  and  medical  service,  were  put  under  one  chief.  Lieu- 
tenant Colonel  T.  C.  Lonergan,  the  entire  group  of  activities  being 
called  the  Technical  Section.  But  whether  "  the  play's  the  thing  " 
or  not,  it  was  by  no  means  sufficient  merely  to  arrange  for  the  competi- 
tions. The  stage  on  which  the  play  was  to  be  given  and  the  specta- 
tors invited  to  witness  the  performance  had  to  be  given  equal  consid- 
eration. The  Stadium  had  to  be  decorated  ;  the  program  of  sports 
was  to  be  supplemented  by  parades  and  ceremonies  ;  the  pubHc  must 
be  informed  through  the  press,  from  posters  and  by  information 
booths,  of  what  was  to  take  place;  it  was  a  part  of  the  duty  of  the 
host  to  receive  and  entertain  athletes  and  visitors;  prizes  to  be  awarded 
the  victors  had  to  be  prepared;  who  were  to  attend  the  games,  how 
they  were  to  receive  their  tickets  and  the  means  of  transportation 
they  were  to  use,  were  problems  that  had  to  be  solved.  This  long  list 
of  duties,  coordinated  by  Lieutenant  Colonel  J.  A.  McDermott,  was 
embraced  under  the  General  Section. 


c4 


76 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


For  the  most  part  the  established  principle  of  "army  channels" 
was  followed.  Matters  of  policy  were  established  by  the  section 
heads ;  the  execution  of  details  was  left  to  officers  in  charge  of  depart- 
ments or  subdepartments.  Owing  to  the  short  time  between  the 
original  step  toward  holding  the  Games  and  the  date  on  which  the 
formal  dedication  was  held  at  Pershing  Stadium,  it  was  necessary  to 
keep  the  organization  as  flexible  as  possible  and  to  allow  great  latitude 
and  initiative  to  all  subordinate  officials.  The  results  justified  this 
action.  The  problems  which  confronted  the  head  of  each  department 
at  the  beginning  of  the  organization,  the  manner  in  which  the  officers 
and  Y.M.G.A.  officials  set  about  removing  difficulties  and  getting 
everything  ready  for  the  big  event,  and,  finally,  the  crowning  success 
of  the  Games  themselves,  clearly  proved  that  the  coordinated  efforts 
of  G-5  (Athletics)  and  the  Department  of  Athletics  Y.M.G.A.  had  not 
been  in  vain. 


CHAPTER  III 
CHOOSING  THE  SPORTS  PROGRAM 

NE  of  the  very  first  problems  faced  by  the  Games  Committee 
was  that  of  deciding  on  the  sports  in  which  competitions 
were  to  be  held.  There  was  no  precedent.  This  was  to  be 
an  invitation  tournament  with  the  Commander-in-Chief  of 
the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  in  the  role  of  host,  and  to  the 
host  in  such  tournaments,  invariably,  according  to  American  custom, 
falls  the  prerogative  of  arranging  the  program  of  competitions. 

But  in  America  there  is  a  recognized  set  of  sports,  all  or  any  number 
of  which  may  be  chosen  with  little  likelihood  of  unfairness  to  any 
competing  team.  This  is  not  true  in  making  up  a  program  for  interna- 
tional contests  for  the  very  obvious  reason  that  what  is  a  common  sport  in 
one  country  may  be  comparatively  unknown  in  another.  True,  the 
Olympic  Games  had  done  much  before  the  Great  War  to  standardize 
sports  throughout  the  world,  but  there  had  not  been  enough  progress 
made  to  simplify  the  selecting  of  a  program  of  sports  for  international 
competition. 

When  the  matter  of  staging  the  big  tournament  had  been  first 
suggested  the  term  "Military  Olympic"  was  used.  The  competition 
was  to  be  among  soldiers  or  men  who  had  been  soldiers  but  a  few  months 
before.  Why  not  arrange  a  program  of  military  sports  only  ?  But 
what  are  military  sports  ?  Every  known  sport  can  easily  be  traced 
back  to  a  time  when  it  was  an  exercise  in  which  a  warrior  must  excel 
and  excellence  in  most  of  them  is  just  as  useful  to  a  soldier  in  modern 
warfare  as  it  was  at  any  time  in  the  past.  There  seemed  no  way  to 
make  the  tournament  a  distinctively  military  tournament. 

To  compare  the  methods  of  warfare  in  the  days  when  men-  first 
banded  together  against  a  common  enemy,  when  fleetness  of  foot 
counted  toward  victory,  with  the  methods  of  modern  warfare  in  which 
men  walk  100  meters  in  four  minutes  behind  a  curtain  barrage  and 
even  a  "runner"  seldom  runs,  may  seem  far-fetched;  but  there  is 
little  difference  between  the  range  and  accuracy  required  by  our 
ancient  forefathers  in  pelting  their  enemies  with  smooth  round  stones 
and  that  required  by  a  well  trained  modern  bomber  in  hurling  his 


78  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

hand  grenades.  The  same  kind  of  endurance  that  enabled  Miltiades' 
runner  to  carry  his  message  from  Marathon  to  Athens  was  needed 
by  the  warriors  of  the  Alhes  when  for  weeks,  without  faltering  from 
weariness,  they  harassed  the  retreating  Germans  from  the  Hindenburg 
Line  to  the  Meuse,  the  Aisne  and  the  Scheldt.  So  running  and 
throwing,  recognized  as  exercises  necessary  in  the  training  of  the 
early  warriors,  have  always  been  included  in  athletic  contests  in  the 
forms  of  sprints,  runs,  the  shotput  and  the  discus  throw. 

Therefore  a  study  of  the  things  lending  themselves  to  athletic 
competition  which  should  be  well  done  by  the  modern  soldier  brought 
out  but  one  new  event — hand-grenade  throwing. 

In  one  of  the  early  meetings  of  the  Games  Committee,  in  April,  1919, 
the  suggestion  was  made  that  bayonet  competition  be  included  in 
the  list  of  events.  This  was  a  form  of  warfare  that  had  been  highly 
developed  during  the  Great  War  and  it  was  a  part  of  every  infantry- 
man's training.  After  due  consideration  it  was  decided  that  there 
could  be  no  satisfactory  manner  of  judging  such  a  competition  and 
the  Committee  rejected  it  as  an  event  in  the  Games. 

Many  sports  were  suggested  to  the  Committee  that  were  not  made 
official  events,  usually  on  the  ground  that  it  would  be  impossible 
to  arrive  at  satisfactory  decisions  in  judging  them.  Among  those 
rejected  were  some  well  known  sports  including  diving  for  form.  This 
is  a  most  attractive  event  both  to  the  participant  and  to  the  spectator, 
but  it  is  decided  on  a  point  system  based  entirely  on  a  consensus  of 
opinion  of  the  judges.     All  sports  which  involved  form  were  rejected, 

A  walking  competition  was  suggested  but  rejected  because  of  the 
difficulty  always  encountered  in  distinguishing  between  walking  and 
running. 

The  Games  Committee,  composed  wholly  of  American  officers 
and  Y.M.C.A.  athletic  experts,  realized  the  difficulty  of  arranging  a 
program  that  would  not  favor  too  strongly  any  one  country.  Its 
first  step,  therefore,  was  to  make  a  list  of  the  best  known  forms  of 
athletic  competition  which  it  termed  "Recognized  Sports."  These 
were  definitely  selected  for  inclusion  in  the  Games.  This  list  of  events 
embraced  : 

1.  Baseball. 

2.  Basketball. 

3.  Boxing. 

a.     Bantamweight 118  pounds  and  under 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  79 

b.  Featherweight 125  pounds  and  under 

c.  Lightweight 135       "       and  under 

d.  Welterweight 145        "       and  under 

e.  Middleweight 160       "       and  under 

/.     Light  Heavyweight 175        "       and  under 

g.     Heavyweight   over  175  pounds. 

4.  Cross  Country  Race — 10,000  meters — individual  competition. 

5.  Fencing — Foils — individual  and  team  competition. 

6.  Fencing— Sabers 

7.  Fencing— Epee 

8.  Football — Soccer. 

9.  Football — American  Intercollegiate. 

10.  Football— Rugby. 

11.  Golf  —  Individual  and  team  competition. 

12.  Hand-Grenade  Throwing. 

13.  Horse-Riding  Competition. 

14.  Rowing — Single  sculls. 

15.  Rowing — 4-oared  shells. 

16.  Rowing — 8-oared  shells. 

17.  Shooting — Army  Rifle — Team  competition. 

18.  Shooting — Army  Rifle — Individual  competition. 

19.  Shooting — Revolver  or  Automatic    Pistol  —  Service    weapons 

—Team  competition. 

20.  Shooting —  Revolver  or  Automatic   Pistol  —  Service    weapons 

—  Individual  competition. 

21.  Swimming  : 

a.  100  meters,  free  style 

b.  100  meters,  back  stroke 

c.  200  meters,  breast  stroke 

d.  400  meters,  free  style 

e.  800  meters,  free  style 
/.  1,500  meters,  free  style 

g.      800  meters,  relay,  free  style— 4  men  (4x200). 

22.  Tennis — Singles  and  Doubles. 

23.  Track  and  Field  Sports  : 

a.  100-meter  Dash 

b.  200-meter  Dash 

c.  400-meter  Run 

d.  800-meter  Run 


80  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

e.  1500-meter  Run 

/.  Modified  Marathon  — 16,000  meters 
g.  110-meter  High  Hurdles 
h.  200-meter  Low  Hurdles 
I.  Running  High  Jump 
k.  Standing  Broad  Jump 
I.  Running  Hop,  Step  and  Jump 
m.  Pole  Vault 

n.  Throwing  the  Javelin,  best  hand 
0.  Throwing  the  Discus,  best  hand 
p.  Putting  the  16-lb  Shot,  best  hand 
q.  Pentathlon  : 

200  meter  dash, 

Running  Broad  Jump, 

Shot  put,  16-lb,  best  hand, 

Throwing  Discus,  best  hand, 

1500  meter  run 

r.  Relay  Race,  800  meters,  4  men  (4x200) 
s.  Relay  Race,  1600  meters,  4  men  (4x400) 
I.  Medley  Relay  Race,  4  men 

First  man  runs  200  meters. 

Second  man  runs  400  meters. 

Third  man  runs  800  meters. 

Fourth  man  runs,  1600  meters. 

24.  Tug-of-War,  9-man  team. 

25.  Water  Polo. 

26.  Wrestling  —  Catch-as-Gatch-Gan  and  Greco-Roman  : 

a .  Bantamweight 118  pounds  and  under 

b.  Featherweight 125      "        and  under 

c.  Lightweight 135      "        and  under 

d.  Welterweight 145      "        and  under 

e.  Middleweight 160      "        and  under 

/.  Light  Heavyweight 175      "        and  under 

g.  Heavyweight over  175  pounds. 

But  as  there  was  to  be  no  winner  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  only 
the  winners  in  the  separate  events  being  recognized,  each  country 
had  the  privilege  of  entering  only  such  events  as  it  desired.  A  still 
more  liberal  provision  was  included  which  allowed  any  sport  which 


THE  GAMES   COMMITTEE 
INTERALLIED  GAMES 
ORGANIZATION  and  DISTRIBUTION  ofWORK 


THE    GAMES     COMMITTEE 

CoL.W.C  Johnson,  Sen'l  5taff,  Chairman. 

Lr.Cot.DM.GoopnicH,  Gem'l  ^tafp  .Vice-Chairm/ 
Lt.Col.TC  LoNERGAN,  GenY  6taff. 
MR.E.5.5nowN,  YM.C.A 
Mr .  W./<.  Reynolps,  Y  M.CA. 


>5ECRErAF(T         THE       GamES  ComMITTEI 

Cart,  Richard  H  IValdoJnf. 
Major  J.J.  McCoNViuLE,  iNF     ^33istani 

ZndLIEUT.  RE.     MiCKEL        C.OF    C. 

M^.R.G.HiNKLEY.Y.MC/^.    Tbe»^uref! 


j: 


Technical      6ecTION 
Lt.Col.T.C.Lonersan  ,  Gen'l.Staff. 
Major  GM.Qillet,  Cav., 


X 


Grounds  a    Building.^ 

TRANSFORTATIOrs 

Major  C.C  Bull  JnF. 
Major  M.Brown  ,  Inf. 
Major    R-S  HolmE^.MIC, 
Iat.Lt/^.J,  Kelley   T.Q. 
2d.  LrJ.RMc.CLuanioN. 


T 


E 


Liaison    ScctjON 
Lt.Col.D-M- Goodrich  ,  Gem'l 
maj.u.b.  Rogers  ,   M.  c. 
capt.  w.w  hoyt,    m.c 


3taf 


Equipment    8(  >5uppliE5 
Major  EV.Graves,  Q  M.C. 
Capt.J.6.Swit2ER,  Inf. 
Capt  Lamar  Jeffers,  Inf. 
Capt.  P.L  B(?amblett,  Ihf. 
Ist.LtE.E.-Spencer.Inf. 

WR.A.W.GELiTON,  YM.C.A. 


Competitions 
Lt.  Col.  B.F; Castle  ,  A-S. 
1st.  Lt.  D.A. Montgomery,  S.C. 
Mr. RC.  Brown, Y.M.CA. 


CQNSTRuCTkON   Work- 
Physical   CoKDiTioN  OF  Stadium 

MOTHER  (jflOuNDS   USED    FO(?TME 
COiVlPeTITiONS     ,  TK^MSPORTATiON^ 
LiQMTS  ,  Phones  ,  QathS  ,  0(?E55if«5 

Preparation  at  Erection  of  Scqi^e 
Soar  PS 


OJECURE  iif   MAINTAIN  FOR 

Distribution  an  EMeRQE^cr  ^toc 
OF  (Athletic  Equipr^ENr 

(  Ejicept-  WeoiCAL  ,5uppLiei.) 


Fk06WM,ic»(tiuL(t.iT«njr>c 
F  C   6ftOW/y  ,  T  M.C  A 


Camps 

L.T,CoL.0.W.GRr5WOL0  G.S.COMMBNOING 
MAJ-GA.ShAHNON,  AiilSTANf 

CaptJ.RHolmes,  Enter.Off. 

CaPT.LF.  BUTTOIPH,  CoHST.OfF. 

Capt. F/^ Little, 6uPPLt  Off. 
Capt. A  Betts,  Medical  Off. 
Ist.Lt.0.5  Powell,  Mess.Off 


jLMOOt    Pan    OfFtCLALi 

MAJ.  R. F.  WAVSH  ,   Inf. 
MR. EC  BROWN,  TMC  A. 


T 


1 


MfPICAL  Af?RANGEM6NT5 

Lt.Col.RM.  Hardaway,  M.C. 
I&t.Lt.  L.q. Washington  ,  M  C 
15t.Lt.  C.F.  Gelston,  M.C. 
st.Lt.H.Vouni,  M.C. 


Plan  for  CAMPii^ND  Billets 
Preparation  and  Establishment 

OF 

C/1MP5,  Billets    etc. 

/lpM(N(3T«flTlON,5uPPLt  AND  PoLlCE 
OF  ALLC^MPi  - 


Medical      AtTendawce 
a  Supplies 

F«5t  Aid    STATioNi 
Ambulances, Litters,  Etc. 


BASEBALL 
MAJOR    R  0     f^TATT 

MR  A  Oath      Y.  M  C  A - 


BASKCr-eALL 

Capt.  G.M  Morgan, Inf. 
MP.  A. e. Marriott  ,  YMCA. 


LT.  J.IV.  Hall.    Inf 

Mk.J.  poucuMCRTY,  YMCA 


CROSScOU'irRTRUN 

Maj.  a  D  5uRLE5  ,  C&V, 

MR.  LW.  pHiuiPS,  Y.M.CA. 


30CCCH-FOOTB«L1. 

CflPT.    Retnoloj 

MR. Geo. B  Cole,  Y.M.CA. 


GO*.F 

Majoa.E.l. White,  Oro 


X 


Capt.  P.m.  VanNatteR  ,  |nF. 


Capt  H.R.5T0LZ. 

MR-  W  F  Hopkins,  YM.Cfl 


MORSE  RiDlNC.     COMPCriTiONS 

Col.  M.R.RiCHi-ioNO  ,  Gen,  Staff 
Col  C  E.HAWKINS  .    iNF 

IST  lt.  Beebe  ,  Inf. 


Ckpt.C  D.wiMAN.f  a. 


SMOOTINCi 

C0L-A.M.MACNA6  ,  Qen   Staff 
aMr.S.Y Smith.  YM  C«- 


M^j.  GEOR<;e   WrennjNf 
MfLE.P.rATe  ,  YM.C.A. 


TiMt.  ^«e  FIELD 

MflJ. /^.D.  50RLE3  ,  Cav 
MS.q.E  Goss.Y  MCA. 


M-^j.A-J.COMiTOCK  ,  Inf. 
MR.  T  J.  KEh.y,YMC  a. 


Lt.J.W.  H«LL,   l»r 

MR  K  B.  NIONT/(c,uE ,  YM.CA 


Capt.  IV  F  Redfielo,Inf. 
MR  J  E.Beckett     YMCA 


Capt.  IViNT  vJmitm^    Inf 


Capt  w.f  f^EoFiELO,  if^F- 
MR.  J  E.  Beckett,  Y  M-Cfl 


CA»T,n>T   M»«Rl30' 


CArtAPA 

Jawes  GOJ.D  P-*- 


ur  Pr  5TflONG,Cc.f  I. 


CAecMO-5Lor*KM 


fJPT.lK.FlNLETTCR 


GiREAT     -BRiTAiK 
CAPT.  e.L.  KACV.   F.A. 


GweECE: 
r.C  O.eREHNEA.CoT- 


L'.  J  6. CARROLL^  A   S. 


i HeAjA? 1 

LT    T  «    JoHMjrOn     /I    5 


T.  A.M.C  .M<  WIT  EH, Co 


Mw    Zealand 

C*^T  wiiL   SHAFAO'H   f./ 


POL»»NO 

■, KELSON     FELL, A. 


«PT   HO-ilLSeeE,  FA 


SEItSI* 
CAPT   J   B  BASEY  .  I. 


NewFouMOiAND 
OFT  JAMES  Gould, FA. 


CflPI  J  A  POUiUMOg)t/.fl-"« 
CAPr.  A  H.MUMH,A  A  S.-M  C. 
CAPT  CaTOLftNO,  INF. 

Lt  ae.coRsor ,  wF. 
lt.  j  j,  hagertt,  wf. 

LJ  tVH,  HAMILTON, f  A- 


LT.  L.J.  LrrOVUHSfiU.iHUit'i 
LT.R.H(LLOU^e()R<HJ<kr<.  lUF 

LT,FR.Wll.LEl  )MP(Ro,«w,*| 
LT.LD.A10ltlWtlDi:E,AI)C(Au»" 
tTWiREUI.FA,lfdA"CEl 

LT,j.D.STeEN,C-orl[r»L<l 


'E    GAMES     COMMITTEE 
5ttN50N,  Gen'l  Staff,  Chairman. 
■ooDPiicH,  Gem'l  3tafp, Vice- Chairman 

rOL.TC.LONEflGAN,  GenV  vStAFF. 

E.5.5nowN,  Y.M.C.A 
.W^.ReynolD3,YM.CA. 


THE    Games      Committee 

Iart.  Richard  H  VValdoJnf. 

1  J.J. McCow^iLLF,  iNF     Assistant 

lEUT.  R.E     MlCKEL       C.OF    E. 

.HlNKLEY,Y.  M£/\.    Treo^urer 


Aoi/isoryGcjmmittee  Interallied    Games 

„        „  AMERICA 

BM6    GIN    H  B    FISK8  BRIG.Gei(.W.W.H<RIi,  C>l«IIINAIt. 

AUSTRALIA 

Lt.  Col  C.V.WATSON.    D    SO.  MAJ.  5  A.  MIPOLETON     OSO 

BELGIUM  ' 

MAJ  R0AUFBE5NEr)tiACHE»«LEfllE 
BRAZIL 


LT-COL.  E.  MARTIN 
MAJ.  BRfANT 

LT  cbL  vwes ,  C6.e. 

Brig  GLti.  S.J.  LIANG. 
Nm.FIERLINSER 
LT.  Col.  SEE.vim-Chaibmm 
MAJ  B.C.HARTLET 
M«J  SEORdE  KILIAS 
OR   RODOLFO   ROBLES 
MR.AOUMI    ABOUL-HAPI 
COL  ARTURO    LEOME 
UAJ-  J  A   CAMEflOIV 


CANADA 

MAJ.  NAD.  ARMSTROHG    ORE 
CHINA 

BRIO.Gtri .  P  T    04N 
ClECriO-6LOVAKIA 

Capt.  Swutnt 

FRANCE 

MAj.BAI^BIER 
CREAT-BRITAIN 


LT.JEAN    R02IS 
GUATEMALA 


ITALY 

MAJ,  AMOREA  ■  GA6TALPI 
NEW  2EALAWP 


f/ElVFOUNDLA/<0 

POLANP 
PORTUQAL 
Capt.A.MASCA^ENHASccMENEZES        LT    MARIO  OA  CUN HA 

LT.  COL.V,  I.  BAIHJLESCU  CART.  HORACE    ERE^llE 

.SERBIA 

Capt.  AMPR.itch lt.matitch 

HAJ  L  HIIMIIIl    i».«.etunHm 


Liaison   Section 
,D.|Vl.GooDF?icH  ,  Oen'l 

J.L,B.  ROGERS  ,    M.  C. 
FT,  W.  W  HOYT,     M.C 


Staff. 


I 


Brazil 

PTC, A   SORDON,  F.fl. 


J«MES  GOULO   f-fl. 


PT  STHONG.CofI. 


ifCHO-  Slovakia 

R-ft-TOWMSeNO,  FA- 


K.F(«LETTEft,f;A. 


GftEEce 
C  O.SREN'VGfl.Co^I' 


Guatemala 
J.B  CARROtL   A  S 


1. 


Sencral    Section 
Lt.Col.JA.McDermott  ,  Inf. 


hIUjTT 

LT    TH     JONN3TOM,/l    S 

ir,^Lr 

.T.A.M.C,Mt»*»TeR,C«..I 

NEW     ZEALAND 

C*^T  WiLi.  iH*f(\OTH  r.A 

POuANO 
I.T.NELSON    fELL,fl.S- 

Post USA L 
LT.H.J    terror*, F.A. 

HiTWMAMlA 

C*PT  WO.SILSBEE.FA. 

Serbia 

CAPT   J   e   BflSEV.i. 

Newfoundland 

C*Pr.  JAMES  Gou«J),F-fl. 

APT  J  A  roui^noiir./.a.nmn    (.r.  L.J.  l.eT(H««eAu,i«F(5i.) 


APT.  A  M.MliMH,A  A  S.-M  C. 

ftPT  tarouaNO,  INF- 

r.  aS.CORBOT,  (wF. 
'.  J.J.  HAGERTr,  INF. 

■  WH.nAMlTOH,F:fl. 


LT.i(UR.lOO6Ha0IIO0ftK.  IMF, 
n.F.ff-Ml\.l£lt.l'1F[R-'\MtnA[ 
LT.  UD.  WOUOMiPqE,  A.  0.  C  (Ausja 
tr,  W J HEU) .  FA,  if B.A<«cei 
l.T.J.D.STEEN,C-Ofl(irALr) 


Receptions  8^   Entertainments 

CoL.JWBfACHAW 

Lt  Col.  Paul  W^T50H,    FA, 
Capt  6-H. Butler  ,  Inf. 
Mn  Walter  M- Bef^RY.Y.MCA. 


X 


JL 


I 


CEREMON)e66(  Parades 
MAJof\  J.B.Wo6AN  ,  Inf. 
Capt.  A. C. Smith  ,  Inf. 
1st.  Lt.N.M.Mumter.Inf. 
Mk.J.K.Croft  ,YfVI.C.A. 


X 


Pf^I  Z  E  3 

Mftj.GCWooDRuFF,  Inf 

CAPr.W.B-5PARK5.AG.D. 

stLtCRoomeXav. 


Press  B{  Publicity 
Maj.  5.A.  Greenwell.S-C 
Maj. O.J.  Watts,  A.G.D 
I5tLt3.Frohman,Q.M.C. 
MkIV  Unmack.Y.M.CA. 


X 


Distribution  of  Tickets 
CAPr.W.  Oelanet  A.Q.O 
Capt.  H.S. Warner. CofE. 
Capt.E.H.Spencer.Inf. 


ftecEPTtONS  e(.   Entert-^imment     of 
competing  athletes  fl[   orfiaALS 

RECEPTION  OF   REPRESENTATfVes. 
ftiSISTANCE  TOATHL£TIC(^EPfieSENTATI/E5RC&AB0ING 
ME&SINQ,QUAftTER5,TflAINma  SftOUMOS. 
TRANSPORTATION  -  FfEFRESHMENTS    ON    the 
(^HOUNOJ . 


All  CetEMONiEs  ,  Parades  ,  FuNCTior»s, Fetes 

IN  COKNEpnON   VltTH    DEDICATION   DAY.  OPENIMQ - 

DAY,  AWARD  or  PRJ2ES     ETC 
COURTESJES    DUtOFFCiAU  VISITORS, GOvERN|ttE^fT 

OFFICIALS, ETC 

DECORATION    OF  5TAD1UM  ■  ANO.    SROUNOs 

Music -BANOS. 


Desiqn  Fok  Official 

Medals  ,  I>ipl.oma5 

Special  Awabdj  ,  Badges 

ConrRACTSFOR  the  aBov^ 

TROPHiEi  ,e'MBuCM3 . 


Pj^iNTiNQ    ,   Advertising 
publicity 
Daily        Programs 
Official  Posters 

PftEhS    &     PHOTOeRAPMY 
CeNEHAL   jriTER-ALLlED    QaMES 

PRoqRAM 

InpormAtiom   Bureaus 


Di6TOFAOW3SIOrt     T>CKETi 
05MERS  ,  OflTEMEN 

IN&TRWCTION    OF    WME 

fJuMS£R5  Si  Arrangement 

OF  Seats 
Motor    Paj?<  g,  Roao  Traffic 

«T     Stawu'vi 


82  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

attracted  two  entries  to  become  an  official  event  and  any  spoi-t  in 
which  there  was  only  one  entry  to  be  an  exhibition  event.  Arrange- 
ments were  made  to  allow  any  country  to  demonstrate  a  sport  in  which 
there  was  no  other  entry. 

By  this  comprehensive  plan  a  country  needed  only  to  find  a  com- 
petitor to  have  its  favorite  sport  made  an  official  event.  The  long-drawn 
discussions  which  preceded  each  of  the  Olympic  Games  were  thus 
avoided  and  no  country  was  unduly  favored.  This  method  of  select- 
ing sports  for  a  big  competition  had  never  before  been  used  in  America 
or  Europe  but  the  plan  had  been  devised  by  the  Y.M.G.A.  in  the 
course  of  development  of  the  Far  Eastern  Games  and  had  been  found 
satisfactory  in  these  competitions  several  years  before  the  Great  War. 

The  Games  Committee  was  willing  at  all  times  to  consider  sugges- 
tions concerning  changes  or  interpretations  of  the  rules.  In  fact, 
the  rules  that  finally  governed  the  games  were  developed  rather  than 
adopted  arbitrarily.  The  rules  that  governed  the  leading  highly 
developed  sports,  such  as  football,  tennis,  fencing  and  baseball  were 
those  which  governed  in  the  countries  or  organizations  that  had 
specialized  in  these  sports.  This  was  true  in  all  but  the  great  sport 
of  boxing.  In  this  case  the  rules  were  adopted  which  had  been  used 
in  the  American  Army  since  boxing  was  made  a  leading  sport  of  the 
United  States  troops  in  France.  They  were  called  "  The  American 
Expeditionary  Force  Rules ."  They  had  been  found  highly  satis- 
factory and  contained  only  a  few  slight  modifications  from  the  usual 
Marquis  of  Queensbury  rules. 

In  Cricket  the  Marylebone  Cricket  Club  rules  of  England  governed. 
The  Fencing  contests  were  governed  by  the  1913  rules  of  the  Federa- 
tion Nationale  d'Escrime.  The  last  Olympic  Games  before  the  war 
contributed  the  rules  that  regulated  the  Rifle  and  Pistol  competition, 
with  very  slight  changes  to  meet  conditions.  Tennis  was  governed 
by  the  International  rules.  America's  contribution  in  the  form  of 
rules  to  govern  important  sports  naturally  included  baseball  and  Ameri- 
can intercollegiate  football. 

The  youngster  among  athletic  events  that  made  its  first  appear- 
ance at  the  Inter-Allied  Games  was  Hand-Grenade  Throwing.  This 
event  had  created  considerable  discussion  before  the  Games,  and 
attracted  much  interest  during  their  progress.  Those  who  had  not 
familiarized  themselves  with  the  rules  that  were  to  govern  the  event 
were  surprised  to  see  some  of  the  contestants,  especially  the  Americans, 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  83 

throwing  the  grenade  much  as  they  would  hurl  a  baseball  from  the 
outfield  into  the  diamond. 

When  hand-grenade  throwing  first  began  to  play  an  important 
part  in  the  Great  War  the  bombs  were  usually  hurled  from  the  narrow 
confines  of  a  deep  trench.  The  ideal  form  for  such  a  throw  was  thought 
to  be  a  long,  sweeping  arm  motion  with  the  elbow  held  almost  rigid 
both  to  save  the  arm  and  to  avoid  the  danger  of  the  grenade  not 
clearing  the  trench.  When  the  United  States  entered  the  war  the 
American  soldiers  were  taught  to  throw  the  grenade  in  this  manner, 
but  they  had  strong  opinions  of  their  own  on  the  matter  and  event- 
ually proved  that  they  could  throw  accurately  a  long  distance  from 
the  depths  of  a  trench  with  the  arm  motion  so  commonly  associated 
with  baseball. 

In  view  of  this  contention  on  the  part  of  the  American  soldiers 
the  rules  that  governed  the  Hand-Grenade  event  permitted  the  use 
of  either  arm  and  any  form  preferred  by  the  contestant.  The  grenade 
used  was  the  French  F-1  weighing  600  grs.  loaded.  The  competitors 
were  allowed  a  run  to  the  scratch  line  if  they  chose.  The  throwing 
was  done  from  the  field  and  the  grenade  was  not  thrown  over  any 
obstruction. 

The  great  ideal,  the  real  object  of  the  introduction  of  athletics 
into  the  American  overseas  Army,  was  not  lost  to  view  by  the  Games 
Committee  in  making  up  the  program.  This  ideal  was,  "Every 
Man  in  the  Game."  Every  event  that  could  possibly  be  included 
was  made  an  official  event.  The  object  sought  by  the  Games  Com- 
mittee was  many  entries  rather  than  extraordinary  records  although 
everything  possible  was  done  to  aid  in  the  establishing  of  new  athletic 
records. 

As  a  result  of  the  no-winner  plan  teams  from  countries  that  had 
never  known  some  of  the  official  events  were  entered  to  compete 
against  countries  that  had  speciahzed  for  years  in  those  particular 
games.  Many  of  the  countries  wanted  to  introduce  certain  games 
among  their  people.  With  nothing  to  lose  by  entering  a  team  they 
gained  by  actual  experience.  Men  from  countries  in  which  basketball, 
for  example,  had  never  been  played,  competed  against  some  of  the 
very  best  players  from  America  where  the  game  originated  and  had 
become  a  specialized  winter  sport. 


CHAPTER  IV 

HOW  THE  TEAMS  WERE  SELECTED  AND  TRAINED 
FOR  THE  GAMES 


iTALLY  military  as  were  the  Inter-Allied  Games  from 
many  aspects,  the  imprint  of  the  great  World  War  upon 
their  character  is  nowhere  brought  more  forcefully  to  the 
attention  than  through  a  study  of  the  difficulties  encoun- 
tered in  the  selection  of  the  national  teams  and  in  the  training  of  the 
individual  competitors. 

The  effects  of  the  war  and  its  four  years  of  tragedy  were  manifest 
when  the  roll  of  each  nation's  athletes  was  studied  in  the  days  during 
which  the  teams  were  being  formed.  Following  the  names  of  scores  of 
brilliant  performers  in  previous  world  meets  were  the  words  "  Killed  in 
Action"  or  "  Died  for  Country."  Where  the  answer,  "here,"  came, 
to  the  roHcall,  only  too  often  it  was  followed  by  the  discovery  of  battle 
scars  which  had  made  of  the  former  star  merely  an  onlooker  in  this 
and  coming  great  meets.  And  finally,  even  those  ultimately  selected 
for  the  teams  found  that  the  years  spent  in  trenches  and  in  camp  had 
sapped  their  strength  and  stiffened  muscles  which  formerly  responded 
electrically  to  the  demands  of  strenuous  competition. 

The  United  States,  having  suffered  smaller  losses  than  her  sisters 
among  the  Allies,  found  less  formidable  difficulties  to  surmount  than 
those  which  were  experienced  by  such  nations  as  France  and  the 
British  Dominions.  The  sportsmen  of  little  Serbia,  torn  by  eight 
years  of  Balkan  strife  and  world  conflict,  found  themselves  engaged 
in  a  practically  hopeless  task  when  they  sought  athletes  for  the  Games. 
Czecho-Slovakia,  her  people  ground  down  for  many  generations  by 
Austrian  autocracy,  had  fostered  an  ancient  gymnastic  tradition  but 
had  long  been  prohibited  by  law  from  reahzing  her  desire  to  participate 
in  athletics  and  sports. 

But  there  was  one  feature,  distinctly  military,  which  aided  rather 
than  retarded  the  process  of  selection  and  training.  This  was  the 
policy  in  practically  every  Allied  Army,  of  promoting,  through  mili- 
tary channels,  a  program  of  athletics  and  of  sports  competition  among 
all  soldiers.     Not  only  was  this  element  of  mihtary  activity  responsible 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  85 

for  opening  up  an  avenue  for  experienced  athletes  to  exercise  their 
talents,  but  in  some  instances,  rare  to  be  sure,  it  developed  new  stars 
capable  of  competing  for  places  on  an  Olympic  team.  This  was 
particularly  true  in  the  American  Army  where  an  athletic  program 
was  a  very  vital  part  of  the  early  training  of  the  soldier  and  also  of 
his  entire  army  life.  During  the  early  part  of  America's  participation 
in  the  world  conflict  athletics  were  largely  under  the  control  and 
supervision  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  whose  Athletic  Director  did  much  toward 
establishing  the  firm  foundation  for  future  development  of  all  types 
of  sports  and  games  in  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  and  among 
the  troops  in  the  United  States.  Later  the  publication  of  G.  0.  No.  241 
established  a  cooperative  arrangement  between  the  Army  and  the 
Y.M.C.A.  substantially  the  same  as  that  under  which  the  Inter- 
Alhed  Games  were  later  conducted.  The  A.  E.  F.  competitions, 
which  took  place  after  the  signing  of  the  Armistice,  were  carried  out  in 
accordance  with  this  arrangement. 

The  eligibility  requirement  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  carrying 
with  it  the  restrictions  that  the  competitors  must  be  men  who  were 
still  wearing,  or  had  worn,  the  military  uniform  of  one  of  the  Allied 
nations,  brought  about  the  adoption,  in  practically  every  instance, 
of  a  system  of  selecting  athletes  entirely  different  from  that  which 
had  been  adopted  in  previous  world  meets.  Since  the  date  of  the 
Games  was  known  only  months — instead  of  years  as  is  usual  in 
case  of  great  meets — before  its  actual  staging,  teams  had  to  be 
chosen  and  trained  quickly.  America  and  the  British  Dominions 
were  also  faced  with  the  contingency  that  the  meet  would  keep  soldiers 
in  France  after  their  normal  date  of  demobihzation.  Even  the  attrac- 
tion of  a  world's  athletic  meet  was  not  sufficient  in  many  cases  to 
persuade  athletes  to  forego  for  a  time  their  homeward  trip.  For  this 
reason  the  contending  nations  were  necessarily  sometimes  repre- 
sented by  athletes  inferior,  on  the  basis  of  previous  performances,  to 
others  who  might  have  borne  their  colors  in  some  of  the  important 
events.  America  practically  overcame  this  handicap  by  returning 
to  France  several  athletes  who  had  gone  home  and  by  adding  to  this 
contingent  a  number  of  Army  athletes  who  had  never  had  the  oppor- 
tunity to  come  overseas  during  the  two  years  of  the  United  States' 
participation  in  the  war. 

The  story  of  the  selection  and  training  of  the  athletes  of  the  coun- 
tries which  participated  in  the  world's  meet  brings  to  light  interesting 
histories  similar  in  no  two  instances. 


86  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Guatemala  could  not  obtain  ocean  transportation  to  bring  her 
athletes  to  France.  Lt.  Aguirre,  a  Guatemalan  who  had  earned  a 
reputation  as  a  sprinter  while  a  student  in  his  native  country,  was 
studying  in  Paris  at  the  time  the  Games  were  projected,  although 
he  had  not  been  in  training  for  many  months.  Captain  Ydigoras 
and  Dr.  Robles  of  the  Guatemalan  Peace  Commission  selected  Aguirre 
as  the  sole  member  of  their  nation's  team  and  he  carried  the  Republic's 
colors  in  the  100-meter  sprint  on  the  opening  day  of  competition. 

New  Zealand's  team,  though  small,  was  the  result  of  a  carefully 
laid  plan  of  selection  and  training.  Immediately  after  the  Armistice 
the  Commanding  General  of  the  New  Zealand  Expeditionary  Forces 
appointed  Major  J.  A.  Cameron  to  take  charge  of  an  athletic  program 
for  the  whole  New  Zealand  forces.  A  definite  program  was  outlined 
which  had  for  its  principal  intent  the  encouraging  of  all  types  of  athletics 
and  sports  competitions  during  the  period  when  the  New  Zealand 
soldiers  were  to  be  in  the  English  demobilization  camps.  Inasmuch 
as  athletics  had  been  widely  cultivated  and  competition  had  been 
keen  in  New  Zealand  in  pre-war  days,  sports  in  the  twelve  demobilization 
camps  to  which  New  Zealand  troops  were  assigned  immediately  took 
definite  shape.  Major  Cameron  was  able,  in  view  of  the  comparatively 
small  number  of  troops  under  his  jurisdiction,  to  become  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  the  performances  of  the  best  of  the  New  Zealand 
athletes  then  in  the  camps.  At  the  time  of  the  Armistice  it  was 
expected  that  demobihzation  would  be  a  matter  of  eight  or  ten  months 
and  in  order  adequately  to  care  for  the  program  an  Athletics  Officer 
was  appointed  for  the  New  Zealand  soldiers  in  each  demobilization 
depot.  So,  when  the  word  came  that  New  Zealand  would  enter  a  team 
in  the  Inter-AUied  Games,  the  problem  was  not  difficult.  On  the 
basis  of  competition  the  men  for  the  New  Zealand  track  and  field 
team  were  picked  in  the  month  of  January,  1919,  and  immediately 
went  into  training  at  Stamford,  England.  There  they  were  given 
many  advantages,  staying  at  their  Enghsh  training  grounds  until  the 
latter  part  of  the  week  just  preceding  the  Games.  They  then  came 
to  France  and  were  quartered  for  a  day  or  two  at  Colombes  Stadium, 
later  moving  to  Pershing  Stadium.  The  crew  which  represented 
New  Zealand  was  picked  in  March,  1919,  and  used  as  its  training  area, 
Putley,  England.  On  30  April  the  New  Zealanders  rowed  against 
the  American  crew  on  the  Seine  and  bested  the  United  States.  The 
other  competitive  race  in  which  they  rowed  during  their  period  of  train- 
ing was  on  21  June  at  the  Marlow  Regatta  in  England,  where  they 


88  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

were  again  winners.     The  New  Zealand  single  sculler  won  his  event 
at  this  regatta  in  his  preparation  for  the  Games  competition, 

Italy's  participation  in  this  Military  Olympiad  was  to  a  striking 
degree  the  result  of  American  influence.  Training  in  the  Italian  Army 
did  not  include  a  program  of  athletic  competition  until  after  America 
entered  the  war.  When  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  first 
entered  Italy  with  a  view  of  fighting  beside  other  Allies  on  that  front, 
the  soldiers  were  accompanied  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  athletic  directors, 
together  with  their  equipment  and  their  system  of  competitions. 
Italian  Army  officers  immediately  became  interested  and  asked  for 
the  introduction  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  ideas  and  systems  into  the  Italian 
Army.  The  request  was  granted  and  immediately  met  with  tremen- 
dous success.  Basketball  was  introduced  to  the  Itahan  soldier  for 
the  first  time  in  his  life  and  the  result  was  the  selection  of  a  basket- 
ball team  for  the  Games.  This  team  was  entered  for  the  purpose  of 
competition  only  and  not  with  any  idea  of  winning  the  meet  against 
the  admittedly  superior  American  team. 

The  track  and  field  team  for  the  Games  was  chosen  by  means  of 
an  elimination  meet  which  was  held  at  the  athletic  college  near  San 
Remo  on  the  Riviera.  At  this  meet  the  winners  of  similar  elimination 
competitions  in  various  parts  of  Italy  where  the  Armies  were  stationed 
came  together  for  the  final  selection.  Immediately  upon  completion 
of  this  meet  the  chosen  athletes  went  into  a  period  of  training  which 
kept  them  in  Italy  until  the  final  week  before  the  Games.  They 
then  came  to  Colombes  Stadium  for  a  day  of  limbering  up  before 
joining  the  camp  at  Pershing  Stadium. 

The  officers  who  represented  Italy  in  the  horse  events  were  chosen 
on  the  basis  of  previous  performances  in  competitions  which  have 
made  the  Italian  cavalry  famous  the  world  over.  The  Nadi  brothers 
and  the  others  on  the  fencing  team  were  chosen  in  the  same 
way.  The  impression  among  the  Italians  previous  to  the  meet  that 
it  was  to  be  distinctively  an  amateur  event  had  resulted  in  the  barring 
of  professional  fencers.  Had  this  impression  not  prevailed  an  elimi- 
nation competition  would  have  been  held  which  would  have  resulted 
in  the  selection  of  several  notable  professional  Italian  fencers  of  inter- 
national reputation.  The  selection  of  the  wrestling  team  was  made 
easy  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  this  sport  had  always  been  promoted 
and  fostered  in  Italy.  The  Italian  swimmers  were  selected  at  a  com- 
petitive match  held  at  Lake  Como  where  the  competition  for  the 
selection    of   the    rowing    crews   was    also    held.     The    team   which 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  89 

represented  Italy  for  the  Games  shooting  matches  at  Le  Mans  was 
selected  as  a  result  of  a  large  shooting  match  held  at  Turin.  It 
practiced  for  two  weeks  before  coming  to  France. 

Czecho-Slovakia,  her  armies  still  in  the  field  against  several  menac- 
ing forces,  was  deprived  of  many  of  her  best  athletes  by  the  Army 
order  keeping  them  at  the  front.  Furthermore,  the  new  nation  found 
it  difficult  to  readjust  her  athletic  scheme  quickly  so  as  to  put  teams 
into  the  field  for  the  Games.  The  boycott  against  Czech  athletics, 
aimed  particularly  by  the  Austrian  rulers  against  soccer  and  rowing, 
had  resulted  in  the  suppression  of  the  sport  instinct  among  a  people 
normally  sport-loving.  But  in  spite  of  these  adverse  conditions  this 
new  nation  put  a  comparatively  large  team  of  competitors  into  the 
Games.  The  soccer  team,  the  famous  Prague  squad  which  had  been 
boycotted  by  the  Austrians  from  1908  to  1918,  represented  the  nation 
in  that  competition  and  won  the  championship.  It  was  the  same 
type  of  team  which,  in  spite  of  the  Austrian  edict,  won  the  amateur 
championship  of  Europe  at  Roubaix,  France,  in  1911,  beating  the 
Enghsh  team  in  the  finals  by  a  score  of  2  to  1. 

Because  of  a  dearth  of  experienced  trainers  and  coaches  the  Czechs 
have  never  had  any  large  number  of  skilled  competitors  for  track  and 
field.  The  athletes  who  were  entered  in  those  events  for  the  Games 
had  won  their  reputations  in  local  competitions.  The  rowing  crews 
were  the  result  of  a  similarly  arbitrary  method  of  selection.  The 
tennis  players  came  to  the  Games  without  having  had  any  training 
principally  because  there  have  been  no  tennis  balls  in  their  country 
since  the  war  broke  out  in  1914.  In  fencing  the  Czechs  have  won 
honors  in  many  previous  world's  competitions  and  the  selection  of 
the  fencers  for  the  Games  was  made  from  a  comparatively  large  number 
of  possible  competitors  among  Army  officers. 

France  thoroughly  combed  her  active,  reserve  and  demobilized 
forces  for  the  athletes  to  uphold  the  Tricolor  in  the  Games.  With 
the  great  meet  scheduled  for  the  French  capital,  the  Ministry  of  War 
determined  that  representatives  of  France  should  be  in  practically 
every  sport.  The  result  of  this  determination  was  that  one  of  the 
largest  groups  of  competitors  came  from  France.  The  actual  selection 
of  the  participants  was  made  through  a  process  of  elimination  contests 
and  a  final  choice  accomplished  by  representatives  of  the  Section 
d'Education  Physique  whose  efforts  were  chiefly  bent  toward  assuring 
every  possible  athlete  an  opportunity  to  qualify  for  a  team  which 
eventually   competed.     A    distinguished   soldier.    Lieutenant    Colonel 


90  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAiMES    —    1919 

Fernand  See,  was  appointed  by  the  Ministry  ot  War  to  cooperate 
with  the  many  athletic  federations  in  gathering  the  athletes  and  in 
directing  France's  participation  in  the  Games. 

By  reason  of  this  thorough  and  carefully-planned  scheme,  France 
was  able  to  put  into  the  field  the  best  of  the  track  and  field  men  in 
her  Armies.  The  ranks  of  French  athletes  had  been  terribly  depleted 
by  the  World  War  and  many  of  the  men  who  did  actually  appear  in 
the  various  events  bore  the  marks  of  wounds  received  in  battle.  Three 
distinct  channels  of  obtaining  track  and  field  men  were  used  in 
making  up  the  teams.  The  athletes  of  the  Regular  Army  on  active 
service  met  in  an  ehmination  meet  at  Colombes  in  May  and  by  means 
of  this  competition  the  best  were  chosen  and  put  into  training  for  a 
later  selection. 

At  St.  Cloud  on  15  May  a  meet  was  held  for  the  athletes  from  the 
Army  of  the  Interior  and  the  best  were  chosen.  The  demobilized 
men  trained  during  this  period  at  the  many  athletic  clubs  throughout 
France  and  were  later  selected  by  the  officials  of  the  clubs  to  compete 
in  the  final  selection  meet  held  at  Colombes  Stadium  on  15  June. 
This  meet  was  equal  in  interest  to  the  American  selection  meet  on  the 
same  field  later  in  the  same  week  and  was  watched  by  a  large  crowd 
of  spectators.  The  winners  in  this  meet  were  announced  as  the 
members  of  the  French  team  and  were  put  in  training  at  Joinville- 
le-Pont. 

The  champion  French  Army  soccer  team  and  the  champion  Rugby 
team  had  been  determined  long  before  the  date  of  the  Games  by 
reason  of  successive  victories  in  the  army  and  even  over  teams  of  other 
nations.  Three  squads  were  further  strengthened  for  the  Games 
matches  by  players  sent  to  the  training  camps  by  the  football  federa- 
tion which  picked  some  of  the  most  promising  players  from  other 
units  in  the  army.  The  basketball  team  was  made  up  from  the  players 
who  had  shown  the  most  aptitude  for  the  game  during  the  brief  time 
it  had  been  played  in  the  French  Army.  The  team  was  entered  not 
for  the  purpose  of  winning  laurels  for  the  French  but  because  of  the 
desire  to  have  competitors  in  as  many  events  as  possible  and  also  in 
order  to  acquire  a  further  knowledge  of  the  new  sport.  The  tug-of- 
war  team  was  arbitrarily  chosen  for  the  same  reason  and  its  personnel 
was  taken  from  among  the  artillerymen  of  the  83rd  Regiment  which 
was  stationed  near  Paris  at  the  time  of  the  Games.  The  biggest  men 
in  the  Regiment  were  chosen  and  given  as  thorough  a  course  of  train- 
ing as  was   possible  under  the  conditions.     The  basketball  team  was 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  91 

later  brought  to  the  same  training  grounds  after  it  had  finished  its 
practice  at  Royen  near  Bordeaux. 

The  French  swimmers  were  selected  from  among  the  Army  stars 
and  were  reinforced  by  men  sent  to  the  squad  by  the  Swimming  Feder- 
ation. The  tank  men  trained  for  the  Games  races  at  Piscine  de  la 
Gure.  The  French  fencers  were  picked  in  the  same  manner,  both 
active  and  demobilized  officers  having  an  opportunity  to  become 
members  of  the  squad  which  went  into  training  at  Joinville,  the  scene 
of  the  majority  of  the  fencing  competitions  during  the  Games.  For 
the  horse-riding  competition  the  various  armies  sent  their  best  riders 
to  the  great  military  school  at  Saumur  and  there  the  final  selection 
was  made  and  the  training  conducted. 

Next  to  the  United  States,  France  probably  had  the  most  effective 
system  for  selecting  participants  in  the  rifle  and  pistol  competitions. 
Elimination  contests  were  begun  in  April  throughout  the  French 
Armies.  In  May  the  200  topmost  marksmen  were  sent  to  Gamp  de 
Genottes,  near  Orleans,  where,  after  another  month's  ehminations, 
the  actual  contestants  were  selected.  Several  pistol-shooting  societies, 
composed  of  French  war  veterans,  also  sent  representatives  to  the 
Genottes  match,  some  of  whom  eventually  made  the  international 
team. 

For  the  crews  the  squad  collected  from  the  armies  was  added  to 
by  the  men  sent  up  from  the  Federation  and  the  best  eight  men  were 
selected  to  represent  France. 

The  Hedjaz,  though  not  represented  in  the  actual  competition  of 
the  Games,  sent  a  delegation  of  fifteen  men  to  exhibit  the  type  of  com- 
petition most  popular  in  their  Armies.  The  horsemen  were  Arabs 
and,  like  the  rest  of  the  Hedjaz  representatives,  were*  chosen  by  Gen- 
eral Noury-Sred.  The  eight  men  who  gave  an  exhibition  of  sword 
dancing  were  picked  from  the  reserve  forces  of  the  army  while  the  camel 
riders  and  their  mounts  were  selected  from  among  the  best  in  the 
two  camel-mounted  regiments  in  the  Arabian  army.  These  regiments 
are  equipped  chiefly  for  machine-gun  and  light-artillery  combat. 

Greece  trained  her  Games  competitors  in  the  great  stadium  which 
had  been  in  1906  the  scene  of  an  Olympiad  such  as  was  held  centuries 
ago  when  Greece  was  supreme  in  the  athletic  world.  The  selection 
of  her  competitors  was  carefully  made  and  thoroughly  carried  out. 
As  soon  as  the  mihtary  authorities  reached  their  decision  to  enter  the 
Inter-AHied  Games  an  order  was  sent  to  all  army  corps  to  select  the 
best  in  each  sport  and  to  report  their   names  to   headquarters.     By 


92  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

this  means  a  designated  number  of  aspirants  for  the  teams  were  selected 
from  each  of  the  regiments  of  the  Greek  Army  in  the  two  zones  of  oper- 
ation, Western  and  Eastern.  Those  from  the  Western  Zone  were 
sent  to  Salonica  for  preliminary  training  while  those  from  the  East- 
ern Zone  went  to  Athens  and  the  stadium  there.  When  the  period  of 
prehminary  training  had  been  completed  the  whole  number  was  con- 
centrated in  the  stadium  and  went  through  a  final  training  course 
lasting  one  month.  An  ehmination  meet  was  held  and  the  best  three 
men  for  each  event  in  the  track  and  field  contest  were  nominated  for 
the  team  to  go  to  Paris. 

The  selection  of  the  soccer  team  was  not  difficult  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  only  a  few  players  were  found  in  the  Greek  Army.  There 
were  no  preliminary  eliminations  for  this  event,  but  the  men  with  the 
best  records  were  chosen  to  compose  the  squad.  The  fencers  were 
also  picked  men,  but  the  number  to  choose  from  was  large  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  fencing  had  been  for  many  years  a  popular  sport  among 
the  Greeks. 

The  Greek  entries  for  the  rifle  and  pistol  events  were  determined 
by  short  elimination  contests  held  within  each  line  regiment  and  by 
the  previous  records  of  some  marksmen  who  were  unable  to  take  part 
in  these  contests.  The  teams  practiced  for  ten  days  before  coming 
to  France. 

Belgium  adopted  a  simple  and  effective  way  of  selecting  her  compe- 
titors, a  committee  being  appointed  immediately  upon  the  decision 
to  enter  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  the  function  of  this  committee  being 
the  nomination  of  contestants.  This  committee  consisted  of  Majors 
Demarneffe  and  Dufresne,  Lieutenants  Chome  and  Boir,  Auditeur 
Anspach  and  the  Commanding  Officer  of  the  Camp  de  Beveloo,  each 
one  of  these  officers  having  particular  jurisdiction  of  some  certain 
sport.  This  committee  was  called  the  Comite  Sportive  de  I'Armee; 
its  members  were  all  army  officers  and  its  method  of  working  mili- 
tary. 

The  track  and  field  athletes  of  the  Belgian  Army  were  chosen  at 
a  large  preliminary  meet  held  on  11,  12  and  13  June  in  the  stadium  at 
Antwerp  which  is  to  be  the  scene  of  the  Olympic  of  1920.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  boxing  and  wrestling  team  were  chosen  in  a  tournament 
held  at  the  same  time  and  in  the  same  stadium.  The  Rugby  team 
which  represented  Belgium  was  the  one  which  had  played  in  Army 
games  as  a  unit  for  some  time  previous  to  its  Games  competition. 
During  its  training  for  the  Paris  contests  it  defeated  England  and  tied 


Top — The  Stadium  in  process  of  construction      Bottom — The  .Stadium  as  seen  from  airplane 

on   Opening  Day. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  95 

France  in  a  triangular  contest  held  in  England,  2  to  6  May  and  it 
also  defeated  Czecho-Slovakia  in  a  game  played  at  Rome  on  15  June. 
The  swimming  team  was  chosen  in  the  elimination  contests  at  Ant- 
werp, while  the  water  polo  team  which  later  won  the  Games  champion- 
ship was  the  same  one,  with  a  few  changes  made  necessary  because 
of  the  war,  which  won  the  Olympic  title  at  Stockholm  in  1912. 

Practically  every  regiment  in  the  Belgian  Army  sent  represent- 
atives to  the  Camp  de  Beveloo  to  compete  for  places  on  the  shooting 
team.  Eliminations  were  held  at  the  range  there  and  the  training 
was  staged  at  that  place  before  the  ^quad  finally  chosen  was  sent  to 
Le  ]\Ians  after  ten  days  practice  at  Beveloo.  The  members  of  the 
fencing  team  were  chosen  on  the  basis  of  past  records  of  fencing  con- 
tests in  Belgium  before  and  during  the  war.  The  competitors  trained 
at  Brussels  at  the  Ecole  d'Escrime  et  de  Gymnastique  during  the 
months  of  May  and  June.  The  horsemen  were  selected  after  an 
exhaustive  and  thorough  competition  at  Brussels  10  to  15  June. 

Canada,  because  of  its  plan  of  army  athletics,  similar  to  that  of 
the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  found  the  problem  of  selecting 
athletes  for  the  Games  easy  of  solution.  Competition  in  the  Canadian 
Expeditionary  Forces  had  consisted  in  a  large  measure  of  matches 
between  the  teams  of  the  different  Canadian  commands,  a  rivalry 
which  had  brought  to  the  forefront  the  best  athletes  among  the  offi- 
cers and  men.  So  when  the  call  went  out  for  men  to  remain  in  Europe 
for  the  Inter-AlHed  Games,  the  men  to  be  appealed  to  were  well  known 
and  easily  reached.  Many  of  those  who  volunteered  to  compete 
would  have  been  demobilized  long  before  the  date  of  the  Games. 
With  hardly  an  exception  the  athletes  who  competed  in  the  Games 
had  been  wounded  during  the  course  of  the  war. 

The  organization  which  had  been  responsible  for  athletics  during 
the  war  and  during  the  period  following  the  Armistice  furnished  the 
machinery  for  picking  the  Games  competitors.  This  organization  had 
as  its  head  the  Canadian  Military  Athletic  Association,  a  committee 
appointed  by  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  Canadian  Expeditionary 
Forces.  In  the  preparation  for  the  Inter-Allied  Games  this  committee 
was  composed  of  one  representative  from  each  branch  of  sport  m  the 
eight  Canadian  training  areas  in  England.  The  head  of  this  body 
was  Lieutenant  Colonel  H.  G.  Mayes,  for  several  years  the  tennis 
champion  of  Canada. 

The  track  and  field  team  was  selected  at  Seaford,  England,  7  May, 
when  a  championship  elimination  meet  was  held  in  which  the  best 


96  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

athletes  from  all  the  Canadian  forces  then  in  England  were  entered. 
The  contestants  finishing  in  the  first  three  places  in  the  various  events 
were  nominated  as  members  of  the  Canadian  track  and  field  team 
and  were  sent  into  training  at  Chiswick  Park  in  London,  The  tug-of- 
war  team  finally  picked  to  compete  in  the  Games  was  the  squad  of 
the  3rd  Canadian  Garrison  Artillery  attached  to  the  22nd  Corps  of  the 
1st  British  Army.  On  7  May  at  Seaford,  England,  it  won  the  right 
to  represent  Canada  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games  by  defeating  six  teams 
selected  from  the  training  areas. 

The  Canadian  soccer  team  which  played  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games 
was  an  all-star  squad  picked  from  the  best  in  the  Canadian  Army. 
The  team  of  the  27th  Battalion,  2nd  Canadian  Division,  won  the 
championship  of  the  Canadian  troops  in  France  in  a  series  of  games 
staged  to  determine  the  champion  combination.  Subsequently  this 
team  met  and  defeated,  at  Seaford,  England,  the  team  which  had 
won  the  championship  of  the  training  areas.  From  these  two  cham- 
pions an  all-Canadian  squad  was  chosen  for  the  Games.  The  baseball 
team  was  made  up  in  practically  the  same  way.  It  was  picked  through 
the  agency  of  a  league  composed  of  a  team  from  each  of  the  training 
areas  in  England.  At  Stamford  Bridge,  Chelsea,  on  13,  14  and 
15  May,  the  Ripon  Area  team  won  the  championship  by  defeating 
the  London  Area  nine.  From  the  rosters  of  the  competing  teams 
twenty  of  the  best  players  were  chosen  and  trained  as  a  team  for  the 
Inter-AUied  Games. 

The  Canadian  boxers  were  chosen  as  a  result  of  the  Canadian 
championship  matches  which  were  staged  in  March,  1919,  at  Witley, 
England.  The  winners  and  runners  up  in  these  contests  were  held 
for  training  and  later  appeared  in  the  Imperial  Boxing  Association 
championship  of  England  in  May.  The  Canadian  swimmers  were 
arbitrarily  picked  by  the  committee  in  charge  of  the  team,  the  choice 
being  based  on  past  performances  in  actual  competition.  A  complete 
elimination  tourney  resulted  in  the  selection  of  the  shooting  team. 
Each  training  area  held  a  match  to  choose  its  team  for  the  final  prac- 
tice and  competition  was  held  at  Bisley,  England.  The  survivors 
of  this  competitive  shoot  were  nominated  as  the  members  of  the  Cana- 
dian shooting  team  and  after  a  week's  practice  at  Bisley  were  sent  to 
Le  Mans  under  command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  WiUiam  Rae,  the 
commanding  officer  of  the  team. 

Portugal's  competitors  in  the  special  events  which  this  country 
entered  were  selected  on  the  basis  of  past  records.     Horsemanship 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  97 

and  fencing  have  long  been  emphasized  in  this  new  repubhc  and  the 
records  of  Army  officers  are  matters  of  universal  knowledge.  With 
these  records  as  a  basis  the  members  of  the  horse-riding  teams  and  of 
the  fencing  squads  were  picked  by  the  officials  in  charge.  The  same 
held  true  of  the  other  competitors  who  were  sent  to  the  Games. 

Australia  adopted  a  system  of  choosing  her  team  which  was  similar 
in  some  respects  to  that  followed  by  the  other  British  dominions. 
At  the  head  of  the  Australians  sports  system, during  the  war  and  after 
the  Armistice,  was  a  board  appointed  by  the  Commanding  General, 
known  as  the  Australian  Imperial  Forces  Sports  Board  of  Control. 
At  the  time  of  the  preparation  for  the  Inter-Allied  Games  the  board 
was  composed  of  two  members  from  the  Australian  Corps  in  France, 
one  member  from  the  demobilization  depots  in  England,  one  member 
from  Australian  Headquarters  in  London  and  one  member  from  the 
Austrahan  Comforts  Fund.  The  President  of  this  board  was  Brig. 
Gen.  Griffiths,  C.M.G.,  D.S.C.,  while  the  organizing  secretary  was 
Major  S.  A.  Middleton,  D.S.O.  This  board  was  convened  in  London 
in  January,  1919,  to  take  up  the  matter  of  entering  an  Austrahan  team 
in  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  The  system  determined  upon  called  for 
the  appointment  of  a  sports  officer  for  each  branch  of  athletics ;  this 
officer  to  be  one  who  had  a  thorough  knowledge  not  only  of  the  sport 
with  which  he  was  concerned  but  also  of  the  material  available  for 
that  sport.  Each  one  of  these  officers  was  given  full  discretion  in  the 
choice  of  men  to  represent  Australia. 

Lieutenant  Chalmers  had  charge  of  the  choice  of  the  track  and 
field  squad  and,  after  making  his  selection,  took  the  athletes  to  Her- 
nehill  Grounds,  London,  and  began  his  training  on  5  May.  In  June 
the  Marathon  runners  participated  in  the  British  Championship 
Marathon  at  Stamford  Bridge,  this  race  being  the  feature  event  of 
their  training  period.  Lieutenant  W.  Longworth,  an  Austrahan 
champion  swimmer,  was  given  the  task  of  making  up  a  tank  squad. 
He  had  a  large  number  of  titleholders  to  choose  from  and  after  gather- 
ing his  men  together  took  them  to  London  for  training  at  the  Royal 
Auto  Club  Baths.  Captain  G.  Coghill,  amateur  heavyweight  cham- 
pion of  Australia,  was  the  choice  of  the  board  as  supervisor  of  the 
boxing  and  wresthng  team.  The  many  bouts  which  had  held  the  center 
of  the  athletic  stage  in  the  Austrahan  Army  during  the  war  gave  to 
the  supervisor  a  sound  foundation  for  the  picking  of  his  team.  He 
took  the  men  to  Warwick  Square,  London,  in  the  middle  of  April  and 
began  a  careful  system  of  training  and  competition. 


98  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Huskies  from  all  parts  of  the  Australian  overseas  forces  were 
picked  by  Lieutenant  C.  Keliher  for  the  tug-of-war  squad.  The  nine 
men  who  represented  the  Dominion  averaged  213  pounds  per  man. 
The  squad  was  picked  early  in  May  and  on  25  May  went  into  training 
at  Queens  Club  in  London.  During  the  conditioning  process  a  match 
pull  was  held  with  the  London  Pohce  team,  the  Colonials  winning  all 
five  pulls  of  the  competition.  The  Austrahan  tennis  team,  which 
later  won  the  championship  in  the  Games,  was  chosen  by  Captain  R. 
Lycett.  He  took  as  his  mates  on  the  team  men  who  had  won  titles  in 
matches  in  Australia  in  pre-war  times. 

Serbia's  prospects  for  a  team,  at  the  time  when  the  decision  was 
first  made  to  enter  the  Inter-AHied  Games,  appeared  to  be  practically 
nil.  Torn  by  eight  years  of  almost  constant  warfare  and  brief  recon- 
struction, the  people  of  this  little  country  had  had  little  time  for 
promoting  and  encouraging  sports.  The  result  was  that  the  Comite 
Serbi-Croate-SIavine,  whose  duty  it  was  to  seek  out  and  name  Serbian 
competitors  for  the  Games,  had  to  go  back  eight  years  to  determine 
qualifications.  They  were  also  confronted  with  the  situation  that 
in  their  country  competitive  athletics  had  never  been  emphasized, 
the  passion  of  the  race  for  sports  having  been  satisfied  through  the 
medium  of  the  society  known  as  Sokol,  a  gymnastic  organization 
whose  function  called  for  the  training  and  exhibition  of  mass  calis- 
thenics. 

To  show  the  Allied  nations  this  form  of  athletics,  a  team  of  Sokols 
came  to  the  Games  for  exhibition  purposes.  And  in  addition  to  this 
team  a  duo  of  track  and  field  athletes  were  entered.  One  of  them 
was  entered  for  the  Pentathlon  competition  and  the  other  for  the 
100-meter  dash.  Neither  had  competed  in  their  events  since  a  large 
meet  in  Prague  in  1911  and  they  entered  the  Games  solely  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  Serbia's  colors  and  to  gain  experience  to  take 
back  to  their  native  country. 

Roumania  entered  track  and  field  events  and  several  of  the  other 
contests  for  somewhat  the  same  reason,  that  of  proving  to  the  AUies 
the  interest  of  Roumania  in  the  Games  and  for  the  purpose  of  learning. 
Track  and  field  sports  had  never  been  emphasized  in  Roumania 
previous  to  the  Games  and  the  entries  in  these  highly  specialized  events 
were  made  for  the  purpose  of  gaining  instruction  and  experience. 
During  the  training  period  of  the  Roumanians  in  Paris  before  the 
Games  they  asked  the  American  Committee  for  the  assistance  of  Y.M.C.  A. 


Top— Herbert   Hoover,  tJ.  S.  Food  Commissioner,  left,  and  U.  S.  Secretary  of  State  Robert 
A.  Lansing  at  the  Games.     Bottom — Y.  M.  C.  A.  girls  at  their  hut,  Pershing  Stadium. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  101 

coaches  and  trainers.  Two  of  the  best  men  on  the  staff  of  advisory 
coaches  were  assigned  to  this  duty  and  did  much  in  the  brief  time 
allowed  in  showing  to  the  Roumanians  the  reasons  for  American  success 
in  this  type  of  competition.  The  members  of  the  Roumanian  track 
and  field  team  were  picked  from  the  Army  by  Army  officers,  the  men 
chosen  being  those  expected  to  make  the  best  showing  and  to  be  capable 
of  developing  into  the  best  instructors  when  they  returned  to  Rou- 
mania.  The  fencers  and  the  horsemen  were  chosen  because  of  their 
past  records,  both  of  these  sports  having  been  prominent  in  the  Army 
for  many  years.  However,  the  fact  that  Germany  had  taken  all  the 
best  mounts  in  the  conquered  Balkan  country  militated  against  the 
entry  into  the  competition  of  the  best  possible  representation.  The 
Roumanian  tennis  players  who  were  available  were  ordered  to  compose 
the  team  and  they  took  part  in  the  Games  competition  with  practic- 
ally no  previous  training.  The  soccer  team  and  the  Rugby  squad 
were  picked  from  army  players,  those  men  being  chosen  who  had 
shown  the  most  aptitude  for  the  game.  Neither  of  these  games  had 
been  played  in  Roumania  more  than  three  years  before  the  war 
and  for  this  reason  the  players  had  never  engaged  in  competitions  of  a 
nature  to  make  trained  and  experienced  teams. 

While  the  Roumanian  participants  in  the  rifle  and  pistol  compe- 
titions were  selected  largely  on  the  basis  of  previous  reputation  for 
skill  as  marksmen — a  system  generally  not  so  productive  of  results 
as  special  ehminations — their  early  arrival  at  Belgian  Camp  enabled 
them  to  overcome  this  handicap  to  a  considerable  extent  by  careful 
practice.  The  Roumanian  entries  arrived  a  full  fortnight  before  the 
contest  began  and  after  a  trial  with  the  Springfield  rifle  decided  to  use 
that  arm  in  preference  to  their  own.  Accordingly  they  drew  Spring- 
fields  and  under  American  coaches  practiced  assiduously,  thus  gaining 
much  valuable  information  regarding  light,  visibility  and  weather 
conditions  pecuhar  to  the  d'Auvours  range. 

America,  sponsor  of  the  meet,  entered  the  Games  with  a  team 
selected  through  a  series  of  eliminations  which  combed  the  ranks  of 
the  two  million  soldiers  in  France  for  the  best  in  every  event.  It  was 
estimated  by  those  in  charge  of  the  selection  of  the  teams  that  more 
than  5,000  American  officers  and  soldiers  were  tried  out  for  places 
on  the  United  States  squad.  The  status  of  the  meet  and  of  the  par- 
ticipants were  put  on  a  firm  basis  through  general  orders  from  G.H.Q. 
and  the  athletes  and  those  in  charge  of  them  were  given  all  the  privi- 
leges and  power  necessary. 


102  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  system  of  elimination  contests  was  universally  followed  in 
determining  the  membership  of  the  teams  for  the  various  events. 
America  entered  one  or  more  athletes  in  every  event  on  the  program, 
whether  the  games  were  ones  well  known  to  Americans  or  not. 

Semi-final  and  final  elimination  meets,  following  a  large  number 
of  smaller  competitions,  constituted  the  scheme  of  selecting  athletes 
for  the  track  and  field  contests.  General  orders  authorized  the  remain- 
ing in  France  of  those  athletes  whose  organizations  were  embarking 
for  home. 

In  the  campaign  to  procure  the  strongest  possible  team  a  thorough 
canvass  of  the  American   Expeditionary  Forces  was  made  by  those 
acquainted  with  the  records  of  star  American  athletes.     These  men 
were  brought  to  Paris  where,  from  30  May  to  1  June,  over  600  athletes, 
the  survivors  of  divisional  and  army  meets  and  the  individual  choice 
of  officials,  contested  for  places  on  the  team.     At  that  time  approxi- 
mately 120  athletes  were  chosen   which   number   was  later  reduced 
to  80.     A  movement  was  then  started  to  bring  back  to  France  a  few 
of  the  A.E.F.  stars  who  had  already  returned  home.     This  agitation 
resulted  in  bringing  over  to  France  a  detachment  of  about  50  athletes, 
some  of  them  track  and  field  men,  some  tennis  players,  a  few  boxers 
and  wrestlers,   and  some  swimmers.     This  group  included  not  only 
men  who  had  formerly  been  in  the  A.E.F.  but  also  soldiers  who  never 
had  the  opportunity  to  win  the  gold  chevron.     To  place  the  best  of 
these  on  the  squad  another  selection  meet  was  held  the  week  before 
the  Games  and  the  men  winning  first,  second  and  third  places  were 
announced  as  the  team.     These  athletes  were  then  placed  under  the 
tutelage  of  Major  Dale  F.  McDonald  and  his  staff  of  Y.M.C.A.  coaches  : 
Pipal,  Wann,  Adams,  Finger  and  Cummings.     Harry  W.  Maloney,  as 
trainer,  was  responsible  for  the  conditioning  of  the  men.     He  kept 
the  survivors  of  the  first  elimination  contest  in  training  at  the  Colombes 
Stadium   and   continued   his   excellent  service  throughout  the  Inter- 
Alhed  Games. 

The  soccer  team  was  the  result  of  a  careful  study  of  the  best  teams 
of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  which  was  made  possible  through 
the  championship  tournament  held  at  Colombes  Stadium  in  Paris, 
12  to  15  May.  At  this  time  the  four  best  teams,  champions  of  their 
respective  sections  of  the  A.E.F.,  met  in  the  tourney  for  the  American 
championship.  From  these  four  teams.  Coach  Jack  McKenzie,  the 
Y.M.C.A.  man  in  charge  of  soccer,  chose  a  large  squad  of  the  best 
players  and  added  to  them  others  in  the  Expeditionary  Forces  who 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  103 

had  made  good  records  in  the  Army  matches  or  in  play  in  the  United 
States.  Eight  practice  games  were  played  at  the  stadium  during  the 
course  of  training,  three  with  the  French  team,  two  with  the  Rouma- 
nian team,  and  the  remainder  between  picked  teams  of  the  American 
squad.  The  Rugby  team  was  picked  in  much  the  same  way,  though 
the  elimination  process  was  simple  compared  to  that  of  soccer,  and  it 
was  necessary  for  the  players  to  be  recruited  to  the  squad  through 
the  individual  efforts  of  the  officers  in  charge  of  the  sport. 

The  swimming  team  was  organized  by  taking  the  winners  of  the 
elimination  meet  held  in  the  Mare  St.  James  in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne 
during  the  latter  part  of  May.  This  squad  was  strengthened  by  the 
addition  of  the  men  brought  over  from  the  United  States.  One 
further  elimination  meet  was  held  at  Neuweid  to  pick  the  Games 
entries.  The  basketball  team  was  a  composite  organization,  chosen 
by  Gapt.  Bennet  and  Goach  Zahn  of  the  Y.M.G.A.  from  among  the 
best  players  of  the  many  teams  which  competed  in  the  American 
Expeditionary  Forces  championship  meet.  The  training  of  this  team 
took  place  at  Golombes  and  at  Joinville. 

The  members  of  the  fencing  team  were  gathered  in  Paris  from 
among  the  best  known  fencers  with  West  Point  or  university  exper- 
ience. The  horsemen  were  chosen  by  elimination  from  among  men 
who  had  established  their  supremacy  in  America  in  the  days  before 
America's  entry  into  the  war. 

The  tennis  team  was  the  result  of  an  A.E.F.  championship  tour- 
nament held  on  the  Riviera  during  the  latter  part  of  February,  1919, 
and  the  golf  tourney  which  determined  both  the  American  champions 
and  the  Games  team  was  staged  at  the  Nice  Golf  Club,  also  on  the 
Riviera.  The  tug-of-war  huskies  were  picked  from  among  the  cham- 
pions of  the  many  tug-of-war  teams  in  the  various  divisions.  These 
candidates  were  brought  to  Golombes  Stadium  near  Paris  and  there 
many  matches  and  individual  tests  were  made  in  the  process  of  picking 
the  nine  men  to  pull  for  the  United  States. 

The  boxing  and  wrestUng  representatives  of  the  American  Army 
were  largely  those  who  earned  their  right  in  the  A.E.F.  finals.  They, 
however,  were  required  to  defend  their  titles  against  later  comers  and 
in  some  instances  substitutions  occurred. 

The  baseball  team  which  represented  the  United  States  was  the 
nine  of  the  American  Embarkation  Center,  the  champions  of  the  Amer- 
ican Expeditionary  Forces  in  the  diamond  tournament  held  just  pre- 
vious to  the  Games.     The  American  Embarkation  Center  team  was 


104  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

recruited  from  men  in  the  86th,  or  Blackhawk,  Division  and  carried 
the  name  of  "Blackhawks"  during  their  championship  play  in  the 
A.E.F. 

The  signal  American  victories  in  the  rifle  and  pistol  competitions 
are  a  trustworthy  reflection  of  the  careful  selection  and  painstaking 
training  of  the  American  participants.  Similarly  the  foreign  teams 
appeared  to  shoot  with  about  the  same  consistency  as  was  exercised 
in  their  selection  and  training.  No  nation  approached  the  United 
States  in  this  regard  and  never  in  the  range  annals  of  the  American 
Army  has  a  rifle  or  pistol  team  been  selected  from  so  great  a  field  of 
original  aspirants. 

The  American  entries  were  determined  after  three  stages  of  compe- 
tition, the  first  fo  which  were  the  preliminaries  for  the  A.E.F.  shoot 
which  began  in  February  and  were  concluded  the  last  of  April.  In 
these  400,000  men  participated,  every  organization  and  service  in  the 
overseas  forces  being  represented.  The  2,000  most  capable  trigger- 
squeezers  of  this  lot  participated  in  the  A.E.F.  matches  at  Belgian 
Camp  in  May.  This  match  constituted  the  second  elimination.  At 
its  conclusion  the  175  best  rifle  shots  and  the  75  highest  pistol  men 
were  retained  to  try  out  for  the  Inter-Allied  classic.  To  these  num- 
bers were  added  a  few  especially  qualified  and  known  shots  who  had 
not  fired  in  the  A.E.F.  meet. 

These  men  began  the  Inter-Allied  team  preliminaries  on  19  May 
and  continued  firing  every  day  in  all  weathers  until  20  June,  elimina- 
tions proceeding  all  the  while.  On  that  date  the  actual  teams,  twelve 
men  for  the  rifle,  ten  for  the  pistol,  and  the  lists  of  twenty-five  individ- 
ual competitors  with  each  weapon,  were  officially  announced. 

The  members  of  the  American  crew  were  picked  up  from  all  parts 
of  the  Army  gathered  in  Paris  and  there  made  into  a  crew.  Frequent 
changes  were  made  both  before  the  race  on  the  Seine  which  New  Zea- 
land won,  and  afterwards,  when  the  crew  went  to  England  to  train 
for  the  Henley  and  the  later  race  near  Paris. 


,r*--r..:-" 


Athletic   camp   at   Pershing    Stiuiium.    Top— Allied  row   showing  mess  halls   on   right   and 
athletic  quarters  on  left.     BoUom^Gvcmp  of  Australian  athletes  on  their  street. 


CHAPTER  V 
SITE  AND  CONSTRUCTION  OF  PERSHING   STADIUM 

iloR  the  permanent  use  to  which  it  will  be  put  in  coming 
years— the  practice  of  athletic  sports  among  the  French 
people— the  site  of  the  Pershing  Stadium  was  happily 
chosen.  Situated*  within  the  eastern  edge  of  the  Bois  de 
Vincennes,  on  the  ancient  highway  between  Vincennes  and  Joinville- 
le-Pont,  it  lies  in  the  midst  of  what  is  not  only  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  of  the  many  lovely  parks  of  Paris,  but  in  the  one  which 
is  frequented,  perhaps  more  than  any  other,  by  the  average  classes 
of  the  city,  who,  in  Paris  as  elsewhere,  make  up  the  body  and 
blood  of  its  population.  Of  the  Bois  de  Vincennes  an  Englishman 
wrote,  a  few  years  ago  :  "On  Sunday  afternoons  in  summer  the 
Bois  is  crowded.  Under  every  tree,  along  the  edge  of  every  lawn, 
by  the  bank  of  every  stream,  are  family  picnic  parties,  easily  satisfied 
and  intensely  happy.  Stolid  Englishmen  are  astonished  at  the  eager- 
ness with  which  grown-up  people  are  playing  at  ball  or  battledore. 
Nowhere  is  the  light-hearted,  kindly,  cheery  character  of  the  French 
middle  classes  seen  to  greater  advantage. " 

It  is  precisely  to  these  classes  that  a  great  stadium  for  the  practice 
of  athletic  sports  will  be  most  valuable  because  from  them  must 
come  the  chief  strength  of  generations  able  to  repair  the  cruel  ravages 
of  war  in  the  French  nation.  No  parting  gift  that  America  could 
have  made  to  her  ally  would  have  better  attested  her  deep  desire  for 
the  speedy  rehabilitation  of  France,  or  have  offered  greater  possibili- 
ties for  aiding  to  that  end,  than  the  Stadium  which  was  named  in 
honor  of  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces. 

Lying  just  without  the  southeastern  walls  of  Paris,  whose  nearest 
gateway,  the  Porte  de  Vincennes,  is  distant  less  than  four  kilometers, 
the  Stadium  has  around  it  a  region  rich  in  reminiscences  of  the  eventful 
history  of  Paris  and  of  France.  In  nearly  every  direction,  but  partic- 
ularly toward  the  southeast  along  the  lofty  hills  which  follow  the 
picturesque  windings  of  the  Marne,  are  a  number  of  fine  old  chateaux, 
each  with  its  sheaf  of  legends  from  the  past.     But  the  Bois  de  Vincennes 

*  See  map,  page  87. 


108  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

itself  is  the  appropriate  center  of  such  a  region.  The  Bois,  whose 
dense  treetops,  forming  a  pleasant  background  of  green,  look  over 
the  walls  of  the  Stadium  on  every  side  save  that  occupied  by  the  Tri- 
bune of  Honor,  was,  as  a  fragment  of  primeval  forest,  a  hunting  pre- 
serve of  King  Louis  IX  (Saint  Louis)  in  the  thirteenth  century,  and 
the  weathered  obelisk,  which  stands  near  the  south  corner  of  the 
Ecole  de  Polytechnic,  beside  the  main  road  from  the  Porte  de  Vm- 
cennes  to  the  Stadium,  is  a  memorial  erected  on  the  spot  where,  it  is 
said  formerly  grew  a  great  oak  tree  beneath  which  the  good  king  was 
accu'stomed  to  dispense  justice  to  his  subjects.  The  original  forest 
was  replanted  in  1731  by  Louis  XV  and  under  Napoleon  III  was 
converted  into  a  public  park  which  at  present  contains  about 
2,275  acres,  a  great  part  of  this  area  being  given  over  to  the  Champs 
de  Manceuvres  in  the  center  and  to  the  race  course  of  Vincennes  imme- 
diately southwest  of  the  Pershing  Stadium.  This  race  course  is  the 
largest  and  oldest  of  the  several  around  Paris. 

Immediately  north  of  the  Bois  is  the  suburb  of  Vincennes  which 
originally  grew  up  about  the  Chateau  de  Vincennes,  a  royal  residence 
founded  in  the  twelfth  century  and  used  and  enlarged  by  the  royalty 
of  France  until  1740.  In  this  chateau  died  several  kings  of  France 
and  other  famous  personages,  including  Henry  V  of  England,  while 
in  the  great  Donjon,  170  feet  high,  which  is  the  last  one  remaining 
of  nine  towers,  a  long  hst  of  notable  prisoners  have  been  confined  at 
one  time  or  another.  The  chateau  was  defended  for  Napoleon  against 
the  Allies  in  1814-15  by  General  Daumesnil,  whose  memory  is  perpet- 
uated by  a  statue  in  the  town  and  by  the  largest  of  the  lakes  in  the 
Bois  de  Vincennes.  Converted  into  a  powerful  fort  and  an  artillery 
depot  by  Louis  Philippe  in  1832-44,  the  ancient  stronghold  still  retains 
the  lattei'  function.  The  large  Champ  de  Manoeuvres  and  the  Poly- 
gone  de  I'Artillerie,  as  well  as  the  Ecole  de  Pyrotechnic  and  the  Camp 
de  St.  Maur,  occupying  the  whole  central  part  of  the  Bois,  are  all  in 
a  sense  military  dependencies  of  Fort  de  Vincennes,  as  the  work  on 
the  site  of  the  old  royal  chateau  is  now  called.  It  is,  indeed,  what 
might  be  termed  the  citadel  of  the  powerful  system  of  detached  forti- 
fications guarding  Paris  on  the  southeast  from  the  crossings  of  the 
Marne  river  as  it  approaches  its  junction  with  the  Seine  at  Charenton. 
North  and  south  of  Fort  de  Vincennes  are  several  of  the  bastioned 
masonry  forts  which  guarded  the  city  during  the  siege  of  1870-71, 
while  east  of  it,  on  the  high  hills  east  of  the  Marne,  lie  Fort  de  ViUiers 
and  Fort  de  Champigny,  works  considered  modern  until  1914,  and 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  109 

designed  to  protect  the  bridgehead  of  Joinville-le-Pont.  On  the 
nearer  side  of  the  river,  entirely  covering  the  loop  of  its  last  sweeping 
bend  before  it  enters  the  Seine,  stand  the  older  but  once  very  powerful 
redoubts  of  Gravelle  and  Faisanderie,  connected  by  a  bastioned  cur- 
tain separating  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  Bois  de  Vincennes  from 
the  town  of  St.  Maur-les-Fosses,  and  commanding  from  their  heights 
the  whole  populous  suburban  district  embraced  within  the  bend  of 
the  Marne. 

The  traditions  of  St.  Maur-les-Fosses  lead  back  to  the  most  remote 
event  recorded  of  this  region,  for  it  was  here  that  in  the  year  287  A.  D. 
the  Roman  emperor,  Maximianus,  attacked  the  GaUic  peasants,  the 
Bagaudae,  who  had  revolted  against  the  oppressions  of  Rome.  The 
rebel  leaders,  Aelianus  and  Amandus,  lost  their  lives  and  their  forces 
were  utterly  crushed,  Maximianus  thus  making  good  for  a  while  longer 
the  waning  Roman  power.  East  of  St.Maur,  on  the  hills  rising  along 
the  opposite  bank  of  the  Marne,  stands  the  village  of  Chennevieres 
from  which  the  views  toward  Paris  and  over  the  surrounding  country 
are  so  superb  that  Louis  XIV  seriously  thought  of  making  the  place 
his  royal  residence  and  expending  upon  it  the  vast  wealth  and  labor 
which  he  eventually  lavished  upon  Versailles.  It  was  at  Chennevieres 
that  the  long-distance  and  cross-country  riding  events  of  the  horse- 
riding  competitions  were  held. 

About  two  kilometers  east  of  Joinville-le-Pont,  whose  railroad 
station  is  the  one  most  convenient  to  Pershing  Stadium  for  sub- 
urban trains  from  Paris,  lies,  in  the  lap  of  the  hills  rising  eastward, 
Champigny-sur-Marne.  It  is  in  the  loop  of  the  Marne  forming  the 
bridgehead  of  Joinville-le-Pont,  previously  mentioned.  Here,  on 
29  November,  1870,  Paris  being  already  in  the  throes  of  famine,  large 
French  forces  under  command  of  Generals  Trochu  and  Ducret  began 
the  most  formidable  of  the  repeated  sorties  which,  during  the  four 
months'  course  of  the  siege,  were  made  at  various  points  in  the  hope 
of  breaking  through  the  lines  of  the  besieging  Germans.  Some  ground 
was  gained  on  that  day  and  the  next,  but  a  bridge  needed  for  the 
crossing  of  troops  at  Champigny  was  not  thrown  in  time  to  be 
of  use,  while  the  French  Army  of  the  Loire,  directed  in  dispatches 
sent  by  balloon  to  create  a  diversion  in  the  German  rear,  failed  to 
receive  word  in  time  to  make  the  necessary  attack.  By  most  violent 
fighting  the  enemy  was  able  to  contain  Trochu  and  Ducret  in  the 
bridgehead  westward  of  Champigny  and,  after  clinging  for  a  while  to 
the  inferior  positions  which  they  had  taken,  the  French  retired  on 


110  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

2  December  to  the  west  bank  of  the  Marne.  Later  and  less  powerful 
sorties  elsewhere  proving  equally  abortive,  toward  the  end  of  January, 
1871,  Paris  surrendered. 

After  the  outbreak  of  war  in  1914  the  ground  now  occupied 
by  the  Stadium  was  converted  into  a  training  area  and  its  surface 
was  covered  with  trenches  and  wire  entanglements  which  had  to  be 
cleared  away  when  the  work  of  laying  out  an  athletic  field  was  begun 
in  February,  1919.  Directly  north  of  the  Stadium  are  the  barracks 
of  the  Ecole  Normale  de  Gymnastique  et  d'Escrime,  the  remainder  of 
the  Ecole  Normale  being  located  at  the  Redoute  de  la  Faisanderie. 

It  seems  peculiarly  fitting  that  a  locahty  so  intimately  associated 
with  the  martial  history  of  France  should  have  been  chosen  for  the 
athletic  meet  between  the  soldiers  of  the  Allied  armies,  marking  the 
close  of  the  greatest  war  in  which  France  or  any  of  the  nations  asso- 
ciated with  her  had  ever  engaged.  It  became  the  site  of  this  memor- 
able celebration,  however,  only  after  careful  preliminary  consideration 
of  other  possible  places. 

The  first  place  considered  was  the  stadium  at  Golombes,  about 
four  kilometers  northwest  of  Paris,  where  the  Olympic  Games  of 
1900  were  held.  It  was  well  adapted  to  the  proposed  object  in  many 
ways  and  the  Y.M.C.A.  secured  a  lease  upon  it  for  the  purpose  of  using 
it  both  for  the  A.E.F.  finals  and  for  the  Inter-Allied  Games  themselves. 
It  soon  became  obvious,  however,  that  it  would  not  be  just  to  use 
a  field  for  the  international  events  which  was  familiar  to  only  American 
contestants.  Golombes  was  retained,  therefore,  only  for  the  A.E.F. 
finals,  and  another  track  and  field,  equally  unknown  to  all  competitoi-S, 
was  sought.  No  existing  place  being  found  available  it  was  decided 
that  the  only  solution  would  be  to  build  an  entirely  new  amphitheatre. 

The  site  finally  selected  for  the  new  structure  was  the  one  in  the 
Bois  de  Vincennes  already  described.  It  was  beautifully  situated, 
presented  many  easy  routes  of  access  from  Paris,  and  could  be  prepared 
with  a  minimum  of  engineering  difficulties.  The  ground  belonged 
to  the  City  of  Paris  but,  as  has  already  been  mentioned,  it  was  being 
used  by  the  French  military  authorities.  Through  the  negotiations 
of  the  Gomite  Nationale  d'Education  Physique  et  de  1' Hygiene  Sociale, 
however,  the  city,  with  the  approval  of  the  Ministry  of  War,  donated 
it  for  the  purpose  contemplated.  The  Y.M.G.A.  undertook  to  finance 
the  structural  work. 

The  constructive  project  was  divided  into  two  parts.  The  build- 
ing of  the  reinforced   concrete   stadium  itself  was  to  be  done  by  a 


Top-Marshal  Foch  and  General  Pershing  in  reviewing  stand    Cen/er  'f-^^^ff^l^^'^ 

cloLly  foUowing  an  event.     Center  ri^M-General  Pershing  addressmg  American  engneers. 

/otom— Marshal  Pooh,  General  Pershing  and  General  Weygan  watching  the  events. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  113 

civil  contractor.  The  grading  of  the  field  and  the  completion  of  the 
track  was  to  be  the  work  of  French  military  engineers.  The  Stadium 
was  designed  by  Buisson  and  Giffard,  a  contracting  firm  of  Paris, 
and  the  contract  for  the  construction  under  their  plans  as  approved 
was  let  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  to  this  firm  on  24  February,  1919. 

The  assembling  of  equipment  and  material  began  at  once.  But 
the  location  was  a  rather  difficult  one  from  the  standpoint  of  water 
supply  and  railroad  transportation  for  such  large  building  operations. 
The  considerable  amount  of  water  needed  in  concrete  mixing,  however, 
was  provided  by  connecting  up  a  supply  line  with  the  Paris  mains. 
Sidetracks  from  the  railroad  spur  running  into  the  artillery  depot 
at  Camp  de  St.  Maur  were  laid  adjacent  to  the  Stadium  site,  although 
throughout  the  building  period  the  shortage  of  cars,  due  to  the  heavy 
military  requirements  all  over  the  country,  necessitated  more  or  less 
use  of  motor  transportation  for  the  hauling  of  building  material. 

Construction  work  on  a  large  scale  had  begun  11  April,  the  contract 
providing  for  the  completion  of  the  Stadium  in  ninety  working  days. 
By  reason  of  the  earnest  and  enthusiastic  efforts  of  the  contractors 
the  construction  was  about  thirty-five  per  cent  completed,  a  consider- 
able amount  of  material  for  further  work  was  on  the  ground,  and 
excellent  progress  was  being  made  when,  about  1  May,  unfortunate 
developments  of  the  labor  situation  put  a  stop  to  all  civilian  work. 

The  date  for  the  scheduled  opening  of  the  Games  was  now  less 
than  seven  weeks  away.  It  was  evident  that  if  the  Stadium  was  to 
be  completed  in  time  heroic  measures  would  be  necessary.  Accord- 
ingly it  was  decided  to  put  American  troops  to  work  to  finish  the  struc- 
ture and  to  do  whatever  other  work  might  be  found  necessary,  such 
-as  rendering  the  place  conveniently  accessible  by  the  repair  or  con- 
struction of  roads  and  paths. 

The  first  American  troops  to  arrive  on  the  ground  began  work 
on  5  May.  The  organizations  thenceforth  employed  were  as  follows  : 
Companies  G  and  G  of  the  22nd  Engineers,  Companies  B,  C  and  F 
of  the  55th  Engineers,  Companies  A,  B  and  C  of  the  122d  Engineers. 
Headquarters  Detachment  and  Companies  A,  B  and  C  of  the  128th 
Engineers,  Co.  C  of  the  131st  Engineers,  Companies  B,  H,  K  and  L 
of  the  59th  Pioneer  Infantry  and  Companies  A  and  F  of  the  806th 
Pioneer  Infantry  (colored)  — a  total  of  eighteen  companies  aggregat- 
ing about  100  officers  and  3,300  enlisted  men. 

Everyone  entered  into  the  spirit  of  the  task  with  good  will 
and,  working  continuously  in  three  daily  shifts  of  eight  hours  each, 


114  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    I9I9 

construction  was  pushed  as  rapidly  as  possible  considering  the  time 
that  had  to  be  allowed  for  the  proper  setting  of  the  concrete.    As  many 
as  eight  concrete  mixers  were  often  in  use  at  one  time.     The  cement 
used  was  the  product  of  factories  in  France,  England,  and  Alsace- 
Lorraine.  It  was  obtained  wherever  possible  on  the  market  and  a  large 
quantity  of  it,  finally,  from  the  A.E.F.  depots  at  Gievres,  Le  Mans, 
and  Paris.     The  latter  depots  also  furnished  considerable  other  mate- 
rial, much  of  which  was  hauled  by  American  trucks  owing  to  the  rail- 
road situation.     It  was  no  small  problem  so  to  arrange  the  operations 
that  men  could  be  working  on  all  parts  of  the  structure  at  once  and 
still  allow  time  for  the  concrete,  particularly  that  of  the  sections  of 
the  grandstand  and  the  bleachers  which  would  be  called  upon  to  sus- 
tain living  loads,  to  set  properly  before  the  beginning  of  the  Games. 
Biit  the  desired  result  was  accomplished.     By  the  last  of  June  the 
sustaining  parts  of  the  concrete  work  were  completed  and  could  be 
left  to  harden  until  the  opening  day.     Practically  until  the  opening, 
however,  work  had  to  continue  on  the  minor  parts  of  the  structure 
in  order  to  finish  it. 

The  completed  Stadium  has  a  periphery  measurement  of  2,100  feet 
and  it  encloses  an  area  of  about  nine  acres.  The  total  seating  capa- 
city is  approximately  25,000  of  which  the  grandstand,  or  Tribune 
d'Honneur,  seats  2,500  while  the  bleachers,  or  Tribunes  Populaires, 
seat  about  22,500.  The  grandstand,  which  is  the  only  part  covered, 
has  a  concrete  roof.  It  is  about  one  hundred  yards  in  length  and 
beneath  it  are  twenty  dressing  rooms  for  the  use  of  the  athletes.  Two 
detached  bleachers,  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  Tribune  Populaire 
by  the  straight-away  track,  stand  at  the  ends  of  the  grandstand. 
Shower  baths  and  store  rooms  are  constructed  under  the  Tribune  d'Hon- 
neur and  detached  bleachers.  From  every  part  of  the  seating  spaces 
in  all  the  tribunes  the  view  of  the  track  and  field  is  excellent  and 
there  are  ample  exits  both  by  exterior  stairways  descending  from  the 
back  and  by  passageways  passing  beneath  the  structure  from  the 
ground  in  front. 

While  the  American  engineers  and  labor  troops,  in  their  olive 
drab  uniforms,  were  working  night  and  day  on  the  Stadium  itself, 
a  force  of  French  poilus,  about  300  in  number,  in  every  shade  of  uni- 
form from  the  horizon  blue  of  the  Infantry  and  the  dark  blue  of  the 
Chasseurs  to  the  yellowish  khaki  of  the  Zouaves  and  the  Colonials, 
was  working  side  by  side  with  them  on  the  field  and  track.  Under 
the  direction  of  French  engineer  officers  they  had  begun  work  on 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  115 

12  April.  Their  first  task  was  to  level  the  field,  which,  in  the  lower- 
ing of  some  areas  of  the  surface  and  the  filling  of  depressions,  including 
the  old  trenches,  involved  the  moving  of  about  50,000  cubic  meters 
of  earth. 

Following  the  levelling  came  their  most  important  labor,  the  build- 
ing of  the  track.  This  consisted  of  a  circuit  for  races  of  long  distance 
and  a  straightaway  for  the  dashes.  The  straightaway  was  laid  out 
immediately  in  front  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur,  with  its  center  oppo- 
site to  the  covered  grandstand,  the  track  being  232  metres  long  and 
ten  meters  wide.  The  oval  track  followed  practically  the  shape  of 
the  amphitheatre  itself,  having  curving  ends  and  two  straight  sides, 
the  one  nearest  to  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  coinciding  with  the  straight- 
away in  front  of  the  grandstand.  The  length  of  the  corde  sportive, 
as  the  French  expressively  term  the  theoretical  path  of  a  runner  on 
the  track,  is  500  meters,  measured  at  a  distance  of  thirty  centimeters 
outside  the  inner  rail  of  the  track.  The  width  of  the  oval  track,  except 
during  its  coincidence  with  the  straightaway,  is  6.30  meters. 

Four  layers  of  cinders  having  a  total  thickness  of  50  centimeters 
were  used  in  the  construction  of  the  track.  The  bottom  layer  was 
made  of  very  coarse  cinders,  the  next  of  medium,  the  next  of  fine, 
and  the  last,  finishing  off  the  surface,  of  very  fine  cinders.  Six  thous- 
and cubic  meters  of  cinders  were  used  in  building  the  track  but  their 
bulk  was  reduced  almost  one-half  by  the  constant  rolling  to  which 
they  were  subjected  after  being  laid.  Time  is  as  important  a  factor 
in  producing  the  proper  settling  necessary  for  a  fast  track  as  it  is  in 
the  setting  of  concrete  in  a  building.  The  French  engineers  consider- 
ably reduced  the  period  ordinarily  necessary  for  settling  by  contin- 
uously watering  and  rolling  the  new  track  during  the  two  weeks 
that  intervened  between  its  completion  and  the  opening  of  the  Games. 
During  this  time  the  American  engineers  also  cooperated  with  them 
in  order  to  make  sure  that  everything  would  be  in  readiness  in  time. 
After  the  completion  of  the  track  a  football  field,  144  by  70  meters, 
was  laid  out  in  the  center  of  the  arena  and  provision  was  made 
for  fields  for  other  games  and  whatever  temporary  structures  or 
ground  preparation  might  be  necessary  for  the  exhibition  of  other 
sports. 

The  labors  of  the  American  Engineer  and  Pioneer  troops  did  not  end 
with  the  completion  of  the  Stadium  proper.  Before  the  Games  parking 
spaces  had  to  be  provided  for  the  large  number  of  motor  trucks  and 


116  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

other  vehicles  which  were  constantly  bringing  in  building  materials 
and  other  supplies.  For  the  automobiles  bringing  out  officials  and 
other  passengers  during  the  Games,  a  large  parking  place  was  sited  and 
levelled  behind  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  and  between  that  and  the 
railroad  tracks.  From  two  of  the  main  roadways  passing  near  the  Stad- 
ium, the  Chemin  de  Bosquet  Montmartre  and  the  Route  de  la  Pyra- 
mide,  entirely  new  connecting  roads  were  built  to  the  Stadium.  The 
Chemin  de  Bosquet  Montmartre  was  repaired  and  put  in  good  condi- 
tion over  its  entire  length  and  the  Route  de  la  Pyramide  from  the  Stad- 
ium to  beyond  Fort  de  Vincennes.  Several  other  shorter  stretches 
of  roadway  were  built  in  various  places  as  required  and  gravel  paths 
laid  out  around  the  whole  Stadium.  Necessary  repairs  on  another 
route  of  approach,  the  Avenue  Daumesnil,  were  made  by  the  French. 


DECORATIONS 

The  Decoration  of  the  Stadium  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Ceremonies  and  Parades.  The  plans  which  they  prepared 
involved  the  use  of  large  quantities  of  bunting  in  the  colors  which 
appear  in  the  flags  of  the  various  Allied  nations.  The  first  scheme 
under  consideration  centered  about  an  ambitious  idea  which  would 
have  been  very  effective  had  it  proved  possible  to  carry  it  out.  This 
was  to  anchor  a  balloon  above  the  center  of  the  Stadium,  with  four 
guy  ropes  descending  from  it  to  the  corners  of  the  structure  on  which 
would  be  hung  Allied  flags  and  streamers.  However,  the  failure  of 
Germany  to  ratify  .the  peace  treaty  before  the  date  of  the  opening 
of  the  Games  deterred  the  Air  Service  of  the  American  Army 
from  providing  a  balloon  for  the  purpose  and  the  plan  had  to  be 
abandoned. 

It  remained  to  decorate  only  the  Stadium  itself.  The  flags  of  many 
of  the  nations  could  easily  be  obtained  in  quantities  and  sizes  required. 
But  the  flags  of  others,  particularly  those  very  recently  given  a 
recognized  national  existence  by  the  action  of  the  Peace  Conference, 
such  as  Czecho-Slovakia  and  Hedjaz,  were  not  to  be  found  in  the 
markets.  In  fact,  their  very  designs  were  not  known  until  after 
inquiry  was  made  of  their  diplomatic  representatives  in  Paris  by  the 
Committee.  It  then  became  necessary  to  establish  a  sewing  shop 
in  which  sixteen  French  seamstresses  were  employed  for  several  weeks 


To-p — England's    entrants.    Middle — Czecho-Slovakian  contestants.    Boltom — Group  o£  U.S. 

track  and  field  athletes. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  119 

in  making  these  and  other  flags  and  large  quantities  of  streamers  and 
draperies.  Not  only  decorations  for  the  Pershing  Stadium  were  made 
here  but  also  decorations  for  use  at  the  other  places  where  certain 
events  of  the  Games  were  to  be  staged  because  they  could  not  be  put 
on  at  the  Stadium,  namely:  the  Mare  de  St.  James  (St.  James'Lake) 
in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne  where  the  swimming  contests  were  to  be  held, 
the  Colombes  Stadium  where  the  Rugby  football  events  were  to 
occur,  and  La  Boulie  Golf  Links,  the  scene  of  the  golf  tournament. 

At  the  Pershing  Stadium  itself,  as  has  been  said,  the  decorative 
scheme  involved  the  use  of  the  flags  and  colors  of  the  Allied  Nations. 
Around  the  inner  line  of  the  oval  track  was  a  series  of  flag  poles, 
each  one  carrying  a  large  flag  of  one  of  the  competing  nations,  all  of 
the  flags  being  of  the  same  size.  The  flags  of  France,  the  United 
States,  England,  Italy,  and  Belgium  were  on  the  poles  immediately 
in  front  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur,  the  flags  of  the  other  nations 
extending  on  around  the  track.  All  of  these  flags  were  on  lanyards 
so  that  they  could  be  raised  in  the  morning  and  lowered  and  furled 
in  the  evening.  The  front  edge  of  the  roof  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur 
was  draped  with  broad  strips  of  bunting  of  the  colors  of  the  larger 
nations  which  were  looped  up  at  each  pillar  in  order  to  display  a  round 
shield  bearing  the  colors  of  one  of  the  nations  surrounded  by  small 
flags  and  with  strips  of  bunting  descending  from  it  down  the  face  of 
the  pillar. 

At  regular  intervals  around  the  top  of  the  tribunes,  poles  were 
set,  each  carrying  at  its  top  a  ring  about  six  feet  in  diameter.  From 
these  were  draped  streamers  of  Allied  colors  looped  together  at  the 
bottom  of  the  pole,  thus  forming  basket-shaped  clusters.  The  entire 
outer  rail  of  the  track,  from  its  upper  edge  to  the  ground,  was 
draped  with  red  bunting.  The  top  rail  of  each  of  the  ten  large 
exit  doorways  in  the  Tribune  Populaire  was  similarly  decorated. 
In  addition  each  of  these  doorways  had  above  its  center  the  shield 
of  one  of  the  nations  with  its  own  and  either  the  American  or  the 
French  flags  at  its  sides. 

The  features  mentioned  were  only  the  major  ones  of  a  decorative 
scheme  which  had  many  effective  minor  details.  The  significance  of 
all  of  them  may  be  said  to  have  centered,  in  a  permanent  sense,  around 
the  tablet  on  the  front  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  at  its  center,  which 
voices  in  its  inscription  the  origin  and  the  enduring  purpose  of  Persh- 
ing  Stadium.     The  place  of  this    tablet   was,   occupied    during    the 


120  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Games  by  a  plaster  cast  of  what  will  eventually  be  a  bronze  plate 
bearing  the  following  words  : 

PERSHING     STADIUM 

ERECTED    FOR    THE 

INTER-ALLIED  GAMES 
June-July  1919 

BY    THE 

AMERICAN  YOUNG  MEN'S  CHRISTIAN  ASSOCIATION 

AND    PRESENTED    BY    IT    THROUGH 

EDWARD  C.  CARTER 
Chief  Secretary 

TO 

GENERAL  JOHN  J.  PERSHING 

Commander-in-Chief 

FOR  the 

AMERICAN     EXPEDITIONARY     FORCES 

and  in  turn  presented  by  Gen.  Pershing 

TO 

Mr.  GEORGES  CLEMENCEAU 

President  of  the  Council,  Minister  of  War 

AND  Honorary  President  of  Comite  National  de  l'Education  Physique, 

Sportive  et  de  l'Hygiene  Sociale 

FOR  THE  PEOPLE  OF  FRANCE 

THAT   THE    CHERISHED    BONDS    OF    FRIENDSHIP    BETWEEN    FRANCE   AND    AMERICA, 

FORGED  ANEW  ON   THE  COMMON   FIELD   OF  BATTLE.   MAY   BE  TEMPERED  AND 

MADE   ENDURING  ON   THE   FRIENDLY  FIELD    OF  SPORT. 

TRANSPORTATION  \ 

At  the  beginning  of  operations  the  Motor  Transport  Service  of  the 
American  Army  was  requested  to  make  arrangements  for  furnishing 
transportation  for  use  between  Paris  and  the  Stadium  to  each  of  the 
three  sections  of  the  Games  Committee  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games ; 
that  is,  to  the  Technical  Section,  the  Liaison  Section,  and  the  General 
Section.  Each  of  these  sections  furnished  to  the  transport  service 
an  estimate  of  the  peak,  or  maximum,  transportation  requirements 
which  it  believed  would  be  necessary  for  its  particular  service.  The 
sum  of  these  estimates  amounted  to  95  motor  cars  and  20  C.M.C. 
ambulances.  On  this  basis  transportation  was  furnished  by  the  Motor 
Transport  Service,  the  Games  Committee  being  given  also  the  privi- 
lege of  calling  for  three-ton  trucks  for  heavy  hauling  in  any  number 
up  to  one  hundred. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


121 


More  than  sixty  per  cent  of  the  trucks  for  which  provision  was 
made  were  never  called  for  at  one  time  although  the  engineers  working 
on  the  Stadium  once  employed  twenty-four  trucks  to  assist  in  hauling 
materials.  Of  the  motor  cars  the  Technical  Section,  having  in  charge 
the  actual  construction  work,  normally  used  more  than  either  of  the 
other  sections.  The  Liaison  Section,  particularly  during  the  Games, 
was  called  upon  for  much  transportation,  carrying,  among  others, 
many  foreign  civilians  and  also  contestants  entered  in  the  Games. 
The  contestants  were  carried,  not  only  on  days  when  they  were  com- 
peting, but  on  other  days  when  they  wished  to  attend  the  Games  as 
spectators.  Under  the  conditions  the  estimated  peak  requirements 
of  the  several  sections  were  sometimes  exceeded.  But  they  were 
seldom  all  exceeded  at  the  same  time,  so  the  motor  transport  service 
was  generally  able  to  take  care  of  the  excess  requirements  for  any 
one  section  by  drawing  on  the  idle  transportation  of  another.  Very 
infrequently  did  an  actual  shortage  occur  and  in  general  the  transpor- 
tation was  ample  and  satisfactory  to  all  concerned. 


CHAPTER  VI 

CAMPS  AND  ACCOMMODATIONS 

LTHOUGH  General  Pershing's  invitation  to  the  Commanders- 
in-Chief  of  the  Allied  Armies  included  the  announcement 
that  the  American  Quartermaster  Corps  would  furnish 
quarters  to  all  visiting  athletes  and  that  the  United  States 
Army  ration  would  be  available  at  the  same  prices  allowed  to  the 
American  Army,  it  was  not  expected  that  all  the  nations  participating 
in  the  Games  would  depend  solely  upon  the  United  States  for  these 
things.  Not  that  the  Quartermaster  Corps  was  not  ready  and  willing 
to  supply  the  wants,  but  it  was  believed  that  some  of  the  teams  would 
I^refer  to  buy  their  supplies  on  the  open  market  in  Paris. 

But  much  to  the  surprise  of  the  Americans,  when  the  teams  began 
to  arrive  at  Paris,  one  by  one,  they  looked  to  the  Americans  to  handle 
all  details  as  to  food,  equipment,  quarters  and  transportation. 

It  is  probable  that  the  United  States  Army  ration  has  never  been 
put  to  a  more  severe  test  than  immediately  preceding  and  during  the 
Inter-Allied  Games  when  fifteen  nations  and  colonies  from  every 
part  of  the  world  took  the  regular  issue  of  food — the  food  that 
composes  the  "doughboy's"  ration — and  converted  it  into  training 
table  diet.  It  is  true  that,  after  some  of  the  cooks  from  foreign  lands 
had  apphed  their  varied  treatments,  it  would  hardly  have  been 
recognized  as  the  component  parts  of  Yankee  "slum."  But  the  ration 
measured  up  in  every  way,  according  to  the  trainers  of  all  the  visiting 
teams,  to  all  the  requirements  of  an  athlete's  diet.  Very  few  of  the 
visiting  teams  bought  food  in  Paris  and  what  was  bought  was  in  such 
small  quantities  as  to  be  negligible. 

The  visiting  athletes  not  only  ate  American  food,  but  they  used 
American  equipment  to  a  large  extent,  slept  in  American  beds  in 
American  tents,  used  American  cars  for  practically  all  their  transpor- 
tation,_  depended  on  the  Americans  to  straighten  out  any  difficulty 
that  might  arise— in  fact,  the  camp  took  on  more  of  the  American 
atmosphere  than  was  first  intended,  but  only  as  the  result  of  the  incli- 
nation of  the  visitors  to  leave  these  matters  to  the  hosts. 


rop-Frcnch   contestants.     CVn^er- Serbian  athletes  and  officials.     Botiom—Ovoup  of  Italian 

ccintestants   and   officers. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  125 

Colombes  Field,  which  belongs  to  the  Racing  Club  of  France,  had 
ieen  leased  and  put  into  shape  by  Y.M.C.A.  experts.  The  American 
Army  erected  a  well  equipped  training  camp  there  for  the  use  of  all 
teams  except  the  tennis  players,  golfers,  and  rowing  crews.  These 
teams  did  practically  all  their  training  in  their  respective  countries. 

The  force  to  handle  the  camp  was  quickly  and  well  organized. 
When  the  teams  began  to  arrive  the  first  we°k  in  June  they  were  at 
once  taken  to  Colombes,  easily  accessible  from  Paris  by  train  and 
pike.  Pyramidal  tents,  obtained  by  the  supply  officer  from  salvage, 
were  erected,  streets  were  laid  ofT  with  a  row  assigned  to  each  team, 
mess  tents  were  put  up  and  equipped.  Enough  men  were  detailed 
to  meet  all  needs. 

The  visitors  were  handled  much  as  any  American  Army  outfits 
would  have  been  handled  under  the  same  circumstances.  When  a 
team  arrived  the  men  were  taken  to  their  "streets,"  blankets  were 
issued — few  teams  brought  any  personal  baggage — a  hot  meal  was 
ready  and  transportation  made  available  to  bring  any  equipment 
they  might  want  from  Paris. 

When  American  rations  were  first  purchased  few  of  the  visiting 
teams  understood  their  preparation.  To  meet  this,  American  Army 
cooks  were  immediately  assigned  to  each  mess  and  worked  under  the 
direction  of  each  team's  own  mess  officer  or  mess  sergeant.  The 
striking  feature  of  the  ration  issue  was  the  fact  that  few  of  the  teams 
were  able  to  use  all  the  food.  The  French,  the  Roumanians,  the 
Czecho-Slovaks,  the  Italians  and  others  never  learned  to  eat  the  cereals 
contained  in  the  American  issue  and  turned  them  back.  They  took 
no  other  food  in  return,  simply  asking  for  a  money  credit.  The  Aus- 
tralians, however,  wanted  a  slightly  bigger  meat  issue  for  their  wrest- 
lers and  boxers  than  the  American  issue  allowed.  This  was  easily 
arranged  by  permitting  them  to  draw  the  meat  which  was  turned 
back  by  other  teams,  for  only  the  Australians,  Canadians  and  New 
Zealanders  were  able  to  eat  the  entire  American  meat  ration. 

Some  of  the  teams  used  wine  on  their  tables  and  a  cafe  at  Colombes, 
run  by  civilians,  supplied  this  want.  Some  of  the  teams  also  cooked 
their  meat  in  wine.  This  they  bought  in  bulk  and  it  was  the  largest 
single  item  purchased  outside  of  the  American  ration. 

The  Quartermaster  Corps  allowed  the  visitors  to  buy  clothing,  the 
only  restriction  placed  on  these  purchases  being  that  no  cloth  in  bulk 
was  sold. 


126  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Colombes  Field  proved  to  be  an  almost  ideal  training  camp  and 
elicited  praise  from  every  team.  The  weather  during  the  training 
period  was  excellent  though  it  turned  somewhat  cooler  after  the  Games 
began  and  caused  some  discomfort,  but  extra  blankets  and  clothing 
were  issued  and  none  of  the  teams  were  handicapped  by  the  change 
of  weather. 

Some  of  the  teams,  such  as  the  Czecho-Slovaks  and  Roumanians^ 
coming  from  countries  virtually  fighting  for  existence  and  suffering 
from  a  scarcity  of  food,  were  surprised  at  the  plentiful  supplies.  The 
American  canteens,  with  chocolate  and  other  sweets  as  well  as  tobacco 
for  sale,  were  open  to  the  visitors  on  the  same  basis  as  to  the  American 
soldiers. 

The  atmosphere  of  the  camp  was  cosmopolitan,  indeed.  While 
there  had  been  Olympic  games  in  which  more  nations  entered  teams 
than  were  entered  here,  never  before  had  there  been  an  athletic  meet 
in  which  each  country  sent  its  fighting  men  in  uniform.  The  variety 
of  dress  was  a  most  interesting  feature  and  these  soldiers,  who  had 
been  fighting  for  the  same  cause  and  who  knew  of  each  other  by  hearsay 
only,  fraternized  splendidly  when  thus  brought  together  in  friendly 
competition. 

English  and  French  were  the  official  languages  of  the  Games  and 
most  of  the  visitors  were  able  to  speak  one  of  these  languages.  To 
facilitate  the  handling  of  the  details  of  the  camp  the  Liaison  Section 
assigned  interpreters  in  all  the  languages  of  the  Allies  to  the  Camp 
Commander,  but,  much  to  the  pleasure  of  the  visiting  athletes,  they 
found  many  American  soldiers  doing  duty  at  the  camp  who  spoke 
their  languages.  There  were  men  who  spoke  the  rare  tongue  of  the 
Slovaks  as  well  as  the  more  generally  known  Greek,  Italian  and  others. 
These  men  were  always  available  in  an  emergency.  The  visitors  soon 
made  their  acquaintance  and  called  on  them  frequently.  An  Ameri- 
can-Chinese cook,  however,  waited  in  vain  for  a  team  to  whom  he 
could  talk  in  his  mother  tongue,  for  China  was  not  represented. 

A  row  of  headquarters  tents,  in  which  were  the  officers  in  charge 
of  the  different  departments  with  their  office  forces,  was  erected  near 
the  tents  of  the  athletes.  These  tents  housed  the  Commanding  Officer 
and  Adjutant,  the  Supply  Officer,  the  Athletic  Supply  Officer,  the 
Personnel  Officer,  the  Transportation  Officer  and  others.  Telephone 
connections  were  made  and  telephones  were  available  at  all  times  for 
the  officers  in  charge  of  the  different  teams. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  127 

Ample  transportation  was  at  all  times  available  to  the  teams. 

On  Saturday,  21  June,  most  of  Colombes  Camp  was  moved  to- 
Pershing  Stadium.  At  Colombes  were  left  the  Australian  swimmers,  a 
few  other  athletes  and  labor  organizations.  The  move  was  effected 
without  disturbing  the  routine  of  training.  Kitchens  were  opened  at 
Pershing   Stadium   before   the   messes  were   moved    from    Colombes. 

The  arrangements  at  the  Stadium  were  similar  to  those  at  Colombes. 
The  location  of  the  camp  was  probably  not  quite  so  nearly  ideal,  but 
some  improvements  were  made  in  other  comforts  including  more  room 
for  messing.  Each  team  was  allowed  an  officers'  mess  tent  separate- 
from  the  mess  of  the  men.  Kitchen  police  were  assigned  to  aid  the 
kitchen  help  furnished  by  the  teams. 

The  picked  regiment  from  the  American  Army  of  Occupation  was- 
established  in  barracks  formerly  used  by  French  Hindu-Chinese  labor 
troops.  These  barracks  were  in  excellent  condition  and  the  smart 
regiment  from  the  Rhine  made  the  camp  a  model  of  cleanhness.  This 
regiment,  picked  from  the  entire  Third  Army,  functioned  as  an  inde- 
pendent unit,  had  its  own  battalion  and  company  organizations,  and 
drew  its  supplies  through  its  own  Quartermaster.  The  barracks  were 
within  two  hundred  yards  of  the  Stadium. 

The  American  athletes  were  quartered  at  Clignancourt  Barracks- 
at  the  end  of  the  Metro  line  north  of  Paris.  These  barracks  had  for- 
merly been  a  French  hospital  but  were  used  during  practically  the 
whole  period  of  America's  participation  in  the  war  as  a  replacement 
barracks  for  American  troops.  The  big  buildings  afforded  ample 
room  for  the  athletes  to  do  a  large  part  of  their  training.  A  special 
mess,  separate  from  the  mess  of  the  troops  at  the  barracks,  was  estab- 
lished for  the  athletes. 

The  swimmers  of  all  nations  except  the  French  did  their  training 
outside  of  France  and  reported  at  Paris  immediately  before  the  aquatic 
events  started.     The  French  trained  in  Paris. 

The  American  team  selected  Neuweid,  Germany,  a  town  of  some 
18,000  inhabitants,  situated  on  the  Rhine,  for  its  place  of  training. 
A  very  fine  natatorium,  thoroughly  sanitary  and  well  equipped, 
caught  the  eyes  of  the  trainers  while  the  Third  Army  team  was  training 
on  the  Rhine.  When  the  swimmers  from  the  United  States,  who 
came  to  France  for  the  meet,  arrived  they  were  sent  immediately  to 
Germany.  In  spite  of  the  facilities  offered  by  the  big  pool,  however, 
most  of  the  American  team's  training  was  done  in  a  small  stream  that 
ran  into  the  Rhine  at  Neuweid. 


128  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  swimming  events  of  the  Games  were  held  at  Lake  St.  James 
in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne  where  the  A.E.F.  meet  had  already 
been  held.  Tents  were  erected  for  dressing  rooms  and  other  comforts 
were  arranged  for  the  swimmers.     No  messing  was  done  here. 

CAMP    NEAR  LE   MANS 

The  problems  presented  in  connection  with  the  Rifle  and  Pistol 
events,  which  were  held  at  Belgian  Camp,  Sarthe,  near  Le  Mans,  were 
virtually  the  same  as  those  which  confronted  the  Games  officials  at 
Paris  and  were  handled  in  about  the  same  way.  The  competition 
camp  was  an  inheritance  from  the  A.E.F.  Rifle  and  Pistol  Competi- 
tion, concluded  in  May,  for  which  it  had  been  constructed.  The  d'Au- 
vours  Range,  the  world's  largest,  with  a  front  of  200  targets,  was  built 
in  1918  when  the  Le  Mans  area  was  an  American  combat  troop  training 
center.  It  was  rehabilitated  for  the  A.E.F.  shoot  and  served  the 
Inter-Allied  competitions  without  further  alteration. 

The  Camp  itself,  while  complete  in  all  ordinary  requirements  of  a 
first  class  cantonment  at  the  time  of  being  taken  over,  was  considerably 
improved  and  beautified  for  the  reception  of  the  foreign  marksmen. 
The  competitors  were  quartered  in  a  characteristically  American  tent 
city,  one  street  of  twenty-eight  Sibley  tents  being  assigned  to  each 
nation.  All  tents  were  floored  and  equipped  with  doors.  At  the 
head  of  each  "national  street"  stood  a  tall  staff  bearing  a  large  wooden 
shield  with  the  nation's  coat  of  arms  painted  in  colors.  Competitors' 
kitchens  and  mess  halls  were  adjacent  to  their  streets.  Separate 
messes  for  the  officers  and  enlisted  personnel  of  each  contingent  were 
provided  under  the  same  roof.  All  kitchen  help,  barracks  police  and 
orderlies  were  supplied  by  the  United  States  from  the  two  service  bat- 
tahons  on  duty  at  the  camp. 

An  American  officer  had  charge  of  each  national  street  and  all 
men  assigned  to  duty  therewith  were  under  his  command.  These 
officers  saw  to  it  that  every  service  was  rendered  and  every  wish  ful- 
filled which  the  visitors  might  express. 

Team  captains  and  their  adjutants,  and  in  two  cases  the  captains' 
wives,  occupied  a  row  of  converted  Swiss  huts  which  was  laid  out  in 
a  pine  grove  forming  Headquarters  Street.  These  huts  were  painted 
and,  with  the  addition  of  rustic  porches  and  window  boxes  filled  with 
blooming  flowers,  bore  more  resemblance  to  small  hunting  lodges 
than  the  conventional  knock-down  shelter.     Within  they  were  divided 


Top — ^King  of  Montenegro  presenting  medals  to  American  atUetes.  Center  left — General 
Gavaneuser,  Roumania,  an  interested  spectator.  Center  right — General  Pilot,  France,  and 
General    de    Ache,    Brazil.     Bottom — King    of    Montenegro    shaking    hands    with    General 

Pershing's    son. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  131 

into  two  rooms  and  furnished  with  rustic  tables  and  chairs  made  by 
American  artisans  from  timber  hewn  in  the  grove. 

At  the  head  of  the  street  stood  the  Headquarters  Mess  constructed 
and  furnished  in  the  same  style.  It  was  accessible  through  a  series 
of  winding  gravel  walks  laid  out  in  an  artistically  landscaped  garden 
of  lawns  and  flower  beds.  This  was  the  handiwork  of  a  soldier  who 
had  been  a  landscape  gardner  in  civil  life.  In  its  construction  more 
than  two  acres  of  sod  were  transplanted.  Night  illumination  was 
achieved  by  colored  lights  fixed  in  the  boughs  of  the  trees. 

The  Headquarters  Mess  was  the  scene  of  much  of  the  social  side 
of  the  camp  life.  During  the  day  its  broad  veranda  formed  a  gallery 
for  spectators  of  tennis  and  golf.  Every  effort  was  made  to  invest 
the  free  hours  of  the  visitors  with  a  social  atmosphere  in  keeping  with 
their  traditions  of  hospitality.  The  officers  of  the  visiting  teams 
were  entertained  in  turn  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  meet  the  team 
captains  were  the  guests  of  the  Headquarters  Staff  at  a  dinner  dance. 

There  were  nightly  entertainments  for  the  enlisted  men  at  the 
Y.M.C.A.  theater  and  clubrooms.  Tennis  courts,  a  golf  course,  volley- 
ball courts,  baseball  grounds  and  a  swimming  pool  were  provided  for 
the  use  of  the  competitors. 

The  officers  and  part  of  the  enlisted  personnel  of  the  camp  were 
housed  in  thirty-eight  wooden  barracks.  The  remainder  of  the  enlisted 
men  lived  in  tents. 

HORSE-RIDING    COMPETITORS   AT   FORT   DE    CHAMPIGNY 

The  officers  and  enlisted  men  and  also  the  horses  of  the  Allied  teams 
entered  in  the  Horse-Riding  events  were  received  and  quartered  at  Fort 
de  Champigny,  one  of  the  outer  chain  of  forts  erected  for  the  defense 
of  Paris.  In  it  comfortable  quarters  were  arranged  for  the  enlisted  men 
of  all  the  Allied  teams  and  messing  arrangements  and  other  conven- 
iences estabhshed  for  them.  Stables  were  immediately  built  on  the 
adjoining  public  ground  for  the  horses  and  land  was  rented  nearby 
on  which  suitable  obstacles  were  quickly  constructed  so  that  after 
their  arrival  the  various  Allied  teams  might  continue  their  training 
without  interruption  until  the  day  of  the  events  in  the  Stadium.  These 
obstacles  were  duplicates  of  the  obstacles  to  be  placed  later  in  the 
Stadium  and  were  laid  out  with  distances  and  arrangements  exactly 
as  they  would  be  found  on  the  day  of  the  events.  All  the  Allied  teams 
availed  themselves  of  this  obstacle  course  and  continued  their  training 


132  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

at  Fort  de  Champigny  after  their  arrival.  Colonel  F.  P.  Lahm,  A.S.,  was 
designated  as  Commanding  Officer  of  Fort  de  Champigny,  a  suitable 
staff  placed  at  his  disposal,  and  under  his  direction  the  Allied  officers 
were  billetted  in  the  adjoining  towns,  automobile  transportation  fur- 
nished for  trips  to  and  from  the  Stadium  and  to  Paris,  and,  in  general, 
every  attention  possible  was  given  by  him  towards  the  comfort  and 
pleasure  of  the  officers  and  men. 

Officers'  messes  were  established  by  each  nation.  The  enlisted 
men  of  each  nation  were  rationed  and  the  horses  foraged  at  the  expense 
of  the  United  States.  A  suitable  saddling  stable,  about  1,000  yards 
from  the  Stadium,  was  rented  and  placed  at  the  disposal  of  all  the 
teams  for  temporary  use  on  the  days  of  the  events  in  the  Stadium, 
where  the  officers  might  assemble  their  horses  under  cover,  and  where 
suitable  conveniences  were  provided  for  officers,  men  and  horses 
while  waiting  their  turn  to  enter,  according  to  their  places  on  the 
starting  list. 

ROWING   TRAINING    CAMP,    BOIS   DE    BOULOGNE 

The  departure  of  a  number  of  military  police  no  longer  needed  in 
Paris  left  room  in  the  American  Military  Police  Barracks  in  Bois  de 
Boulogne  at  Aqueduct  Bridge  for  the  150  Allied  oarsmen  training  for 
the  Inter-Allied  Regatta  on  the  Seine,  17-18  July.  Each  of  the  ten 
competing  nations  and  colonies  had  separate  quarters  for  their  oarsmen, 
trainers  and  boatmen.  All  the  contestants  messed  together  in  one 
of  the  vacant  mess  halls,  each  crew  having  its  own  training  table. 

Across  the  street,  on  the  river  bank,  twelve  canvas  hangars  were 
set  up  to  house  the  shells  and  other  material  required  for  the  races. 
Three  landing  stages  were  built  on  the  shore  and  the  shells  and  tents 
were  guarded  night  and  day  by  American  soldiers.  The  Y.M.C.A. 
provided  an  entertainment  tent  where  refreshments  were  served,  dances 
held  and  every  opportunity  given  to  the  visitors  to  mingle  under 
pleasant    conditions. 


CHAPTER  VII 
EQUIPMENT  AND  SUPPLIES 


HiLE  the  lack  of  sufficient  athletic  equipment  was  a  serious 
handicap  to  the  teams  of  mahy  of  the  competing  nations 
during  the  period  of  their  training  in  their  own  land,  as  has 
been  seen  in  Chapter  IV,  "How  the  Teams  Were  Selected 
and  Trained  for  the  Games,"  practically  all  difficulties  disappeared 
immediately  upon  arrival  in  Paris. 

Naturally,  the  first  thought  of  the  coaches  and  managers  after 
their  arrival  was  to  complete  their  stock  of  athletic  goods.  The  sec- 
tion of  the  Games  Committee  charged  with  Equipment  and  Supplies 
assisted  the  visitors  in  every  way  possible  by  advising  them  as  to 
where  the  needed  articles  could  be  purchased,  and  by  furnishing  neces- 
sary transportation.  In  accordance  with  the  general  regulations 
governing  the  competitions,  each  nation  assumed  responsibility  for 
the  equipment  for  its  individual  athletes.  However,  the  American 
Expeditionary  Forces  provided  all  field  equipment  and  all  supplies 
which  are  not  strictly  personal,  including  javelins,  vaulting  poles, 
discus,  16-pound  shot,  wrestling  mats,  tug-of-war  ropes,  and  complete 
baseball,  football  and  basketball  equipment,  in  addition  to  the  more 
permanent  fixtures  on  the  field  such  as  stands,  poles,  bars,  hurdles, 
flags  and  lanes.  Prior  to  the  opening  of  the  Games,  dumbbells,  chest- 
weights,  boxing  rings  and  similar  supplies  were  furnished  the  athletes 
at  Colombes  Field  for  training  purposes.  Personal  equipment  also 
was  furnished  to  the  baseball  teams  and  in  certain  other  cases  where 
the  visitors  were  unable  to  provide  for  their  needs  either  on  account 
of  lack  of  time  or  the  scarcity  of  the  articles  required. 

The  chief  source  of  supply  of  athletic  goods  was  the  large  stock 
brought  to  France  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  in  particular,  the  other  welfare 
societies  assisting  also,  in  anticipation  of  the  A.E.F.  athletic  program. 
The  Equipment  and  Supply  section  of  the  Games  Committee  was 
practically  the  same  organization  which  had  been  charged  with  the 
distribution  of  athletic  goods  in  the  A.E.F.  Consequently  there 
was  no  difficulty  nor  delay  in  procuring  the  principal  articles  of 
equipment.     However,  it  was  necessary  to  buy  some  articles  on  the 


134 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


French  market  and  even  to  send  to  England  for  special  equipment 
required  for  sports  not  played  among  American  troops. 

During  the  Games  a  supply  booth  was  maintained  under  the  Tri- 
bune d'Honneur  in  charge  of  a  supply  officer  who  was  prepared  to 
meet  the  needs  of  everyone  on  short  notice.  The  main  supply  tent 
was  located  in  the  Inter-Allied  Camp.  In  case  the  required  articles 
were  not  in  stock  either  at  the  booth  or  at  the  tent,  the  request  was 
telephoned  to  the  Paris  office  where  it  was  immediately  taken  care 
of  by  the  purchasing  officer  on  duty. 

After  the  Games  the  supplies  were  salvaged  for  reshipment  to  the 
United  States  for  use  among  the  troops  there.  The  teams  of  the 
Allies  were  allowed  to  keep  some  sets  of  equipment  for  a  number  of 
sports,  notably  baseball.  This  gift  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  encour- 
aging those  sports  among  those  nations  which  would  not  have  been 
able  to  continue  to  play  the  games  unless  they  had  received  this  assist- 
ance from  America. 


Top    left-Fouv    Hfdjaz    camels    which    amused    the    crowd    with    a    number   ''''    ^'f  ;';■      T"^' 

riahl-A  demonstration  of  Hedjaz  swordsmanship.     Botom  Ze/^-Hedjaz  camel  and  its  ride. 

Boilom  right— K  Hedjaz  representative. 


CHAPTER  VIII 
MEDICAL     ARRANGEMENTS 


HEN  a  heavy-muscled  Greek  wrestler  stepped  from  the  ring 
at  Pershing  Stadium  with  an  angry  mat  burn  across  his 
broad  shoulders,  a  medical  officer  was  on  hand  to  give  him 
proper  treatment.  If  an  Arab  failed  to  parry  a  slashing 
swing  of  a  sabre  in  the  hands  of  a  fellow  tribesman  and  lost  a  few 
square  inches  of  cuticle  as  a  result,  a  bandage  was  promptly  apphed 
by  the  hands  of  an  Army  surgeon.  If  Monsieur  Bonhomme  became 
excited  when  a  poilu  breasted  the  tape  ahead  of  the  other  AUies  and 
tumbled  from  the  perchy  bleachers,  a  doctor  and  an  ambulance  were 
on  the  spot  in  anticipation  of  the  accident. 

Medical  arrangements  to  care  for  the  hundreds  of  athletes  and 
the  thousands  of  other  officers  and  men  of  all  nations  connected  with 
the  big  games,  as  well  as  for  the  spectators,  assumed  large  proportions. 

The  chief  surgeon  of  the  District  of  Paris,  American  Expedi- 
tionary Forces,  was  in  charge  of  medical  arrangements  for  the  Games. 
This  made  available  the  entire  machinery  of  this  department  and 
through  it  were  operated  the  dispensaries  and  dressing  stations  estab- 
lished at  all  the  sites  of  competitions. 

While  proud  of  the  completeness  of  their  arrangements  for  medical 
and  surgical  relief,  the  attendants  were  very  much  gratified  that  no 
grave  cases  arose  to  require  their  remedial  measures.  Considering 
the  large  number  of  contestants  who  participated  in  the  Games,  and  the 
thousands  of  spectators  who  crowded  the  Stadium  and  grounds  for 
fifteen  days,  the  fact  that  there  was  not  a  single  really  grave  accident 
was  remarkable. 

Not  one  participant  in  the  competitions  received  a  serious  hurt. 
Several  spectators  suffered  painful  and  somewhat  serious  injuries. 
Two  of  these  were  due  to  the  press  of  the  crowd  on  Opening  Day. 

A  Frenchman  who  had  succeeded  in  gaining  a  coigne  of  vantage 
in  a  tree,  whence  he  could  catch  a  fleeting  glimpse  of  the  marching 
troops  and  other  ceremonials,  lost  his  footing  and  suffered  a  bad  case 
of  shock.  In  the  jam  around  the  gates  a  woman  sustained  a  dislo- 
cated elbow.     These  cases  were  treated  by  the  first  aid  station  and 


138  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

rushed  to  French  hospitals.  The  most  serious  accident  of  the  Games 
was  sustained  by  an  American  soldier  on  the  night  of  the  Fourth  of 
July  when  the  trough  holding  a  skyrocket  slipped  and  the  blazing 
arrow  shot  into  his  face  as  he  sat  in  the  stand.  The  sight  in  one  eye 
was  endangered  by  this  bit  of  celebration  of  the  Glorious  Fourth. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  the  Medical  Department  was  to  ofl'er  to 
cooperate  closely  with  all  the  physicians  of  the  visiting  teams.  At 
the  dressing  stations  soldiers  and  athletes  of  all  nations  were  treated > 

The  main  dispensary  for  the  Games  was  set  up  at  the  camp  at  Persh- 
ing Stadium.  This  consisted  of  a  hospital  tent  divided  into  an 
operating  room,  a  dressing  station,  quarters  for  the  enlisted  personnel,, 
and  a  prophylactic  station.  Three  officers  and  ten  enlisted  men 
handled  all  medical  work  at  the  Stadium  itself.  In  addition  to  holding 
sick  call  daily  for  3,500  men,  this  dispensary  kept  a  medical  officer 
in  the  arena  at  all  times  when  competition  was  actually  going  on.  An 
officer  also  was  sent  to  the  Salle-d'Escrime  nearby,  where  much  of 
the  fencing  was  held.  An  officer  was  at  the  ringside  for  every  boxing 
bout.  An  ambulance  was  held  in  readiness  at  the  entrance  to  the 
Stadium  during  the  Games  and  three  others  were  available.  These 
arrangements  were  in  addition  to  the  less  elaborate  arrangements  of 
the  medical  officers  with  each  of  the  competing  teams.  American 
and  French  hospitals  in  Paris  were  ready  to  take  any  case  that  could 
not  be  handled  at  the  dispensary. 

During  the  Tennis  and  Golf  tournaments  medical  officers  and  a 
sufficient  number  of  enlisted  personnel  were  sent  from  the  Paris  Dis- 
trict office.  At  Mare  St.  James  a  first-aid  tent  was  set  up  and  a  medical 
officer  with  enlisted  personnel  cared  for  the  swimmers.  This  station 
was  also  operated  from  the  Paris  District.  An  ambulance  accom- 
panied the  runners  in  the  Gross-Country  race  but  was  not  needed. 

While  training  was  in  progress  at  Colombes  Field,  a  dispensary 
was  operated  there. 

In  a  word  the  medical  arrangements  were  marked  by  unusual  pre- 
cautions for  every  phase  of  the  Games,  from  the  more  hazardous, 
such  as  fencing,  to  sports  in  which  the  probability  of  injury  is  almost 
neghgible,  such  as  golf;  but  the  actual  duties  of  the  section  fortunately 
turned  out  to  be  nothing  more  than  the  treatment  of  a  few  injuries 
and  attending  to  the  routine  prescriptions  of  sick  call. 


CHAPTER  IX 
RECEPTIONS    AND    ENTERTAINMENTS 


N  order  properly  to  play  the  role  of  host  to  guests  from 
eighteen  parts  of  the  world,  whose  ideas  of  entertainment 
differ  almost  as  widely  as  do  their  languages,  there  was 
organized  a  special  department  to  see  that  none  of  the 
participants  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games  suffered  from  ennui  and  that 
their  time  did  not  hang  heavily  on  their  hands  before  or  during  the 
Games. 

This  department  was  composed  of  officers  and  welfare  workers 
of  the  Y.M.C.A.  who  had  experience  along  this  line  in  the  American 
Army.  These  people  had  already  discovered  the  psychological  fact 
that  no  other  entertainment  is  so  enjoyed  by  the  American  doughboy 
as  that  which  he  furnishes  or  takes  part  in  himself.  This  knowledge 
was  applied  in  the  plan  of  entertainment  for  the  Inter-Allied  athletes. 
In  other  words,  the  entertainment  department  worked  out  a  scheme 
to  make  the  visitors  feel  that  it  was  "their  show." 

The  teams  were  met  when  they  arrived  in  Paris,  taken  to  their 
camps  and  told  to  "make  themselves  at  home."  Of  course  there 
were  formal  entertainments,  but  the  greatest  stress  was  laid  on  the 
plan  of  having  every  man  meet  the  rest  of  the  fellows.  The  scheme 
worked.  The  cosmopolitan  atmosphere  of  the  little  groups  about 
the  pianos  proved  it.  Informal  dances  that  simply  started  up  spon- 
taneously with  a  Belgian  or  a  Frenchman  pounding  out  the  latest 
American  foxtrot  for  a  group  of  all  nations  to  dance  by,  showed  that 
language  and  customs  were  no  barriers.  When  the  supply  of  Y.M.C.A. 
and  Red  Cross  girls  was  not  enough  to  allow  each  athlete  a  dancing 
partner,  an  Australian,  with  ostrich  plume  swaying,  seized  a  fellow- 
soldier  from  Roumania  and  swung  into  the  rhythm.  "Madelon" 
proved  to  be  almost  an  international  song.  But  everybody  knew 
"Tipperary."  If  they  didn't  know  the  words  they  whistled  the 
tune.  And  the  visitors  entertained  each  other.  For  it  must  be 
remembered  that  most  of  them  were  as  interesting  to  the  others  as 
all  were  to  the  Americans.  When  the  Arabs  stretched  a  canvas 
across  the  tennis  court  at  Colombes  Field  and  performed  the  latest 


140  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    I9I9 

thing  in  sword  dancing,  or  the  Czecho-Slovaks  did  a  folk  dance,  the 
Poilu  athletes  were  just  as  interested  as  the  Canadians.  These  sol- 
diers, fresh  from  their  common  victory,  made  an  interesting  and  varied 
crowd  as  they  formed  a  circle  around  the  performers.  The  incident 
at  Babel  produced  no  greater  variety  of  tongues  than  voiced  approval 
of  a  particularly  well  received  stunt. 

Social  and  club  life  was  provided  for  all  the  visiting  athletes;  a 
hut  was  erected  for  the  Composite  Regiment,  one  for  the  casual  troops 
and  one  for  the  four  negro  companies. 

The  center  of  main  activities  was  the  Y.M.C.A.  Inter-Allied  Hut, 
90  by  140  feet,  rightly  called  "the  melting  pot."  This  hut  was 
moved  from  Brest  to  the  camp  at  Pershing  Stadium.  It  was  here 
that  the  best  of  the  A.E.F.  shows  were  staged.  The  stage  and  lighting 
arrangements  were  almost  perfect.  Cinema  shows  were  held  nightly 
when  other  formal  entertainments  were  not  scheduled.  Four  formal 
dances  were  held.  It  took  twenty-one  Y.M.C.A.  secretaries  and 
ninety-five  American  girls  to  operate  this  hut.  Besides  making  and 
serving  lemonade,  the  women  worked  in  shifts,  as  they  termed  it, 
as  "floaters."  This  meant  that  their  duty  was  to  remain  in  the 
hut,  available  as  dancing  partners,  to  start  informal  games,  give 
information  and  encourage  the  visitors  to  mingle.  This  plan  produced 
a  wonderfully  homelike  atmosphere  in  the  big  hut. 

A  total  of  39,000  litres  of  ice  cream  and  200,000  gallons  of  lemonade 
were  served  without  charge  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  during  the  training  period 
and  while  the  games  were  on. 

In  the  hbrary  corner  of  the  big  hut  hundreds  of  letters  were  written 
home  daily  in  no  fewer  than  twelve  languages.  All  these  letters 
could  be  mailed  in  the  postoffice  at  the  hut. 

Most  of  the  1,000  athletes  and  7,000  other  troops  in  and  around  the 
Stadium  went  on  sight-seeing  trips  in  Versailles,  Paris  and  vicinity 
with  Y.M.C.A.  guides  and  in  cars  furnished  by  both  the  Army  and 
the  Y.M.C.A. 

Some  of  the  best  speakers  of  the  day  delivered  addresses  to  the 
visitors  and  other  troops.  Such  men  as  former  Ambassador  Henry 
Morgenthau  were  on  the  lecture  program. 

Not  all  the  entertaining  was  done  at  Colombes  and  Pershing 
Stadiums.  At  Chgnancourt,  where  many  American  athletes  were 
quartered,  similar  recreation  places  and  programs  were  arranged 
by  the  Y.M.C.A.     The  horsemen  were  well  earned  for  at  Champigny. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


143 


The  visitors  gasped  at  the  magnitude  of  the  entertainment  arrange- 
ments. Free  ice  cream  and  other  dainties  were  things  that  had 
been  unknown  for  a  long  time  in  some  of  their  war-ravaged  countries. 
Trainers  said  that  at  first  many  of  the  men  showed  signs  of  overindul- 
gence in  sweets,  but  the  quality  of  the  cream  and  the  pure  lemon  juice 
insured  no  really  bad  effects. 

Transportation  was  available  at  all  times  for  groups  that  wanted 
to  make  special  trips.  The  officers  of  all  nations  were  given  the  same 
privileges  of  using  automobiles  that  the  American  officers  enjoyed. 

In  addition  to  the  big  entertainment  huts  an  officers'  tent  was 
erected  at  Pershing  Stadium  where  Allied  officers  could  meet  more 
privately.     This  tent  was  handled  somewhat  similarly  to  the  others. 

Pershing  Hut  was  a  bungalow  erected  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  Commander-in-Chief,  his  friends  and  dignitaries  who  visited  the 
Games.  It  was  the  "reception  room,"  so  to  speak,  of  the  host. 
It  was  in  this  hut  that  all  high  officials  were  entertained  for  a  short 
while  before  and  after  the  Games  each  afternoon.  A  private  entrance 
led  from  the  bungalow  to  the  Stadium. 

The  Games,  then,  became  a  sort  of  huge,  three-sided  entertainment. 
The  athletes  entertained  the  thousands  who  poured  out  to  see  the 
competitions  each  day  ;  they  entertained  each  other,  and  the  Y.M.C.A. 
and  American  Army  left  nothing  undone  to  supply  them  with  outside 
entertainment. 


CHAPTER  X 
MEDALS  AND  TROPHIES 


ERiT  was  rewarded  and  permanent  recognition  made  of  the 
part  played  by  victorious  athletes  through  the  agency  of 
trophies,  medals  and  diplomas. 

Of  greatest  interest  to  the  individual  competitors  was 
the  Inter-Allied  Medal  which  was  awarded  to  the  winners  of  first, 
second  and  third  places  in  each  event,  and  to  each  member  of  the 
winning  teams.  Winners  in  all  the  principal  sports  likewise  received 
the  gold  or  silver  medal  of  the  French  Minister  of  War. 

Trophies  were  donated  by  prominent  officials  of  the  competing 
nations  in  the  majority  of  sports.  Among  the  illustrious  donors  of 
gifts  are  the  names  of  President  Wilson,  President  Poincare,  King 
Albert  of  Belgium,  Marshal  Petain,  M.  Glemenceau,  Italy's  Minister 
of  War,  China's  Minister  of  War,  and  their  Excellencies,  Hoo  Wei 
Teh  and  Lou  Tsong  Tsing  of  the  Celestial  Republic. 

The  Presidential  Trophy  can  well  be  considered  the  principal  one 
of  the  list.  It  is  a  beautiful  bronze  by  the  classic  sculptor,  Lanson, 
and  represents  the  successful  return  of  Jason  after  his  heroic  quest 
of  the  Golden  Fleece.  A  happier  symbolism  could  scarcely  have 
been  chosen  by  President  Wilson  for  his  gift,  typifying  as  it  does  not 
only  the  supreme  attainment  of  merit  at  Pershing  Stadium,  but  also  the 
attitude — almost  that  of  a  Launcelot — of  America's  participation  in 
World  War.  It  was  awarded  to  the  nation  winning  the  highest  the 
place  in  the  track  and  field  events. 

President  Poincare  contributed  eight  trophies — a  large  bronze 
statue  of  America's  best  friend,  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette,  designed 
by  Dolan,  and  seven  small  statuettes  representing  four  types  of  the 
French  poilu  and  three  of  the  Yankee  doughboy.  The  latter  group 
in  particular  is  wonderfully  well  done,  full  of  the  poise  and  action 
that  are  the  characteristics  of  these  fighters.  They  were  awarded  in 
the  swimming  events  which  were  of  particular  interest  to  the  French 
President. 

King  Albert  of  Belgium  interested  himself  particularly  in  the  art 
of  military  equitation  and  accordingly  presented  a  handsome  silver 

See  illustrations,  pages  75  473  481  487  49.5. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  145 

cup,  surmounted  by  the  figure  of  Winged  Victory,  to  be  given  to  the 
team  making  the  best  performance  in  horsemanship. 

Italy's  monarch,  in  commemoration,  perhaps,  of  the  safe  return 
to  Venice  of  the  famous  horses  of  St.  Marks,  donated  a  pair  of  exquis- 
itely wrought  silver  horses  mounted  on  marble  pedestals.  The 
workmanship  is  marvelous  and  fully  carries  out  the  old  Itahan  guild 
traditions  of  delicacy  and  feehng  in  design  and  execution.  They 
were  prizes  in  the  Rowing  (Eights)  contests. 

True  to  his  constant  belief  in  the  importance  of  individual  marks- 
manship as  well  as  organization  expertness  in  musketry,  General  Persh- 
ing identified  his  gift  with  the  rifle-shooting  competition  of  the 
Games.  His  trophy  was  doubtless  the  most  heroic  and  inspiring  in 
pose  of  all  the  varied  prizes  and  yet  the  bronze  statue  partakes  of  the 
classic  only  in  spirit.  With  true  fidelity  to  the  original,  the  artist, 
Richefeu,  caught  and  molded  into  his  work  the  indomitable  spirit  of 
the  American  soldier  in  action.  With  trench  knife  grasped  in  his 
left  hand  and  with  menacing  automatic  in  his  outstretched  right, 
with  every  line  and  curve  of  his  figure  picturing  energy  and  fearless- 
ness, the  Doughboy  is  a  symbol  of  American  resolution  in  time  of 
stress  and  adversity,  and  of  grim  American  aggressiveness  when  the 
battle  broke  in  favor  of  the  Allies. 

The  trophy  given  by  France's  beloved  premier,  M.  Clemenceau, 
sets  forth,  as  nothing  else  could  have  done,  his  country's  deep,  abiding 
love  of  ultimate  justice  and  right.  In  noble  gold  and  bronze,  his  gift 
portrays  what  France  longed  and  labored  for  throughout  the  years 
since  1870.  Virile,  exultant,  victorious  in  idealism  and  justice,  the 
Cock  stands  triumphant  at  last  over  the  black  German  Eagle. 
The  Boche  sword  is  finally  broken,  no  more  to  threaten  the  happy 
homes  of  France,  and  the  hated  Prussian  helmet  is  at  last  humbled 
to  the  dust  of  dishonor  and  oblivion.  The  artist,  Vacossin,  could 
find  no  more  appropriate  title  for  his  work  than  that  which  he  chose, 
"La  ;Revanche  et  le  Droit."  It  was  awarded  to  the  winning  soccer 
team. 

Marshal  Petain  gave  a  beautiful  gold  stop  watch  to  the  winner  of 
the  Rowing  Singles.  Another  beautifully  wrought  gold  watch  was 
the  gift  of  the  Italian  Minister  of  War.  It  was  awarded  to  the  winner 
of  the  800-meter  run. 

Although  unable  to  send  a  team,  China  showed  her  interest  in  the 
Games  by  donating  three  handsome  gifts.     The  Minister  of  War's 

10 


146 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


gold  cup,  His  Excellency  Hoo  Wei  Teh's  exquisite  porcelain  bowl, 
and  Lou  Tsong  Tsing's  silver  cup,  are  beautiful  examples  of  oriental 
craftsmanship. 

The  Comite  Nationale  d'Education  Physique  et  de  I'Hygiene  Sociale 
contributed  a  notable  bronze  statue  of  General  Hoche  designed  by 
Dalon. 

The  French  medal  was  made  by  the  government  mint.  It  shows 
on  the  obverse  side  the  classic  French  Liberty  head  in  profile  with  the 
words  "Republique  Frangaise,"  and  on  the  reverse  side  is  the  desig- 
nation of  the  donor,  "Prix  offert  par  le  Ministre  de  la  Guerre."  The 
Inter-Allied  medal  is  of  bronze  after  a  design  by  F.  Fraisse  and  shows 
on  one  side  Liberty  bestowing  a  wreath  of  Victory  upon  two  Greek 
athletes  with  the  inscription,  "Corporis  Robur  et  Habilitas."  The 
reverse  of  the  medal,  with  appropriate  ornamentation,  bears  the  name 
of  the  winner,  the  event,  and  place  engraved  for  the  various  events. 

The  schedule  of  awards  of  medals  and  trophies  was  as  follows  : 


Event 


Inter-Allied 

Medal 
Isl    2ncl   3rd   Tolal 

.36 
.20 


Baseball 18  18  . 

Basketball 10  10  . 

Boxing  : 

Bantamweight. . 

Featherweight. . 

Lightweight.  .  .  . 

Welterweight . .  . 

Middleweight.. . 

Light-heavyw't . 

Heavyweight.  . . 
Cross  Country  Race . 

Fencing  (Foils)  Ind.. 
Fencing  (Saber)  Ind. 
Fencing  (Epee)  Ind. 
Fencing  (Foils)  Team  6  6 
Fencing  (Saber)  Team  6  6 
Fencing  (Epee)  Team    6    6 


Soccer 14  14, 


1     3 

1  3 
1  3 
1     3 

..12 
..12 
..12 
.  .  28 


Rugby 18  18  ...36 


Silv 


French  Medal 


er  to  winner. 


Trophies 

Chin.  Porc'rn.  Bowl. 

Statue    of    General 
Hoche. 


1st  Place-Gold. 
2nd  Place-Silver. 
Gold,  to  winner. 


Silver  lor  each  mem-    Cock  and  Eagle, 
ber    ol   team,    To- 
tal  11. 

Silver  for  each  mem-    Chinese    Silver   Cup. 
ber    of    winning 
team,  Total  15. 


Fourth   of  July  .'it    Pershing    Stadium.      yop-Airplanf  soaring  ovr^r  field.      Center  left  and 
riyht-Night  pageants.     J5o«o»i— Airplane  flying  inside  the  Stadnau 


Event 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 

Prencli  Medal 


149 


Inter-Allied 
Medal 

1st    2id    3ra  Total 


Trophies 


Golf,  Ind 1     1 2 

Golf,  Team 8    8    8  24 

Hand-GrenadeThrow  1113    Silver  to  winner. 

Horse-riding,     Mili- 
tary  Team 6    6    6  18 

Horse-riding  Ind  ...  1113 

Horse  -  riding     Prize 

Jumping,  Ind 1     1     1    3    Gold  to  winner. 

Horse  -  riding     Prize 

Jumping,  Prs 2    2    2    6    Silver  to  winner,  to- 
tal 2. 

Rowing  (Singles).. . .  1113    Silver  to  winner 


Silver  Cup,   King  of 
the  Belgians. 


Gold   watch.    Mar- 
shal Petain. 


Rowing  (Fours) 5  5  5  15  Silver  to  each  mem- 
ber of  winning 
crew,  coxswain  ex- 
cluded. 

Rowing  (Eights). ...     9    9    9  27    Silver  to  each  mem-    Two  Statues  of  Hor- 

ber    of    winning       ses,  King  of  Italy, 
crew,      coxswain 
excluded. 

Shooting,     Rifle  Silver  to  each  mem-    "Hands    Up,"    Gen- 
Team  15  15  15  45        ber  of  winning  ri-    eral  Pershing. 

fle  team.  Silver 
to  high  individual 
score. 

Shooting,  Rifle,  Ind.    1113    Gold  to  winner. 

Shooting,    Pistol,  Silver  to  each  mem- 
Team  13  13  13  39        ber      of     winning    Chinese  Gold  Cup. 

team.  Silver  to 
highest  individual 
score. 


Swimming  : 

a.   100-M.     Free 

style 

6.  100-M.     Back 
stroke 

c.  200- M.  Breast 

stroke 

d.  400- M.      Free 

style 

e.  800 -M.      Free 

style 

/.  1500-M.    Free 
style 


1    3    Silver  to  winner. 
13 

1  O  5»  )»  >> 

13 

1    3    Silver  to  winner. 

13 


Seven  statues  of  Sol- 
diers, President 
Poincar6. 


150 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Inter-AIlied 

Event 

Medal 

French  Medal 

Trophies 

Isl 

2nd    3rd  Tutal 

g.  800 -M.    Relay, 

Silver 

to  each  mem- 

Freestyip, 

ber 

of    winning 

(4  men) 4 

4    4 

12 

team. 

Tennis  : 

a.  Singles 1 

1 

o 

Silver  to  winner. 

b.  Doubles 2 

'_) 

4 

J) 

51                   )) 

c.  Team   Singles 

and  Doubles.    4 

4 

Track  and  Field  : 

a.  100-M.   Dash.  .     1 

3 

Silver 

to  winner. 

Jason   and   the  Gol- 

b. 200-M.    Dash.  .     1 

3 

" 

" 

den    Fleece,    Pres- 

c. 400-M.    Dash.  .     1 

3 

i) 

51                    17 

ident  Wilson. 

d.  800-M.  Run.  ..     1 

3 

)) 

"                    " 

e.  1500-M.   Run.  .     1 

3 

"                    " 

Gold  watch,  Italian. 

f.  Modified      Ma- 

Minister of  War. 

rathon.                  1 

3 

Gold  to  winner. 

g.  110-M.      High 

hurdles 1 

3 

Silver 

to  winner. 

/2.  200-M.       Low 

hurdles 1 

3 

" 

" 

i.  Running    High 

Jump 1 

3 

" 

))        w 

/.  Running  Broad 

Jump 1 

3 

" 

"        " 

k.  Standing  Broad 

Jump 1 

3 

" 

n             o 

l.  Hop,  Step  and 

Jump 1 

3 

" 

" 

m.  Pole  Vault 1 

3 

" 

.> 

n.  Throwing  Jave- 

lin       1 

3 

" 

.: 

0.  Throwing    Dis- 

cus      1 

3 

,, 

15              1-) 

p.  Putting  16   lb. 

shot 1 

3 

" 

)J                    5  J 

q.  Pentathlon   ...     1 

4 

1st  PI; 

ice,  Gold.  2nd 

Place,  Silver. 
r.  Relay  race,  800 

M.       (4  men)   4    4    4  12    Silver  to  winner, 
s.  Relay      race, 

1600-M.       (4 

men) 4    4    4  12         "        "        " 

I.  Relay      race, 

Medley      (4 

men.) 4    4    4  12         '         " 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


151 


Event 


Inter-Allied 
Medal 

1st   and   Srd   Totol 


French  Medal 


Tug  Of  War  (9  men) .  11  11  . .  .22 


Water  Polo 10  10 

Wrestling  : 

a.  Catch-as-catch- 

can. 
Bantam 

Feather 

Light 

Welter 

Middle 

Light-heavy 
Heavy  .... 

b.  Greco-Roman  : 

Bantam  .... 

Feather 

Light  

Welter      .  .  . 

Middle 

Light-heavy 

Heavy 

Special  events  (Ar- 
my of  Occupation 
Only). 

a.  800-M.     Relay 

Race  (4  men.) 

b.  Running  broad 

Jump 


..20 


..2 

..2 
..2 

..2 

.  .2 
.  .2 

..2 
.  .2 
.  .2 
..2 
..2 
..2 
9 


4    4    4  12 


1113 


Trophies 

Silver  to  each  mem- 
ber   of    winning 
team.  Total  9. 


Silver  to  winner  of 
each  wrestling 
event  —  Greco  -  Ro- 
man Style,  total  7. 


In  addition  to  the  medals  and  trophies  prepared  for  the  successful 
competitors,  each  individual  winner  and  all  members  of  winning  teams 
received  a  diploma  signed  by  General  Pershing  and  by  Colonel  Wait 
C.  Johnson,  Chairman  of  the  Games  Committee.  This  diploma  bears  a 
special  design  prepared  by  the  American  sculptor,  Captain  Aitken  of 
the  U.  S.  Army,  and  shows  the  name  of  the  athlete,  the  country 
represented  by  him,  the  place  won  by  himself  or  his  team,  the  event 
participated  in,  and  the  date  and  place  of  the  event.  A  similar  diploma 
was  presented  to  all  members  of  the  Advisory  Committee  for  their 
work  in  promoting  the  success  of  the  sports. 

All  games  and  administrative  officials  and  competitors  were  given 
an  artistically  wrought  bronze  badge,  which,  when  worn  with  variously 


Diploma,  page  69.     Design  of  bronze  badge,  page  1. 


152 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


colored  ribbons,  identified  them  and  their  divers  duties.  The  metal 
emblem  bore  the  legend  "Inter-AUied  Games,  Pershing  Stadium, 
Paris,  June,  1919." 

Ribbons  in  the  following  color  combinations  and  numbers  were 
distributed  : 

GAMES     OFFICIALS 


COLOR  OF  COLOR  OF 

BIBBON  INK  No.  EIBEON     INK 

Referee  White  Gold  10  Red     Gold 

Scorer White  Gold  10  Red     Gold 

Starter White  Gold  10  Red     Gold 

Judge White  Gold  100  Red     Gold 

Inspector White  Gold  100  Red     Gold 

Timer White  Gold  _.  50  Red     Gold 

Clerk  of  course White  Gold  10  Red     Gold 

Umpire  White  Gold  Red     Gold 

Official White  Gold  100  Red     Gold 

Manager White  Gold  25  Red     Gold 


COLOB  OF 

No.    BIBBON  INK  No. 

10     Blue  Gold  10 

25     Blue  Gold  15 

10     Blue  Gold  10 

50     Blue  Gold  50 

Blue 

10     Blue  Gold  25 

6 

75     Blue  Gold  25 

100     Blue  Gold  100 

25     Blue  Gold  25 


GENERAL      OFFICIALS 


Games  Committee  . . . 
Advisory  Committee . 

Press 

Photographers 

Courier 

Information 

Usher 

Liaison  Section 

Technical  Section  . . . 
General  Section 


BIBBON           ,  INK  No. 

Gold  Blue  15 

Red,  White  and  Blue         Gold  50 

Yellow  Black  50 

Yellow  Black  50 

Light  Green  Gold  50 

Red  Gold  100 

Yellow  Black  300 

Red  Gold  75 

Red  Gold  100 

Red  Gold  100 


Athletes  in  all  events 


COMPETITORS 


COLOB  OF 
BIBBON  INK 

Blue  Gold 


No. 
1,500 


Baseball.      Toy — Amprica.     Center    left — America   playing   against   Canada.     Center    right — 
Gilpatrlck    of   Canada   scoring   on    hit   to    center   by   Klaehn,    beating   throw   from   center. 

Bottom — Canada. 


CHAPTER  XI 
ADVERTISING   THE    GAMES 


s  the  Inter-Allied  Games  were  organized  not  only  as  a  test 
of  athletic  skill  but  with  a  view  to  arousing  universal 
interest  in  organized  sports,  publicity  connected  with  the 
Games  had  the  double  role  of  sport  propaganda  as  well  as 
athletic  news.  In  addition  it  was  the  function  of  the  Pubhcity 
Department  to  stimulate  interest  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  not  only 
among  those  fortunate  enough  to  be  living  in  Paris  with  opportunity 
to  witness  the  Games,  but  among  the  people  of  all  Allied  nations. 
In  the  main  this  was  accomplished  by  the  printing  press  and  the 
camera. 

The  large  crowds  filling  Pershing  Stadium  day  after  day  regardless 
of  rain  and  cold  were  the  proof  of  the  persuasive  power  of  the  publicity 
campaign.  The  same  is  true  of  the  thousands  who  saw  the  swimming 
competitions  in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne  or  who  watched  the  Rugby  matches 
at  Colombes.  They  would  not  have  been  there  but  for  the  work  of 
three  sections  of  the  Publicity  Department  of  the  General  Section  of 
the  Inter-Allied  Games — The  Press  Section,  Printing  and  Adver- 
tising Section,  and  the  Information  Service.  And  it  is  the  fourth 
section,  the  Historical  Section,  which  collected  the  necessary  data 
and  wrote  this  history. 

It  was  through  the  press  that  the  pubhc  first  learned  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games.  This  information  came  from  the  Press  Section  organized 
for  the  service  of  all  newspapers  and  periodicals  of  the  competing 
countries.  The  Section  served  Parisian  publications  both  in  French 
and  English  ;  Continental  papers  including  French,  Belgian,  Italian, 
Portugese,  Czecho-Slovak,  Yugo-Slav,  Roumanian,  and  Greek ;  British 
papers  in  Australia,  New  Zealand  and  Canada  as  well  as  in  the  British 
Isles,  and  also  the  American  press. 

In  addition  to  supplying  newspapers  with  written  articles  and  pho- 
tographs, the  Press  Section  obtained  authentic  material  and  offered 
every  facility  possible  to  newspapermen  writing  their  own  accounts 
of  the  Games.  Composed  of  officers,  soldiers  and  Y.M.C.A.  workers 
who  were  newspaper  writers  before  the  war,  the  staff  of  the  Press 


156 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Section  was  organized  on  the  lines  of  a  large  American  city  newspaper. 
There  were  also  several  French  journalists  attached  to  this  Section. 

At  the  Press  Section  offices  at  1 1  Avenue  Montaigne,  Paris,  Army 
rank  was  practically  discarded.  Editors  and  writers  were  assigned 
to  "cover,"  the  various  features  of  the  Games  and  a  second  lieutenant, 
for  example,  edited  articles  written  by  captains,  lieutenants  and  enlisted 
men.  The  object  was  to  get  out  the  news,  to  get  the  facts  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  before  Allied  readers. 

Both  before  and  during  the  Games  these  articles  were  furnished 
to  Paris  newspapers  printed  in  English  and  to  British  and  American 
papers.  Here  is  a  record  of  Inter-Allied  Games  news  items,  written 
by  the  Press  Section,  which  were  printed  during  the  week  previous 
to  the  Games  in  the  three  English  printed  Parisian  newspapers  : 


Sunday June 

Monday 

Tuesday  

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 


NBW-TOBK 

CHICAGO 

LONDON 

H£IBAIiD 

TRIBUNE 

DAn.T  MATT. 

Mems 

Words 

Items 

Words 

Items 

Words 

15 

5 

1,800 

12 

3,055 

21 

2,340 

16 

5 

1,800 

12 

4,030 

1 

65 

17 

4 

1,800 

13 

3.835 

8 

1,560 

18 

6 

3,180 

12 

3,250 

15 

2,665 

19 

4 

4,355 

13 

4,615 

4 

975 

20 

1 

2,820 

11 

3,835 

3 

1,335 

21 

6 
31 

3,360 

17 
90 

4,160 

11 
63 

1,950 

19,115 

26,780 

10,890 

Grand  total  :  184  items,  56,785  words. 

Newspapers  printed  in  French  received  a  similar  service.  French 
articles  were  written  daily  by  Parisian  journalists  attached  to  the 
Press  Section  and  reproduced  generously  in  the  sports  columns  of 
French  and  Belgian  newspapers.  Through  the  generous  and  unfailing 
cooperation  of  the  American  Committee  on  Public  Information,  Inter- 
Alhed  Games  news  was  transmitted  by  wireless  each  day  to  America, 
Great  Britain,  Czecho-Slovakia,  and  the  Balkans. 

During  the  Games  a  section  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  of  Pershing 
Stadium  nearest  the  finish  Hne  of  the  track  events  was  reserved  for 
the  press.  Official  results  were  sent  here  within  a  few  seconds  after 
the  stopwatch  recorded  the  time  of  a  race.  Telephones  were  installed 
in  the  press  stand  for  Parisian  representatives  to  communicate  results 
to  their  papers.  In  this  way  Paris  evening  papers  were  able  to  print 
an  account  of  athletic  events  held  the  same  afternoon. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  157 

Just  behind  Pershing  Stadium  a  building  was  set  aside  as  press 
headquarters.  Here  were  more  telephones  and  French  and  American 
typewriters  for  the  use  of  press  representatives.  Motorcycle  couriers 
were  available  to  deliver  "copy"  in  Paris  to  newspapers  or  to  the  cable 
offices.  Army  telegraph  lines  communicating  with  Paris  were  installed 
here  and  through  this  medium  the  Games  were  chronicled  event  by 
event  for  the  use  of  French,  British,  and  American  news  services  such 
as  Havas,  Reuters's,  Associated  Press,  United  Press,  and  the  Inter- 
national News  Service, 

One  branch  of  the  Press  Section  handled  photographs  exclusively. 
A  staff  of  U.S,  Signal  Corps  photographers  was  attached  to  this  branch 
and  kept  constantly  on  the  field  at  Pershing  Stadium  taking  pictures 
of  every  event.  The  negatives  were  rushed  by  couriers  to  the  photo- 
graphic laboratories  where  prints  were  made  and  delivered  to  Paris 
papers  the  same  day.  The  next  morning  the  Paris  pubhc  would  see 
a  photograph  of  an  exciting  finish  to  the  race  witnessed  the  afternoon 
before.  A  number  of  interesting  photographs  of  the  Games  were 
taken  from  airplanes  above  Pershing  Stadium.  The  photographic 
branch  kept  on  file  copies  of  photographs  of  all  events  and  distin- 
guished personages  at  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  These  were  furnished 
without  charge  to  Allied  publications.  The  close  of  the  Games  saw 
the  photographic  branch  in  possession  of  a  complete  pictorial  history 
of  the  Inter-AUied  Games,  not  only  of  the  events  themselves,  but  of 
the  training  for  these  events  before  the  Games. 

Another  important  section  of  the  Publicity  Department  was  Print- 
ing and  Advertising.  This  section  had  charge  of  the  printing  of  the 
500,000  tickets  necessary  for  the  fifteen  days  at  Pershing  Stadium, 
the  Tennis  events  at  the  Racing  Club  and  Stade  Francais,  the  Swimming 
competitions  at  Mare  St.  James,  and  the  Rugby  matches  at  Colombes 
Field.  A  thousand  posters  in  colors  were  printed  and  posted  on  Paris 
billboards.  An  equal  number  of  placards,  bearing  the  same  design 
as  the  posters,  were  placed  in  hotels  and  shop  windows,  and  100,000 
postcards,  posters  in  miniature,  were  distributed  to  hotels,  information 
booths,  and  rooms  of  the  Y.M.C.A.,  Red  Cross,  and  Knights  of  Colum- 
bus. 

This  section  placed  the  orders  for  the  engraving  of  invitations. 
Several  thousand  handbooks  listing  the  sports  of  the  Inter-AUied 
Games  were  issued,  and  copies  of  the  Games  Rules  and  Regulations 
printed  with  French  and  English  texts.  Thousands  of  information 
folders,  with  directions  as  to  best  routes  to  reach  Pershing  Stadium, 

See  iUustrations,  pages  51  57  63  ;  inserts  opposite  160. 


158  THE    INTER-ALLIF,D    GAMES    —    1919 

were  printed  for  the  Information  Service.  Other  printing  items 
included  hundreds  of  signs  for  Pershing  Stadium  and  other  places 
where  various  events  were  held,  cloth  numerals  for  contestants,  and 
brassards.  Automobile  routes  to  the  Stadium  were  marked  by  signs 
through  the  maze  of  Bois  de  Vincennes.  It  was  this  section  which 
prepared  10,000  souvenir  booklets,  designed  by  American  students  at 
Julien's  Academy,  which  were  given  to  contestants  in  the  Games. 

The  Daily  Program  for  the  Games  required  great  care  as  well  as 
speed  in  preparation.  This  folder  listed  the  day's  events,  contestants 
entered,  and  results  of  events  of  the  preceding  day.  Copy  for  the 
next  day's  program  could  not  be  made  up  until  all  the  afternoon's 
results  were  available,  usually  about  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening.  By 
working  all  night,  type  was  set  up  at  the  A.E.F.  Central  Printing 
Plant,  and  the  Mobile  Printing  Plant  of  the  29th  Engineers  had 
20,000  copies  printed  by  morning  ready  for  distribution  at  information 
booths  in  Paris  and  at  the  Stadium. 

A  threatened  strike  of  Paris  newspaper  printers  led  to  fears  that 
not  a  daily  paper  in  the  city  would  appear  just  before  and  during  the 
Games.  In  case  of  such  a  strike  taking  place,  the  Publicity  Depart- 
ment had  all  arrangements  made  to  issue  a  four  page  daily  newspaper 
with  items  of  world  news  as  well  as  news  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games. 
With  the  Press  Section  already  having  an  organization  similar  to 
that  of  an  American  newspaper,  with  arrangements  made  to  secure 
cable  and  telegraphic  news,  and  with  the  Mobile  Printing  Plant  avail- 
able, the  Pubhcity  Department  could  have  brought  out  a  condensed 
paper  each  morning  with  little  difficulty. 

The  Information  Service,  another  section  of  the  Publicity  Depart- 
ment, also  kept  the  public  informed  as  to  the  Inter-AUied  Games. 
Through  the  courtesy  of  the  French  Mission  in  Paris,  seventy-five 
noncommissioned  officers  of  the  French  Army,  who  spoke  Enghsh, 
were  attached  temporarily  to  this  service.  Also,  twenty-five  non- 
commissioned officers  from  the  Third  American  Army  were  attached 
for  duty.  These  men  reported  10  June  and  immediately  were  sent  to 
a  school  which  lasted  until  the  opening  of  the  Games.  Here  they 
were  taught  the  history,  organization,  object  and  other  facts  concern- 
ing the  Inter-Allied  Games. 

Authority  was  sought  and  given  to  establish  forty-one  information 
booths  in  the  city  of  Paris  at  the  following  places :  Compagnie  Gene- 
rale  des  Omnibus  de  Paris  bureaux  in  Place  Chatelet,  Place  Louvre, 
Place  de  la  Republique,  Gare  de  I'Est,  Gare  de  Lyon,  Gare  du  Nord, 


PERSHING  STADIUM 


Is  Located  2  Kilometers  East  of  Paris. 
Near  Joinville-lePont. 


To  Reach  the  Stadium 


STADE  PERSHING 


SiTUE  A  2  Kilometres  a  l'Est  de  Paris. 

PRES  de  JOINVILLE-LE-PONT. 


Pour  Aller  au  Stadt 


METRO  AND  CONNECTIONS 

Take  line  No.  1  in  direction  Porte  Vincennes.  From 
Porte  Vincennes  tramway  runs  every  five  minutes  direct 
to  stadium.  Take  tramcars  marked  "Champigny"  or  "La 
Varenne." 

Taxi-cabs  also  meet  Metro  at  this  point. 


METRO  ET  CORRESPONDANCES 

De  iJ'pTriV^x)-^^  "°-  h  ^''^"°°  P"'*^  <^«  Vincennes. 
Ue  la  i-orte  de  Vincennes  des  tramways  partem  toutes  les 
cinq  minutes  dans  la  direction  du  Stadc.  PrenieSra,^ 
ways  "Champigny"-ou  "la  Varenne." 

Des  taxis  se  trouveront  aussi  a  la  sortie  du  Metro. 


STEAM  RAILROAD 

Chemin  de  Fer  de  Vincennes  leaves  Place  Bastille 
every  twenty  minutes  for  Joinville-le-Pont. 

Take  Metro   line  No.   1   direction   Port  Vincennes  to 
Gare  de  Vincennes  at  Place  de  la  Bastille  to  board  trains. 

Taxi-cabs  meet  trains  at  Joinville-Ie-Pont. 


TRAINS 

U  fiif  ^f"'"  ^f  ^"  ^^  Vincennes  part  de  la  Plac-  de 
la  Bastille  toutes  les  vingt  minutes.  Prendre  metro  li;rne 
no.  ,  direction  Porte  de  Vincennes.  Descendre  a  la 
BasUlle  pour  prendre  le  train  a  la  Gare  de  Vincennes. 

TJes  taxis  se  trouveront  a  la  Gare  de  JoinviUe-Ie-Pont. 


AUTO  ROUTES 

1.  Go  east  on  Rue  de  Rivoli.  Turn  to  right  at 
Place  Bastille  onto  Rue  de  Lyon.  At  Gare  de  Lyon  turn 
to  left  on  Boulevard  Diderot.  This  boulevard  becomes 
the  Cours  de  Vincennes  and  later  Avenue  de  Paris.  Then 
on  Ave.  de  la  Tourelle,  Ave.  Esplanade  and  Rue  Pyra- 
mid? to  south  entrance. 

2.  Another  and  usually  less  congested  route  is  east 
along  the  Grands  Boulevards  (Bds.  de  la  Madeleine,  des 
Capucines-des  Italiens)  through  place  de  la  Republique. 
Turn  to  right  on  Boulevard  du  Temple  to  Place  de  la 
Bastille  through  Rue  de  Lyon  to  Avenue  Daumesnil  to 
Fort  de  Picpus  la  Demi-Lune — le  Fort  de  Vincennes  to 
route  de  I'Obelisque.  then  on  to  South  entrance  to 
Stadium. 


EN  AUTO 

TrnTi"^''  r'^  ''^V  *^^  P"'«'  P"  '^  R"e  de  Rivoli. 
1  vnn  A  i^  r'°"^:  P.'^*=^  *^^  '«  ^««'''l«  d«"s  'a  Rue  de 
DiH«„,  rf  ^^  ^y**"'  P^^^^re  a  gauche  le  Boulevard 
uiaerot.  Le  boulevard  devient  Cours  de  Vincennes,  puis 
Avenue  de  Pans.  Prendre  ensuite  I'Avenue  de  la  Tourelle, 

c.JaT  f^  '  ^^P'^na'Je  et  la  Rue  des  Pyramides  qui 
conduit  a  1  entree  sud  du  Stade. 

intenSl"^  ^"'•''^  '"''"'^°"  '^  ^^^"^  ^'  generalement  moins 
Grand!  n  T^  J  '^i^''^'  ^°  '^  *^'"8««"'  ^«"  ''Est,  les 
et  H.  I.  r^^^'*^'  (Bds.  de  la  Madeleine,  des  Capucines 
Drenli  !"'-^  J"'*^"'^  '^  P''''^«  ^^  '«  Republique.  La, 
fa  Pit  ^  ?'u  ^'  ?,^'  '^  Boulevard  du  Temple  aller  a 
Danlr  t'^  ^^'''"^'  '"*^^«  '«  R"e  de  Lyon,  I'Avenue 
Fortf  "v  ^""^"  ^"  ^''''  ^«  P''=P"«'  a  'a  Demi-Lune,  au 
conlf  ^,T^"°«^;  prendre  la  route  de  I'Obelisque"  qui 
conduit  a  I  entree  sud  du  Stade.  " 


PARKING  SPACE 

Machines   will   be   parked    in   rear   of  the  Tribune 
'i  Honneur  and  in  space  just  southeast  of  Stadium. 

ALicliines  will  be  checked  and  placed  under  guard. 


GARAGE 


Les 


voitures    seront    garees    derriere    la    Tribune 

GrardeTrVune'"'    ""    "^'"^  "'"''  ^"  ^"'  ^''  ''  '^ 

!«.,  I;"^^  "machines  seront  gardees  et  des  tickets  delivres  a 
leur  proprietaire. 


INTER-ALLIED  GAMES 

PROGRAMME,  FRIDAY,  JULY  4,  1919 


162-A  Event — Concours 


Time— Heure  10:00 


PELOTA. 

EXHIBITION  BY  BELGIAN  TEAMS 

163  Event— Concours  Time— Heure  11:— 12:00 

MASS   GAMES— JEUX  D'ENSEMBLE. 

Exhibition  o£  mass  games  as  used  for  training  in  American  Army,  given  by  2nd  Battalion, 
7th  Engineers  of  the  5th  Division,  American  Army  of  Occupation. 

Demonstration  des  Jeux  d'ensemble  comme  employee  pour  I'entrainement  de  1  arm6e 
Am^ricaine,  donni5e  par  le  2me  Bataillon,  7me  Regiment  de  la  5me  Division  de  I'arm^e  d  oc- 
cupation Am^ricaine. 

164  Event— Concours  Time— Heure  9:,  14:,  17:30 

SABERS,    Team    Competition — SABRE,    Concours    par   ^quipes. 


BELGIUM 
ITALY  . . .  . 


CZECHO  -SLOVAKIA) 
PRANCE  


AMERICA  . 
GREECE  .. 


GREECE  (12-19) 


PORTUGAL . 


1070 
1092 
1093 
1084 
1090 
1094 


1046 
1048 
1050 
1044 
1047 
1051 


BELGIUM 
CaUe 
Darien 
De  Strooper 
Peyerick 
Gillens 
Tom 

ITALY 
Nadi,  Nedo 
Urbani 
Cesarano 
Nadi,  Aide 
Baldi,  Baldo 
Puliti 


CZEOHO-SLOVAKIA 

329  Javurek  2200 

335  Svorelk  2176 
328  Kroupa  2361 
327  Klika  2362 

336  Cipera  2204 
333  PfeifEer  2205 

PRANCE 

542  Ancel  751 

543  Collin  752 

544  de  St.  Germain  753 

545  Hubert  754 

546  Mendielli  756 

547  Percdom  758 


GREECE 
Botassi 
Notari 
Zarcadi 
TriantafiUacos 
Skotidas 
Tsagaris 

PORTUGAL 
Recha 
Sabbo 
Dias 
Oliviera 
Motta 
Perreira 


165  Event — Concours  "r*™^ 

800  M.  RUN— (Finales)— 800  M.  PLAT. 


-Heure    14:30 


Worlds  Record— Record  du  Monde— J.  E.  Meridith,  America,  Im.  51.9s 
Olympic  Record— Record  Olympique— J.  E.  Meridith,  America,  Im.  51.9s. 
French  Record — Record  Prangais— Henri  Arnaud,  France,  Im.  55.8s. 


1st  —  lere 

2nd   -  2e 

3rd  -  3e 

TIME  —  DUREE 

648 
1183 

831 
1184 
1444 


Mason,  New  Zealand 
Bergmeier,  Australia 
Eby,  America 
Praser,  Australia 
Heilbuth,  Prance 


166  Event — Concours 

iwnnTPTKn  MARATHON- 


830  Spink,    America 

838  Scudder,  America 

1185  Chalmers,  Australia 

1272  Delarge,  Belgium 


Time — Heure  14:45 
-16.000m.— MARATHON  MODIFIE. 


169  Event — Concours 

SHOT  PUT— .(Fi 


Time — Heure  14:45 
— LANCEMENT  DU  POIDS. 


™pfc&t:RTcn^^^        Monde-Rose,  America,  15.544m. 


912     Caughey,  America 
903     Liversedge,  America 


1st 

2nd 

3rd 

No. 

Dist. 

915     Maxfield,   America 
1456     Paoli,  Prance 


170  Event — Concours 

„„,  „  Time — Heure  15:30 

POLE  VAULT-(Finales)-SAUT  A  LA  PERCHE 

ort:^^RX^d-i.rrii'^oC7^^^^^ 

French  Record-Record  Pra^a^-P.  GoLT^°:^cett^il^'-''"'- 


itol     J^fancquemelle,  France 
i-ias     Gajan,  France 
1412     Girard,  Prance 


No. 

Ut 

2nd 

3rd 

Dist. 

898  Ervin,  America 

899  Floyd,  America 
902     Harwood,  America 


171  Event — Concours  _. 

_,,-_  Time — Heure  14*00 

TUG-OF-WAR-(Demi-Finales)--LUTTE  A  LA  CORDE. 

FRANCE  

AMERICA 


AMERICA  (2-0) 


ITALY , 

CANADA ■■■{ITALY  (2-1) 

AUSTRALIA i 

GREECE H^USTRALIA  (2-0)   . . 


BELGIU.M. 


172  Event — Concours 


BASEBALL. 


Time — Heure  15:00 


I 

2 

3 

4     5 

6 

7 

8 

9    10   11 

r? 

TOTAL 

1"" 

RUN 

HIT        ERROR 

—   - 

1      1 

. J 

BOXING— BOXE. 
Weight— Poids 


BANTAM— coos 

1209     Evans,  Australia  VS.  969  Marrorati,  Italy. 


■^Ivent — Concours 

174 


Time — Heure  14:00 


648  Mason,  New  Zealand 

1183  Bergmeier,  Australia 
831  Eby,  America 

1184  Fraser,  Australia 
1444  Heilbuth,  Prance 


83SI  Spink,    Aiiwric  a 

838  Scudder,  Am.MiiM 

1185  Chalmers.   Austiali.i 

1272  lJ.-larK"\   Hrlv,num 


166  Event — Concours  Time — Heure  14:45 

MODIFIED  MARATHON— 16,000m.— MARATHON  MODIFIE. 


Ist  —    lere 

2nd  —  2e 

3rd    -    3e 

TIME-  DUREE 

720 

730 

846 

850 

853 

971 

972 

973 

1103 

1189 

1190 

1191 


Keeper,  Canada 
Massey,  Canada 
Stout,  America 
Faller,  America 
Kennedy,  America 
Pagliani,  Italy 
Negri,  Italy 
Sperori,  Italy 
Broos,  Belgium 
Hewitt,  Australia 
Griffiths,  Australia 
Dolton,  Australia 


1274  Holsbei-ki-,  Belgium 

1280  Van  Hoey,  Belgium 

1383  Vermeulen,   France 

1389  Heuet,  France 

2143  Djebellia,  France 

2185  Dima,   Roumania 

2192  Florea,  Roumania 

2195  Balan,  Roumania 

2257  Tsailas,  Greece 

2258  Kovlovberdas,  Greece 
23B3  Phillips,  Canada 


167  Event — Concours 


Time — Heure    16:30 


MEDLEY  RELAY— RELAIS  MIXTE. 


hi  —  lere 

2nd  —  2e 

3rd    -   3e           TIME  — DUREE 

First  man  runs  200  meters 
Second  man  runs  400  meters 
Third  man  runs  800  meters 
Fourth  man  runs  1,600  meters 


lore  homine  cuurt  200  ni. 
2eme  homine  court  400  iii. 
3eme  homine  court  800  ni. 
4eme  homine  court  1,000  m. 


BELGIUM 

ROUMANIA 

1258 

Wouters 

Substitutes 

2158 

Valianto 

1268 

Smet 

1262 

Boon 

2178 

Marniescu 

1271 

Van  Dyck 

1267 

Laen 

217(1 

CriHtia 

1272 

Delarge 

1276 

Devaux 

21115 

Kne  Radn 

AUSTRALIA 

ENGLAND 

ITALY 

1180 

Hume 

1223 

Francombe 

1(75 

Croci 

845 

Johnson 

1221 

Tittle 

980 

Candelori 

1183 

Bergmeier 

1226 

Norlton 

081 

Sttlvi 

1188 

Manley 

352 

Atkin 

082 

Bonini 

AMERICA 

KUANCK 

813 

Haas 

1398 

Seurin 

828 

Campbell,  T. 

1401 

Devaux 

827 

Campbell,  F. 

1407 

Burtin 

922 

Shields 

1406 

Amaud 

168  Event — Concours  Time — Heure  14:45 

RUNNING  HIGH  JUMP— (Finales)— S A UT  EN  HAUTEUR  AVEC  £LAN. 

World's  Record — Record  du  Monde — O.  L.  Horine,  America,  2.000m. 
Olympic  Record— Record  Olympique — A.  W.  Richards.  America,  l.li:)m. 
French  Record — Record  Frantais  Geo.  Andr^,  France,  1.886m. 


Ist 

2nd 

3rd 

No. 

- 

Di.t. 

1432  Labat,  France 

1433  Lowden,  Prance 
1344  Mathey,  Prance 
2284  Ghiringhelli,  Italy 


870     Larscn,  America 

873     Rice,  America 

876     Templeton,  America 


Hvent — Concours 

174 


BOXING— BOXE. 

Weight— Poids 


175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

1$0 

181 
188 
183 

184 
185 
186 

187 

188 

189 

190 

191 
192 
193 


BANTAM— COQS 

l-(i!)      Kv.-ms,  Australia  VS.  <Hi!l  .Marrorati.  Italy. 

>u-      M     ,         .  HEAVY-LOURDS. 

l.M/      Martin,  Amon,.,.   V.S.  nyv  Coghill.  Australia. 

,„,„     ^      ^        .  FEATHER-PLUMES. 

1342     Fundy,  America  V.S.  .•i82  D.Punthieu,  Franco. 

i-^^a     v^     *  .        '''^"'^  HEAVY-MI-LOURDS. 

1348     Norton,  America  V.S.  1199  Pettibridge,  Australia. 

LIGHT— LEGERS 

1350     .McNeill,  America  VS.  1204  \Vat«on,  Australia. 

,„„„     _  .         .      ,    MIDDLE— MOYENS. 

1338     Eagan,  America  VS.  373  Thomas,  France. 

fl70      Af.        ..    ^  WELTER-MI-MOYENS. 

679     Attwood,  Canada  VS.  374  Prunier,  France. 

WRESTLING-Catch-as-Catch-can-LUTTE. 

,„.,     „  ,,     .  HEAVY-LOURDS. 

13a7     Parcault,  America  VS.  402  Salvator,  France. 

,.,«,      ,.,„.,      ,  FEATHER-PLUMES. 

1361      Littlej,.hault.  America  VS.  1215  Taylor,  Australia. 

I-^IT     V  u     .     ^'*'"'^  HEAVY-Ml-LOURDS. 

13o7     larcault,  America  VS.  1211   .Meeske,  Australia. 

i-^fln     M.         ,  LIGHT— LEGERS. 

1360     Mitropohs,  America  X'S.  576  Mai^hall,  New  Poundland. 

,..,„     „    ,         .  MIDDLE— MOYENS. 

lSo8     Irehm,  America  VS.  1213  Palmer,  Australia. 

,„.„     ^    ,         ,  WELTER— MI-MOYENS. 

13o9     Farley.  America  VS.  1214  Bridges,  Australia. 

WRESTLING— Greoo-Romalne—LUTTE. 

ooft,     „,  BANTAM— COQS. 

-JB4     \A  isenian,  America  VS.  2305  Belcome,  France. 

1>4«     r     1        I.  ,  HEAVY-LOURDS. 

1-48     Coel.-s.  Belgium  VS.  400  Bechard,  Prance. 

,n-„     ,.     ,  FEATHER— PLUMES. 

XOdO     \aglio,  Italy  VS.  1256  Dirik.  Belgium. 

30-.     n    .  .    ^        LIGHT  HEAVY-  MI-LOUHDS. 

■iOo     Dostal.  Czecho-Slovakia  VS.  306  Kopriva,  Serbia. 

,„r-     «  ,  LIGHT— LEGERS. 

lOoo     Parro,  Italy  VS.  301  Beranek,  Czecho-Slovakia. 

,,,..,     _  ,  MIDDLE— MOYENS. 

1053     Gargano.  It.ily  VS.  1251  Van  Antwerpen,  Belgium. 

,.,..,     „  WELTER— MI-MOYENS. 

1-53     .Sauvonnet.  Belgium  VS.  303  Halick,  Czecho-Slovakia. 


Time — Heure   14:00 


194  Event— Concours  ». 

Time— Heure  17:30 
PARADE  OF  AMERICAN  TROOPS. 

Review  of  Composite.  Regiment,  American  .4rmy  of  Occupation. 

195  Event-Concours  SOKOL.  Tim,^H.ur.  19:00 

GYMNASTIC  EXHIBITION  BY  YOUGO-SLAV8 

FIREWORKS  IN  EVENING— FEU  D'ARTIFICE  (SOIR) 


Program    June    22 July   6,    1919 


IN  STADIUM— DANS  L,E  8TADB 


OUTSIDE  STADIUM — HORS  DU  STADE 


Date. 


22  June 
22  Juin 


23  June 
23  Juin 


24  June 
24  Juin 


Track. 
Course. 


100      m.      dash      (trials) 
100  m.  plat  (eliminatoires) 
1500  m.  run  (trials) 
1500  m.    course    de    fond 
(eliminatoires) 
100  m.   dash   (setni-dnals) 
100  m.    plat    (ripmi-fln.Tles 


Field. 
Concours  Athletiques. 


25  June 
25  Juin 


27  June 
27  Juin 


110  m.    hurdles    (trials) 
110  m.    hales    (elimina- 
toires) 
200  m,  dash  (trials) 
.100  m.    plat    (elimina- 
toires) 


100  m.  dash  (dnals) 
100  m.     plat     (finales) 


28  June      200  m.    dash    (semi-Hnals) 
28  Juin       200  m.  plat  (demi-dnales) 
1500  m.    run    (flnals) 
1500  m.  course  de  fond 
200  m.    hurdles    Urials) 
200  m.   baies   (elimina- 
toires) 
200  m.    da.sh    (Hnals) 
200  m.   plat   (nnalf>s) 


Hand    Grenade 
Lancement  de  grenades 
Javelin 
Javelrit 


Other  Event. 
Autres  Concours. 


Baseball 


Boxing 
Boxe 


Soccer 
Football- 
Boxing 
Boxe 
Wrestliiif; 
Lutte 
Fencing 
Escrimu 


association 


Fencing 
Escrlmc 


Discus  (trials) 
Disques  feliminatoires) 
Running  Broad  Jump  (trials) 
Saut  en  longueur  avec  elan 
(eliminatoires) 


29  June  I 
29  Juin 


30  June 
30  Juin 


400  m.  dash   (trials) 
400  m.  plat   (elimina- 
toires) 
110  m.  hurdles  (finals) 
110  m.   haics   (finales) 
800  m.   relay   (trials) 
800  m.  relais  (eliminatoires) 


Running  Broad  Jump  (finals) 
Saut  en  longueur  avec  elan 

(finales) 


400  m.    dash   (semi-finals) 
400  m.    plat    (demi-llnales) 

Cross-Country   Run 

Cross-Country    (individuel) 
800  m.   relay   (finals) 
800  m.   relais   (finales) 


1    July 
1   Juillet 


July 
Juillet 


3  July 
3  Juillet 


4  July 
4   Juillet 


5  July 
5  Juillet 


6  July 


400  m.  dash  (finals) 
400  m.  plat  (finales) 
200  m.  hurdles  (finals) 
200  m.  haies  (finales) 

PENTATHLON 


Standing  Broad  Jump(finals) 
Saut  en  longueur  sans  tian 

(finales) 
Pole  Vault  (qualifying) 
Saut    a    la   perche    (qualifi- 
cation) 
High    Jump    (qualifying) 
Saut  en  hauteur  avec  6lan 


800  m.  run   (trials) 
800  m.  course  de  fond 
(eliminatoire.s) 


1600  m.  relay  (trials) 
1600  m,  relais  (elimina- 
toires) 


Modified    Marathon 

Marathon  modifiA,  16,000  m. 
800  m.  run  (finals) 
800  m.  course  (finales) 

Medley  relay 

Relais   mixte 


800  m.   relay    (army   of 

occupation) 
800  m.  relais  (armie  d'oc 

cupation) 


Postponed  Events 


6  Juillet  Epreuves  remLses 


Standing  Broad  Jump(trials) 
Saut  en  longueur  sans  felan 
Hammer  Throw  (Exhibition) 
Lancement  du  marteau 
Discus  (finals) 
Disques    (finales) 


Soccer 

Football— association 

Basket   Ball 

Boxing 

Boxe 

Wrestling 

Lutte 

Fencing 

Kscrirne 


Ba.seball 

Fencing 
F.scrimo 
V  Heure 


Soccer 

Football— association 

Boxing 

Boxe 

Wrestling 

Lutte 

Basket    nail 

Fencing 

Escrlnii- 


Soccer  (finals) 

Football  -association 

Fencing 

Escrime 

Basket  Ball 


Special   Events. 
Divers. 


Events 
Epreuves 


Place. 
Lieu. 


Dedication  Ceremonies 
Formal    Opening 
Parade  of  Athletes 
Inauguration 
Defile  des  athletes 


Informal  Opening 


Rugby 


Colombes 


Exhibition  Riding,  Arabians 
Fantasia  Arabe 


Time. 
Heure. 


5  P.  M. 
17  Heure 


Rugby 

Swimming — Natation 
400  m.  free  style  (trials) 
400  m.    style    libre    lelinii- 

natoires) 
100  111.  back  stroke  (trials) 
100  m.  nagc  sur  le  dos 
900  m.  free  style  (trials) 
800  m.  style  (libre) 

Water    Polo 


Columbes 

Mare  St.   James 

Bois  de  Boulogne 


P.  M.  17; 
:30   P.   M. 

14:30 


Swimming — Natation 

100  m.    free   style    (trials) 

100  ni.  style  libre 

200  m.  breast  stroke  (trials) 

200  m.  brassc 
1500  m.  free  style  (trials 
1500  m.  style  libre 

Swimming — Natation 
100  m.  back  stroke  (finals) 
100  m.  nage  sur  le  dos 

(finales) 
400  m.  free  style   (finals) 
400  m.  style  libre   (finales) 
100  m.    free   style    (semi- 

nnales) 
100  m.    style     libre     (dcmi 

watfff    PtJi'o 


Mass    Games 
Jeux  d'ensemble 


Boxing 

Boxe 

Wrestling 

Lutte 

Fencing 

Escrime 


Mass   Games 
Jeux   d'ensemble 


Boxing 
Boxe 
Wrestling 
Lutte 
Fencing 
Escrime 

Tug-of-War  (trials) 
Lutte  a  la  corde 
(eliminatoires) 


Shot-1'iit    (trials) 
Lancement  du  poids,  elim- 
inatoires) 


High  Jump  (finals)  Boxing 

Saut  en   hauteur  avec  (Slan  Boxe 


Fencing — Escrime 


(finales) 
Pole  Vault  (finals) 
Saut  a  la  perche  (finales) 
Shot-Put   (finals) 
Lancement  du  poids 

(finales) 


Wrestling 
Lutte 
Baseball 
Tug  of  War 

(semi-finals) 


Running  Broad   Jump  jTug-of-War     (finals) 

(Army  of  Occupation)     iLutte  a  la  corde 

Saut  en  longueur  avec  ftlan]       (finales) 
(armiie  d'occupation)         Fencing 

Hop,  Step  and   Jump  JEscrime 

Triple  saut  | 


Mass  Games 
Jeux   d'ensemble 


Morse  Competition 
Prize  Jumping,  Military 
Concours  hippique  militaire 
Exhibition  Riding,  Arabians 
Fanta.sia  Arabe 


Horse  Competition 
Prize  Jumping  in  Pairs 
Concours   hippique    (saut 

par  deux) 
Exhibition  Riding,  Arabians 
Fantasia  Arabe 


Parade  of  Picked  Regiment 
Revue   (regiment   d'infant- 

erie  Americaine) 
Fireworks   in   evening 
Feu  d'artifice  (soir) 
(iymnastics  by  Yougo-Slav 
Pelota,  (exhibition  by 

Belgian   teams) 


Horse  Competition 
Prize  Jumping  (Individual) 
Concours  hippique 
Exhibition  Riding,  Arabians 
Fantasia  Arabe 


(;iosing   Ceremonies 

(Cloture 

Award  of  Prizes 

Remises  de  decorations 


Football — Rugby 


Man-  St.  James 
Bois  de  Boulogne 

2:30   P.   M. 

14:30 

Mare  St.  James 
Bois  de  Boulogne 

2:30   P.   M. 

14:30 

10  A.   M. 
16.15 


Distance  Ride,   military 
Concours   Hippique    (Raid) 
Swimming — Natation 
100  m.  free  style  (finals) 
100  m.  style  libre   (finali-s) 
1500  m.  free  style  (finals) 
1500  m.  style  libre  (finales 
200  m.  breast  stroke  (final 
200  m.  brasse  (finales) 


Swimming — Natation 
800  m.  relay  (4  men) 
800  111.  relais  (4  hommes 
800  m.  free  style  (finals) 
800  m.  stvie  libre  (finales) 

Water   Polo 


Maie  St.   James 

Bois  de  Boulogne  14:30 


.Mare  St.   Jami:s 
Bois  de  Boulogne 


Oidf 


La  Boiil 


Golf 


14:30 


La  Bniil 


Riflo  and  IMfltoI  Competition — ho  Marm,  .Tune  2.3. 
FuBil  et  Pistolet — Le  Mans,  Juin  le  23. 


Tennii? — Completed  .Tunc  9. 
Tennis — Complete  Juin  li;  0. 


Rowing — After  July  6. 
Aviron — Aprfe  le  0  JuilUt. 


Oolf — To  continue   after  July  6. 
Goll — A   continue!'  aprds   le   0   Juillet. 


ll^I 


i.'^V?  ^  ^  ^ 


^'V\  i-^-i 


n: 


V 


3^-  / 1/  j 


Top -AmcricaQ  basketball  toam.     Center  /./(-French  basketball  teani.     CV'n««-  riry/ji-Budiger 
of  America  throwing  basket  in  game  with  French.     Bo«oJH-Italian  bask,>tball  team. 


(Sampleof  pamphlet  in  English  and  French,  showing  location  ot  Pershing 
Stadium  and  giving  full  directions  for  reaching  it). 


INTER. ALLIED 
GAMES 

Pershing  Stadium 

Joinville-le-Pont 


JUNE  22    PARIS     JULY  6 
1919 

Conducted  jointly  by  the 

AMERICAN  EXPEDITIONARY  FORCES  and  the 

Y.  M.  C.  A. 


rMi^iiii^o  jiAJuiuiff 


Is  Located  2  K. 
Near  J 


To  Reach  the  Stadium 


METRO  AND  CONNECTIONS 

Take  line  No.  1  in  direction  Porte  Vincennes.  From 
Porte  Vincennes  tramway  runs  every  five  minutes  direct 
to  stadium.  Take  tramcars  marked  "Champigny"  or  "La 
Varenne." 

Taxi-cabs  also  meet  Metro  at  this  point. 


STEAM  RAILROAD 

Chemin  de  Per  de  Vincennes  leaves  Place  Bastille 
every  twenty  minutes  for  Joinville-le-Pont. 

Take  Metro  line  No.   1  direction  Port  Vincennes  to 
Gare  de  Vincennes  at  Place  de  la  Bastille  to  board  trains. 


Taxi-cabs  meet  trains  at  Joinville-le-Pont. 


AUTO  ROUTES 

1.  Go  east  on  Rue  de  Rivoli.  Turn  to  right  at 
Place  Bastille  onto  Rue  de  Lyon.  At  Gare  de  Lyon  turn 
to  left  on  Boulevard  Diderot.  This  boulevard  becomes 
the  Cours  de  Vincennes  and  later  Avenue  de  Paris.  Then 
on  Ave.  de  la  Tourelle,  Ave.  Esplanade  and  Rue  Pyra- 
mids to  south  entrance. 

2.  Another  and  usually  less  congested  route  is  east 
along  the  Grands  Boulevards  (Bds.  de  la  Madeleine,  des 
Capucines-des  Italiens)  through  place  de  la  Republique. 
Turn  to  right  on  Boulevard  du  Temple  to  Place  de  la 
Bastille  through  Rue  de  Lyon  to  Avenue  Daunaesnil  to 
Fort  de  Picpus  la  Demi-Lune — le  Fort  de  Vincennes  to 
route  de  I'Obelisque,  then-  on  to  South  entrance  to 
Stadium. 


PARKING  SPACE 

Machines  will  be  parked   in  rear   of  the  Tribune 
<i  Honneur  and  in  space  just  southeast  of  Stadium. 

Machines  will  be  checked  and  placed  under  guard. 


Pour  Alter  aii  Stade 


METRO  ET  CORRESPONDANCES 

Prendre  la  ligne  no.  1,  direction  Porte  de  Vincennes. 
De  la  Porte  de  Vincennes  des  tramways  partem  toutes  les 
cinq  minutes  dans  la  direction  du  Stade.  Prendre  les  tram- 
ways "Champigny"*ou  "la  Varenne." 

Des  taxis  se  trouveront  aussi  a  la  sortie  du  Metro. 


TRAINS 

Le  Chemin  de  Per  de  Vincennes  part  de  la  Place  de 
la  Bastille  toutes  les  vingt  minutes.  Prendre  metro  ligne 
no.  1,  direction  Porte  de  Vincennes.  Descendre  a  la 
Bastille  pour  prendre  le  train  a  la  Gare  de  Vincennes. 

""       Des  taxis  se  trouveront  a  la  Gare  de  Joinville-le-Pont. 


EN  AUTO 

Aller,  vers  I'Est  de  Paris,  par  la  Rue  de  Rivoli. 
Tourner  a  droite,  place  de  la  Bastille  dans  la  Rue  de 
Lyon.  A  la  Gare  de  Lyon,  prendre  a  gauche  le  Boulevard 
Diderot.  Ce  boulevard  devient  Cours  de  Vincennes,  puis 
Avenue  de  Paris.  Prendre  ensuite  1' A  venue  de  la  Tourelle, 
I'Avenue  de  I'Esplanade  et  la  Rue  des  Pyramides  qui 
conduit  a  I'entree  sud  du  Stade. 

Une  autre  route  ou  le  trafic  est  generalement  moins 
intense  consiste  a  suivre,  en  se  dirigeant  vers  I'Est,  les 
Grands  Boulevards  (Bds.  de  la  Madeleine,  des  Capucines 
et  des  Italiens)  jusqu'a  la  Place  de  la  Republique.  La, 
prendre  a  droite  et  par  le  Boulevard  du  Temple  aller  a 
la  Place  de  la  Bastille,  suivre  la  Rue  de  Lyon,  I'Avenue 
Daumesnil  jusqu'au  Fort  de  Picpus,  a  la  Demi-Lune,  au 
Fort  de  Vincennes;  prendre  la  route  de  I'Obelisque  qui 
conduit  a  I'entree  sud  du  Stade. 


GARAGE 

Les  voitures  seront  garees  derriere  la  Tribune 
d'Honneur  et  dans  un  enclos  situe  au  Sud  Est  de  la 
Grande  Tribune. 

Les  machines  seront  gardees  et  des  tickets  delivres  a 

leur  proprietaire. 


The  U.  S.  Army  and  Y.  M.  C.  A.  are  joint  hosts  to 
the  following  allied  nations  taking  part  in  the  Inter- 
Allied  games:  England,  France,  Italy,  Belgium,  Portu- 
gal, Greece,  China,  Brazil,  Serbia,  Roumania,  Czecho-Slo- 
vakia,  Australia,  Canada,  New  Zealand,  Guatemala,  Po- 
land, Kingdom  of  Hedjaz. 

The  French  Authorities  gave  the  land  for  Pershing 
Stadium,  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  financed  the  project,  and  Ameri- 
can Army  Engineers  constructed  it  in  four  months. 

The  seating  capacity,  including  the  Tribune  d'Hon- 
neur,  is  20,000.  The  Tribune  d'Honneur  is  reserved  for 
rulers  of  the  nations  and  other  guests  of  honor.  Civilians 
will  secure  tickets  free  of  charge  from  information 
booths;  none  are  required  for  men  in  uniform. 


L'Armee  Americaine  et  I'Y.  M.  C.  A.  reunis  sont  les 
liotes  des  nations  suivantes  qui  prennent  part  aux  Jeux 
Interallies:  Angleterre,  France,  Italic,  Belgique,  Portu- 
gal, Grece,  Serbie,  Roumanie,  Tcheco-Slovaquie,  Aus- 
tralie,  Canada,  Nouvelle  Zelande,  Guatemala,  Hedjaz, 
Chine,  Bresil,  Pologne. 

Les  Autorites  francaises  ont  donne-  le  terrain  du 
Stade  Pershing,  le  Y.  M.  C.  A.  a  donne  les  fonds  neces- 
saires  et  le  Genie  de  TArmee  Americaine  a  construit  le 
Stade  en  quatre  mois.  Le  Stade  pent  contenir  20,000 
spectateurs  assis,  en  comprenant  la  Tribune  d'Honneur. 
Cette  Tribune  est  reservee  aux  representants  des  Nations 
engagees  et  aux  autres  holes  de  marque.  Les  personnes 
civiles  pourront  obtenir  des  billets  gratuits  aux  Bureaux 
d'lnformation.  L'acces  du  Stade  est  gratuit  pour  les 
militaires. 

PRINTED  BY   MOBILE  PRINTING  UNIT,  29tH  ENGINEERS 


(Sample  of  Daily  Program  slightly  reduced  in  size.) 


ITCiMlIBGAy 

PEiSiING  STAil^y 

JOifVlILE=LE"PONT 
fO)Aro 


YESTERDAY'S  RESULTS 

Ist-AMEEICA-CCampbeU,  T.;  C^^P^'^ll' ^^ ^-  Ser)'  ^^"^^^ 

139  Evenl^SHOT  PUT  (Trials)-LANCEMENT  DU  POIDS  (Ehmmatoues) 

Worlds  Kecord— Record  du  Monde— 15.544m. 

1st— CATJGHBY,  America,  13.357m. 
2nd— LIVERSBDGB,  America,  13.33m. 
3rd— MAXFIELD,  America,  12.806m. 
4th— PAOLI,  France,  12.314m. 

140  Event—  HORSE   RIDING— CONCOURS   HIPPIQUE. 

140  Event-        ^^nu^^  ^^  pairs-epreuve  de  sauts  couples. 

(Rider's  Name)  (Country)  ^,      (Horse)  (Pomts) 

Ist-MajorANTONEIXI  Italy  Otello  236 

Captain  ALVISI  Italy  Z         ■ 

2nd-SxJBERTALLI  Italy  ST"'.^  234 

Ma  or  CAEFARATTI  Italy  Nabucco 

3rd-Captain  COSTA  Prance  Gazeuse  231 

Lieutenant  LARREGAIN  France  Tapageur 

4th— Colonel  MERCHANT  America  Sandy  226 

Colonel  WEST  America  Frmce  I 

BOXING— BOXE. 
Event — Concours  Weight — Poids. 

LIGHT— LEGERS. 

142  WATSON,  Australia,  defeated  Zoonens,  Belgium,  by  decision  at  end  of  10  rounds. 

143  McNEIL,  America,  defeated  Alberindo,  Italy,  knockout  in  second  round. 

WELTER— MI-MOYENS. 

144  ATTWOOD,  Canada,  defeated  Salvu,  Roumania,  who  gave  up  bout  in  second  round. 

145  PRUNIER,  Prance,  won  from  Dusausoit,  Belgium,  by  default. 

MIDDLE —  MOYENS. 

146  BAGEN,  America,  won  from  Suain,  Belgium,  by  default. 

147  THOMAS,  Prance,  defeated  Harris,  Canada,  by  decision  at  end  of  10th  round. 

LIGHT  HEAVY— MI-LOURDS. 

1 48  Pettibridge,  Australia  VS  Norton,  America,  POSTPONED,   on  account  of  ram. 

FENCING— ESCRIME. 

EPEE,   Individual   (Finales)- — Epee,   Individuel. 
1st— LAURENT,  Prance. 
2nd— PIAVA,   Portugal. 
3rd— PEYERICK,  Belgium. 

SABER,  Team  Competition — 1st  Round — SABRE,  Concours  par  iquipes. 
GREECE,  won  from  America,  12-19. 

GOLF. 

FOUR  BALL  FOURSOME   (18  holes)— FOURSOMMES  A  QUATRE   BALLES    (18  trous). 

Event  151^<}0LIAS  and  CAVALLO,  Prance,  won  from  Bartlet  and  Morse,  America. 
Event  152 — GOMMIER  and  BOMBOUDIAC,  France,  won  from  Part  and  Pierson,  America. 
Event  153 — LAPITTB  and  DAUGE,  Prance,  won  from  Walton  and  Hurley,  America. 
Event  154--DAVIS  and  RAUTENBUSH,  America,  won  from  Massy  and  Gossiat,  Prance. 

SINGLES  (18  holes). 
Event  155 — GOLIAS,  Prance  won  from  Bartlett,  America,  6-4. 
Event  156 — PIERSON,  America,  won  from  Cavallo,  France,  2-1. 
Event  157 — HART,  America,  won  from  Gommier,  Prance,  5-4. 
Event  158 — ^BOMBOUDIAC,  Prance,  won  from  Morse,  America,  6-5. 
Event  159 — WALTON,  America,  won  from  Lafltte,  France,  1  up  20  holes. 
Event  160 — DAUGE,  Prance,  won  from  Hurley,  America,  1  up,  1 9  holes. 
Event  161 — GOSSIAT,  Prance,  won  from  Davis,  America,  5-3. 
Event  162 — MASSEY,  France,  won  from  Rautenbush,  America,  4-3. 
SCORE— Prance  8;  America  4. 
PINAL  RESULT  TEAM  MATCH:— 1  st— France:  2nd  America. 

The  next  Golf  event  wiU  take  place  at  LaBoulie,  on  Monday  July  7th. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  161 

Gare  St.  Lazare,  Gare  Montparnasse,  Gare  d'Orleans,  Hotels  Conti- 
nental, Ritz,  Gastiglione,  Chatham,  Crillon,  Louvre,  Maurice,  Palais 
d'Orsay,  Scribe,  St.  James  et  d'Albany,  Wagram,  Montana,  Plaza, 
Terminus  et  Gare  St.  Lazare,  Lutetia  and  Grand;  Poccardi  Cafe, 
Officers  Leave  Bureau,  Red  Cross  Headquarters  at  Hotel  Regina, 
American  University  Union,  five  Y.M.C.A.  hotels  and  meeting  places, 
two  booths  in  Place  de  la  Concorde  and  four  booths  at  Pershing  Stad- 
ium and  the  camp  of  the  athletes.  A  booth  in  the  pavilion  on  which 
stands  the  fine  statue  representing  Strassbourg,  gaily  bedecked  in  honor 
of  her  return  to  France,  attracted  wide  interest.  Posters,  pamphliets, 
information  data,  and  tickets  were  placed  in  all  the  leading  clubs  in 
the  city  and  at  all  hotels  whose  size  would  not  warrant  an  information 
booth. 

The  information  booths  were  opened  a  few  days  before  the  Games 
and  were  served  by  the  noncommissioned  officers  from  the  French 
and  American  Armies,  All  booths  were  equipped  with  sketches 
showing  seating  arrangements  at  Pershing  Stadium,  maps  of  Paris, 
copies  of  the  information  folder,  post  cards,  copies  of  the  Daily 
Program,  tickets  to  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  and  the  Stadium  proper, 
mimeographed  slips  showing  Metro  and  automobile  routes  from  booths 
to  the  Stadium,  and  daily  newspapers  carrying  accounts  of  the  Games. 

In  this  manner  the  Information  Service  was  prepared  to  answer 
all  questions  as  to  best  routes  to  the  Stadium,  including  Metro,  train, 
tramway,  automobile  and  omnibus  services,  results  of  the  day  before, 
the  day's  program,  the  standing  of  each  nation  in  the  various  sports, 
prominent  people  expected  to  attend  the  Games,  and  special  events 
taking  place. 

The  information  booths  were  open  from  9  o'clock  in  the  morning 
to  9  o'clock  in  the  evening.  Booths  in  groups  of  about  ten  each  were 
supervised  and  frequently  inspected  by  officers,  one  of  whom  was 
placed  in  charge  of  each  group,  A  message  center  was  organized  at 
11  Avenue  Montaigne  where  one  man  from  each  booth  reported  each 
morning  for  tickets  and  instructions. 

The  Y.M.C.A.  operated  five  booths  with  their  own  personnel.  Fur- 
thermore, information  concerning  the  Games  was  placed  in  the  hands 
of  sixty  Y.M.C.A.  secretaries  of  the  information  service,  who  were 
easily  distinguished  by  blue  brassards  on  which  "Information"  was 
printed.  In  this  manner  a  large  number  of  enlisted  men  of  the  Ameri- 
can Army  on  leave  in  Paris  received  information  of  the  Games,  while 
the  equal  mixture  of  khaki  and  French  horizon  blue  testified,  with 

11 


162  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

thousands  of  civilians  in  the  crowded  stands  of  the  Stadium,  to  the 
widespread  service  of  the  Information  Section  of  the  Publicity  Depart- 
ment. 


PROGRAMS     AND     STATISTICS 

The  Committee  on  Programs  and  Statistics  operated  separately 
from  the  Pubhcity  Department,  being  organized  as  part  of  the  Com- 
petitions Division.  This  Committee  was  assigned  very  definite  duties 
which  fell  under  three  heads  :  Programs,  Statistics,  and  Field  Message 
Center.  The  first  general  program,  covering  the  whole  meet,  was 
prepared  and  submitted  to  the  Officer  in  Charge  of  Competitions 
Division,  10  June.  This  program  underwent  several  revisions,  but 
16  June  it  assumed  a  form  which,  except  for  a  very  few  minor  changes, 
was  adhered  to  throughout  the  meet.  In  arranging  this  program 
effort  was  made  to  give  the  spectators  an  interesting  and  varied  series 
of  events  each  day  and  so  to  distribute  them  that  athletes  competing 
in  closely  allied  events  should  find  them  in  logical  sequence  and  have 
adequate  rest  between  their  performances.  It  was  also  arranged  that 
on  those  days  when  horse-riding  competition  was  in  progress  it  should 
be  given  as  clear  a  field  as  possible  so  that  no  swift  motions,  such  as 
might  be  found  in  certain  field  events  like  pole  vaulting,  might  distract 
the  horses  and  put  riders  in  hazard,  and  to  minimize  as  far  as  possible 
the  labor  involved  in  preparing  the  field  for  different  types  of  sport. 

The  general  series  of  events  was  printed  each  day  in  the  daily  pro- 
gram and  was  kept  revised  up  to  date.  This  program  not  only  gave 
in  detail  the  events  for  the  day  with  the  exact  time  of  starting,  but 
listed  in  addition  all  competitors  with  their  nationality  and  competi- 
tion number  and  gave,  when  available,  the  world's  records,  the  Olympic 
records  and  the  French  records,  these  being  embodied  as  information 
for  the  spectators  and  a  goal  for  the  competitors.  Forms  were  also 
included  for  scoring  the  respective  events. 

In  preparing  the  daily  program  it  was  necessary  to  assemble  the 
representatives  of  the  various  nations  to  make  drawings  in  all  heats 
in  races,  the  pools  in  fencing  and  the  brackets  for  team  competitions. 
In  making  these  drawings  the  number  of  competitors  was  ascertained 
from  the  entries,  the  number  of  heats  and  pools  determined,  whether 
or  not  semifinals  were  necessary  was  stated  and  the  number  of  men  to 
quahfy  in  various  heats  was  specified.  The  drawings  were  made  by 
lot  in  the  presence   of  the  representatives.     Some  readjustment  was 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  163 

necessary  to  minimize  the  number  of  contestants  of  any  nation  in  a 
given  heat.  These  alterations  were  made  in  every  case  in  the  presence 
of  the  representatives. 

When  these  drawings  were  made  the  nations  were  called  upon 
to  specify  which  of  their  entrants  should  participate  in  a  given  heat 
or  pool.  These  choices  were  submitted  and  entered  on  the  program 
without  knowledge  of  the  distribution  of  the  competitors  of  any  other 
nation. 

The  daily  program  thus  contained  all  information  necessary  for 
following  the  day's  events  in  close  detail.  Each  competitor  could 
be  recognized  by  his  number.  Moreover  it  contained  the  results  of 
the  preceding  day's  sports,  showing  the  event,  the  winners  and  nation. 
It  also  contained,  as  noted  above,  the  general  program  so  that  spec- 
tators present  on  any  day  could  readily  familiarize  themselves  with 
the  program  of  the  games  as  a  whole,  seeing  at  a  glance  what  had 
already  taken  place  and  what  events  were  to  take  place  on  following 
days.  The  speed  with  which  the  daily  program  had  to  be  prepared 
each  night  has  already  been  indicated. 

The  statistical  subcommittee  was  charged  with  the  receipt  and 
filing  of  entries,  the  custody  of  all  records  of  the  results  of  events,  and 
the  preparation  of  scorecards  for  the  judges.  Each  competitor,  as 
his  entry  was  received,  was  assigned  a  number  which  followed  him 
throughout  his  entire  participation.  The  horses  entered  in  the  horse 
competition  were  assigned  letters. 

An  elaborate  system  of  card  files  was  prepared  for  this  work.  They 
were  in  the  following  forms  : 

1.  By  events  with  participants  grouped  according  to  nations 
alphabetically. 

2.  By  competition  numbers. 

3.  Alphabetically  by  name  irrespective  of  nation  or  event. 

4.  Similar  to  the  first  set  except  that  it  was  a  transitional  file 
and  from  it  were  taken  out  daily  those  contestantswho  were  from  time  to 
time  eliminated.  This  file  kept  abreast  of  the  actual  progress  of  events 
and  by  reference  to  it  one  could  determine  the  contestants  who  were 
still  in.  It  facilitated  the  preparation  of  the  daily  program  so  far  as 
the  semifinals  and  finals  of  the  various  events  were  concerned. 

The  official  entry  slips,  as  they  were  received,  were  necessarily  sub- 
ject to  close  checking.  In  many  cases  they  were  filled  in  script  and 
were  difficult  to  decipher.     On  20  June  a  hst  of  entries  up  to  date  was 


164  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

submitted  to  the  Liaison  Section  for  revision,  with  a  request  that  the 
full  names  and  the  military  rank  of  contestants  be  ascertained. 

In  some  cases  nations  had  entered  competitors  in  excess  of  the 
number  allowed  under  regulations.  It  was  necessary  to  interview 
a  representative  of  the  nation  concerned  and  have  him  designate  the 
actual  competitors.  On  each  day,  however,  lists  of  all  entries  for  the 
events  of  the  day  were  prepared  and  given  to  the  Clerk  of  the  Course 
with  instructions  that  no  substitutions  could  be  allowed  except  from 
the  men  named  in  the  list. 

Scorecards  were  also  prepared  by  this  committee.  These  were 
for  the  use  of  the  judges  in  the  various  events.  For  track  and  field 
they  were  four  in  number — for  horse  riding,  two,  for  fencing,  two, 
and  for  boxing  and  wresthng,  one.  The  form  for  track  and  field  events 
was  also  available  and  suitable  for  the  swimming  events.  The  names 
of  the  contestants  or  teams  were  entered  and  the  records  of  their  per- 
formances. These  cards  contained  in  all  events  space  for  the  signature 
of  the  officials  judging  the  events,  and  upon  completion  of  the  per- 
formance these  were  properly  signed  and  turned  over  to  the  statisti- 
cal officer.  They  then  became  a  part  of  the  official  record  of  the  meet 
and  any  statement  as  to  performances  in  any  event  was  taken  from 
them.  These  official  scorecards  came  to  the  statistical  officer  through 
the  branch  statistical  office  established  at  the  Stadium.  For  results 
of  events  such  as  swimming  and  Rugby,  which  took  place  outside  of 
the  Stadium,  the  scorecards  came  directly  to  the  statistical  office. 

At  the  branch  statistical  office  at  the  Stadium,  which  was  really 
a  message  center,  there  were  typewriters  and  an  office  personnel  of 
sufficient  size  to  copy  rapidly  the  records  from  the  score  cards,  as  well 
as  a  group  of  runners  to  take  the  information  to  the  announcers,  to 
the  scoreboard,  to  the  statistical  office  and  to  the  box  of  the  ranking 
officer  present  at  the  Stadium.  In  general  the  pubUcation  by  the 
announcers  followed  the  completion  of  the  event  within  two  minutes 
and  in  some  cases  within  one  minute.  On  4  July,  fifty  bulletins 
were  actually  pubHshed  for  the  information  of  the  spectators. 


Basketball.     Top   left  and  right— ItaXj  iVersus  America.     Center— America  versus  France  ; 
soccer  game  in  background.     Bottom    left— France    versus    Italy.     Bottom   right— Amenca. 

versus  France. 


CHAPTER  XII 
TICKET    DISTRIBUTION 


HO  were  to  see  the  Games?  How  were  they  to  get  out  to  the 
Stadium?  How  were  they  to  be  handled  without  confusion 
after  they  had  arrived  there?  These  problems  were  turned 
over  to  the  Ticket  Distribution  Committee  to  solve. 

Of  course  the  matter  of  invitations  was  largely  handled  by  experts 
familiar  with  diplomatic  courtesy  for  this  was  an  international  affair. 
Mr.  William  Martin,  Chef  de  Protocol  of  the  American  Embassy,  and 
also  Major  Henry  Whitehouse,  aided  greatly  in  making  up  the  list  of 
persons  to  be  invited.  Major  Whitehouse  had  handled  such  matters 
for  the  American  Peace  Delegation.  General  Pershing  also  had  cer- 
tain names  he  wished  included  which  were  not  on  the  other  lists.  The 
list  of  box  assignments  was  handled  by  the  Advisory  Committee  and 
all  were  finally  passed  on  again  by  General  Pershing. 

Two  kinds  of  personal  invitations  were  sent  out  —  one  from  the 
Commander  in  Chief  himself  which  read  : 

The  Commander  in  Chief 
of  the 
American  Expeditionary  Forces 
requests  the  honor  of  the  presence  of 

at  the  opening  of 

The  Inter- Allied  Games 

Pershing  Stadium 

Paris 
22nd  June,  1919. 


168  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

and  another  which  was  issued  by  officials  and  members  of  the  Advisory 
Committee,  with  personal  cards  inclosed.     It  read  : 

The    Commander   in    Chief 

of  the 

American  Expeditionary  Forces 

requests  the  honor  of  your  presence 

at    the    opening    of 

The  Inter-Allied  Games 

Pershing  Stadium,  Paris 

22nd  June  1919. 

Inclosed  with  these  invitations  were  tickets,  some  for  boxes, 
others  for  seats  good  only  for  a  single  day,  others  permanent  passes 
to  the  Tribune  d'Honneur. 

Aside  from  these  special  invitations  and  assigned  seats  and  boxes, 
tickets  to  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  and  to  the  Tribunes  Populaires  were 
distributed  at  booths  located  at  the  different  hotels,  Y.M.C.A.'s  and 
other  well  known  places  in  Paris.  Every  effort  was  made  by  those 
in  charge  of  these  booths  to  see  that  a  fair  distribution  of  the  tickets 
was  made. 

Various  clubs,  athletic  organizations  and  departments  of  the  Armies 
and  high  officials  were  allotted  daily  a  certain  number  of  tickets  for 
distribution. 

The  Tribune  d'Honneur  was  divided  into  four  sections,  from  right 
to  left  —  A,  B,  C  and  D.  The  tickets  to  these  sections  were  of  differ- 
ent colors  —  A  red,  B  blue,  G  green,  D  white.  All  boxes  were  num- 
bered. 

The  Military  Police  on  duty  at  the  entrance  could  note  the  color 
of  the  card  in  the  hands  of  the  guest  well  before  the  holder  had  arrived 
at  the  gate  and  could  indicate  which  entrance  was  to  be  used.  This 
helped  to  avoid  crowding  at  the  entrances.  All  the  cards  to  the  Tri- 
bunes Populaires  were  white,  but  the  sections  were  numbered  and 
each  card  bore  a  number.  Military  Pohce  again  helped  to  avoid  con- 
fusion by  directing  the  ticket  holders  to  their  sections.  Permanent 
cards  bore  a  colored  stripe  running  diagonally  from  corner  to  corner. 

In  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  a  choice  section  was  reserved  for  mem- 
bers of  the  French  Senate  and  Chamber  of  Deputies.  No  tickets 
were  issued  to  this  section,  the  members  being  admitted  by  their  offi- 
cial cards.  Members  of  the  press  had  a  special  section  and  were 
admitted  by  badges  and  by  special  cards.     The  French  and  American 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  169 

Army  Engineers,  who  took  over  the  erection  of  the  stadium  after  the 
May  Day  labor  disturbances,  had  an  entire  section  in  the  Tribunes 
Populaires  assigned  to  them  ;  the  competitors  had  a  section  reserved 
in  the  Tribunes  Populaires  also.  One  section  of  the  Populaires  was 
reserved  for  soldiers  only  and,  being  directly  behind  home  plate,  was 
usually  occupied  by  American  and  Allied  soldiers  who  were  following 
the  baseball  games.  Men  in  the  uniform  of  the  Allied  Armies,  however, 
were  admitted  to  any  part  of  the  Tribunes  Populaires  without  ticket. 
Another  section  of  the  Populaires  was  reserved  for  the  bands. 

On  the  opening  day  more  tickets  were  issued  than  there  were  seats. 
This  was  done  in  accordance  with  Continental  custom  in  connection 
with  sporting  events.  There  was  no  definite  information  as  to  how  the 
Games  would  be  taken  by  the  French  civilians,  it  was  not  beheved 
that  every  person  who  received  a  ticket  would  attend,  and  there 
was  no  way  of  determining  in  advance  how  many  soldiers  would 
claim  places.  The  popularity  of  the  Games  was  beyond  any  early 
estimate.  On  the  first  Sunday  the  crowd  could  not  be  accommo- 
dated. Better  estimates  were  made,  however,  after  this  first  experi- 
ence and  comparatively  few  ticketholders  were  turned  away  again, 
except  on  4  July,  when  the  military  attendance  was  again  very  large. 
Not  so  many  civilians  were  turned  away,  however,  as  on  the  first 
occasion. 

The  Ticket  Distribution  Committee  received  hearty  cooperation 
from  the  tramway,  omnibus  and  railway  companies.  Special  sche- 
dules were  put  into  effect  and  except  for  the  night  of  4  July  the  big 
crowds  were  transported  without  inconvenience.  On  that  night, 
the  occasion  of  the  fireworks  display,  a  number  of  people  were  unable 
to  obtain  transportation  back  to  Vincennes  and  Paris. 

The  Military  Police  worked  in  conjunction  with  the  Ticket  Distri- 
bution Committee.  Besides  the  men  stationed  along  the  roads  from 
Vincennes  to  handle  traffic,  an  elaborate  scheme  for  handling  the  park- 
ing of  cars  and  traffic  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Stadium  was  worked  out. 

All  cars  were  directed  into  a  one-way  road  at  a  point  southeast  of 
the  Stadium  and  driven  up  to  the  main  entrance  at  the  Tribune  d'Hon- 
neur.  Here  Military  Police  handed  to  the  driver  a  check  to  correspond 
to  the  number  of  the  section  in  which  the  ticketholder  was  to  sit.  A 
corresponding  ticket  was  also  handed  to  the  occupant  of  the  car. 
This  ticket  indicated  in  what  section  of  the  two  parking  areas  the  car 
was  to  be  parked.  The  chauffeur  then  drove  quickly  away,  displaying 
his  ticket  conspicuously.     Military  Police  stationed  along  the  short 


170  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —  1919 

road  running  in  front  of  the  Stadium  could  tell  by  the  color  of  the  card 
the  section  in  which  the  car  was  to  be  parked. 

When  the  car  was  wanted,  a  man  with  a  megaphone  called  out  the 
number.  This  was  relayed  by  other  men  with  megaphones,  and  the 
cars  left  their  parking  spaces  and  drove  around  the  area,  approaching 
the  Stadium  by  way  of  the  one-way  road  again,  loading  and  leaving 
in  the  same  direction.  In  this  way  there  was  no  turning  of  cars  near 
the  Stadium  and  a  constant  stream  of  automobiles  passed  rapidly, 
loading   and   unloading  without   confusion. 

On  the  afternoon  of  4  July,  600  cars  took  their  passengers  at  the 
gate  and  departed  in  fifteen  minutes.  French  Gendarmes  assisted  the 
American  Military  Police.  Taxi  drivers  at  first  had  a  tendency  to  try 
to  turn  around  on  the  one-way  road,  but  the  regulations  were  strictly 
enforced  by  both  bodies  of  pohce  and  no  difficulty  was  encountered. 

Carefully  compiled  daily  reports  by  the  Transportation  section  of 
the  Ticket  Distribution  Committee  show  that  a  remarkable  record 
was  made  in  handling  the  big  crowds.  On  Sunday,  22  June,  Opening 
Day,  the  steam  railroads  moved  21,600  people  from  Gare  de  Vincennes 
to  Joinville-le-Pont  between  1:00  p.  m.  and  3:30  p.  m.;  the  Metro- 
politan subway  moved  toward  Vincennes  between  1:00  p.  m.  and 
3:00  p.  m.  the  same  day,  44,400  people;  the  trolley  car  systems  moved 
from  points  in  Paris  to  the  ground  near  the  Stadium,  between  12:45  and 
3:30  p.  m.,  24,900  people;  twenty  omnibuses  moved  from  Porte  de 
Vincennes  to  the  Stadium,  between  1:00  p.  m.  and  3:00  p.  m.,  6,400  peo- 
ple. Taxicabs  to  the  number  of  288  moved  from  all  points  in  Paris 
and  Porte  de  Vincennes  to  the  Stadium,  between  1:00  p.m.  and  3:00 
p.  m.,  5,700  people;  and  private  cars  took  out  7,700. 

Figures  also  show  that  the  total  number  of  passengers  moved 
from  Paris  toward  Joinville  between  the  hours  of  1  p.m.  and  3  p.m. 
during  the  Games— 22  June  to  6  July— was  867,750. 

While  all  passengers  were  not  for  the  Stadium,  the  amount  of  normal 
traffic  from  Paris  at  these  hours  is  small.  It  can  be  well  considered 
that  by  far  the  greater  part  of  this  traffic  was  the  result  of  the  Games. 

These  passengers  were  distributed  among  the  different  systems  as 
follows  : 

TOTALS 

Metropolitan  subway  system 355  000 

Trolley  car  systems 213350 

Steam  railway  systems 153  300 

Omnibuses,  taxicabs  and  private  cars 146,100 

Grand  total  867,750 


CHAPTER  XIII 
THE    LIAISON    SECTION 


N  his  letter  of  invitation  to  the  officers  and  men  of  the 
various  AHied  Armies  to  participate  in  the  Inter-AUied 
Games,  General  Pershing  expressed  the  hope  that  "...  the 
ties  of  the  much  cherished  spirit  of  comradeship,  which 
have  sprung  from  the  gallant  joint  efforts  of  our  forces  on  the  battle- 
field, may  thus  be  more  closely  cemented," 

It  is  obvious  from  this  that  the  Commander-in-Chief  had  in  mind, 
as  the  principal  aim  of  these  Games,  the  bringing  together  on  the 
friendly  field  of  sport  of  representatives  of  the  various  AHied  Armies, 
with  the  object  of  giving  them  an  opportunity  to  learn  to  know  and 
understand  each  other,  and  to  form  friendships  from  such  an  under- 
standing rather  than  merely  to  produce  the  highest  possible  excellence 
in  athletic  performance. 

With  this  in  mind  it  was  clear  that  in  forming  the  organization  to 
conduct  the  Games  there  must  be  a  section  for  the  purpose  of 
gathering  information  regarding  the  wishes  and  needs  of  the  various 
competitors  and  to  bring  them  to  the  attention  of  those  whose  duty 
it  would  be  to  see  that  they  were  promptly  provided  for.  It  was 
essential  that  information  regarding  provisions  which  had  been  made 
for  the  various  teams,  rules  for  the  conduct  of  the  competitions  them- 
selves, and  all  other  information  necessary  for  the  proper  handling  by 
their  chiefs  of  the  individual  teams,  should  be  carefully  brought  to 
the  attention  of  these  chiefs  and  thoroughly  explained  to  them. 

To  accomplish  this  delicate  and  difficult  task  the  Liaison  Section 
was  organized.  The  harmonious  conduct  of  an  enterprise  so  complex 
in  nationalities  as  the  Inter-Allied  Games  required  that  this  organiza- 
tion be  invested  with  a  peculiar  authority.  It  had  to  be  elastic,  inclu- 
sive and  the  more  nonapparent  and  undefined  the  better  ;  an  authority, 
however,  none  the  less  actual  and  firm,  but  which  directed  and  con- 
trolled without  seeming  to  do  so,  achieving  its  ends  through  skill  of 
individual  address  rather  than  rehance  on  the  power  of  clearly  consti- 
tuted regulations. 


174  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

A  multitude  of  prickly  little  problems  presented  themselves  con- 
stantly from  American  as  well  as  from  foreign  sources.     Largely  these 
fell  into  two  categories  :  (1)  International  misunderstandings,  usually 
small  enough  in  their  inception,  but,  if  neglected,  capable  of  visiting 
widespread  devastation  upon  the  spirit  of  fellowship  these  Games  were 
designed    to    promote.     Such    instances    generally   sprang    from  the 
different  national  and  racial  conceptions  of  the  same  situation,  and,  no 
two  of  them  being  exactly  alike,  they  could  not  be  handled  in  the  same 
manner;  (2)  Points  of  information  and  service  which  were  of  endless 
variety  and  ranged  from  requests  for  the  proper  form  in  which  to 
notify  a  monarch  of  the  existence  of  the  Games  to  such  matters  as 
supplying  a  manicurist  for  a  lady  of  the  entourage  of  a  visiting  general. 
All   of  these   matters   required   immediate   adjustment   and   that 
adjustment  had  to  be  accomplished  so  deftly  that  it  would  appear 
that  no  adjustment  had  taken  place.     It  was  the  elimination  of  these 
little  frictions,  the  forestalling  of  larger  disagreements,  and  the  sup- 
plying of  every  possible  want  that  any  of  the  foreign  visitors  might 
experience,  which  contributed  largely  to  the  general  satisfaction  of 
the  visitors  to  the  Games. 

An  executive  stafY  of  the  section  was  formed  and  charged  with  the 
conduct  of  the  organization  itself.  This  staff  had  in  charge  all  matters 
relating  to  official  correspondence,  transportation,  supplies,  and  imme- 
diate contact  with  all  outside  sources  of  information,  as  well  as  the 
prompt  execution  of  all  business  transmitted  to  it  by  other  elements 
of  the  greater  organization.    . 

The  second  function  of  the  section  was  to  deal  with  the  represen- 
tatives of  the  Allied  Nations  and  this  work  was  conducted  by  the 
group  of  diplomatic  junior  officers  comprising  the  balance  of  the  per- 
sonnel. All  of  these  officers  spoke  at  least  one  language  other  than 
English.  They  were  assigned  to  permanent  duty  with  the  various 
national  delegations  and  to  other  special  duties. 

An  assembly  was  instituted  each  morning  at  which  all  matters 
connected  with  the  Section  were  discussed  in  open  meeting.  Matters 
of  interest  to  visiting  foreigners  were  brought  to  the  attention  of  the 
proper  officers  and  reports  were  made  upon  all  matters  relating  to  the 
successful  conduct  of  the  Games  themselves,  or  to  the  proper  housing, 
recreation  and  comfort  of  our  visitors.  In  this  way  Liaison  officers 
were  kept  constantly  posted  regarding  one  another's  activities.  Dupli- 
cation of  effort  was  reduced  to  a  minimum  and  many  valuable  sugges- 
tions were  received  from  the  experiences  of  others.     Throughout  the 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  175 

course  of  the  Games  the  Liaison  officers  made  it  their  business  to  inform 
the  visiting  teams  to  which  they  were  assigned  of  the  conditions  gover- 
ning each  event  just  before  it  took  place  and  of  the  reasons  for  deci- 
sions or  for  changes  or  postponements  ;  they  answered  numberless 
questions  and  made  plain  the  many  happenings  which  to  a  stranger 
might  have  been  baffling  without  such  ready  assistance ;  in  a  word, 
the  Liaison  officers  undertook  to  place  at  the  service  of  every  visiting 
team  all  the  information  and  all  the  facihties  which  had  been  brought 
together  for  the  A.E.F.  competitors. 

The  initial  problem  of  the  Section  concerned  the  issuing  of  invita- 
tions to  various  countries  in  the  hope  that  they  would  send  represen- 
tative teams  or  individuals  to  contest  in  the  Games.  The  accuracy 
of  the  text  of  these  invitations  was  no  small  problem.  Great  delicacy 
was  exercised  in  this  matter  and  the  result  is  shown  by  the  fact  that 
eighteen  countries  were  represented.  While  it  is  to  be  regretted  that 
Great  Britain  did  not  find  it  possible  to  send  a  list  of  general  entries, 
it  must  be  noted  that  the  British  Dominions  were  excellently  repre- 
sented in  the  Games,  considering  the  state  of  demobilization  of  their 
forces.  The  entire  question  of  British  participation  was  not  the  least 
perplexing  of  the  problems  which  the  Section  was  called  upon  to 
handle.  All  preparations  for  the  reception  of  visiting  delegates  and 
of  the  athletes  themselves  were  initiated  through  the  medium  of  the 
Liaison  Section.  As  each  team  arrived  it  was  met  by  a  Liaison  repre- 
sentative speaking  the  language  of  the  visitors.  This  officer  was 
definitely  detailed  to  this  team  and  was  instructed  to  grant  every 
request,  regardless  of  its  character,  or,  if  this  was  not  possible,  to 
afford  immediate  opportunity  for  so  doing.  Automobiles  were  kept 
constantly  at  hand  for  the  transporting  of  visitors.  Plans  for  amuse- 
ment were  suggested,  and,  in  connection  with  the  Reception  and 
Entertainment  Section,  trips  of  interest  were  arranged  by  the  same 
officer.  Facilities  offered  by  the  Quartermaster  Department  were 
made  available  to  all  the  countries  and  it  became  the  duty  of  the 
Liaison  officer  to  assist  in  the  purchase  of  needed  supphes. 

After  the  actual  start  of  the  Games  the  duties  of  the  Liaison  Sec- 
tion became  more  complex.  The  distribution  of  tickets  alone  was 
a  matter  requiring  much  attention  and  tact.  The  resources  of  the 
organization  were  stretched  in  keeping  the  various  teams  informed 
of  the  events,  in  supplying  them  with  the  materials  necessary  for  their 
own  participation,  and  in  looking  after  the  endless  details  involved 
in  constant  service.     During  the  period  of  the  actual  conduct  of  the 


176  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Games,  Liaison  officers  were  on  duty  practically  eighteen  hours  out  of 
every  twenty-four. 

Social  activities  soon  began  to  assume  an  important  place  in  the 
daily  work  of  the  organization.  Liaison  officers  were  frequently  called 
upon  to  act  as  interpreters  and  to  facilitate  social  contact  between  the 
various  nations  meeting  at  these  functions. 

As  practically  all  correspondence  was  conducted  in  French  the 
necessity  for  immediate  and  accurate  translation  of  every  imaginable 
type  of  document  was  apparent.  These  translations,  both  from 
English  to  French  and  from  French  to  English,  were  made  by  Liaison 
officers  without  delay. 

All  historical  and  other  data  concerning  the  athletes  of  the  Allied 
Armies  in  their  connection  with  the  Games  was  gathered  by  the  Liaison 
Section.  It  collected  the  special  prizes  offered  by  the  various  nation? 
and  handed  them  to  the  Prize  Committee  for  distribution.  It  prepared 
lists  of  officers  meriting  decorations. 

One  of  the  lasting  benefits  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  promises  to 
be  a  recrudescence  of  sport  in  lands  which  have  been  for  five  years 
devastated  by  war.  Baseball  has  made  a  particularly  favorable 
impression  on  some  of  the  foreign  representatives  who  have  conceived 
the  idea  of  introducing  it  in  their  countries.  The  Liaison  Section  has, 
to  this  end,  put  representatives  of  the  various  foreign  teams  in  touch 
with  the  athletic  departments  of  American  colleges  where  they  may 
obtain  the  best  information  as  to  how  to  popularize  the  game.  It  also 
suggested  that  the  matter  of  detailing  American  officers  to  various 
nations  to  act  as  instructors  be  considered  by  the  War  Department, 


CHAPTER  XIV 

SUMMARY  OF  THE  GAMES 


LTHOUGH  the  conclusion  of  the  competitions  at  Pershing 
Stadium,  Joinville-le-Pont,  on  the  afternoon  of  6  July,  did 
not  bring  to  an  end  the  complete  official  program  of  the 
Inter-Allied  Games,  the  date  marked  the  summary  of  two 
jrilliant  weeks  in  which  sport  history  was  made.  There  remained 
only  the  golf  and  rowing  events  to  be  carried  through  to  a  cham- 
pionship conclusion  of  which  rowing  was  still  to  be  contested 
in  its  entirety.  But  for  the  mass  of  the  entrants  themselves  and  for 
the  athletic-loving  public  that  followed  with  intense  interest  the  com- 
petitions at  the  Stadium,  the  two  weeks  of  track  and  field  events,  of 
boxing,  soccer,  and  the  dozen  other  sports  which  centered  there,  more 
or  less  fully  made  up  the  Games.  When  General  Pershing  awarded 
the  medals  to  the  various  winners  of  events,  amid  the  applauding  of 
the  crowds  he  put  the  seal  of  official  approval  on  a  sport  gathering 
unique  in  the  history  of  athletics. 

The  spirit  in  which  the  Inter- Allied  Games  were  carried  out  reflected 
credit  upon  the  sportsmanship  of  the  nations  involved.  Not  only 
did  it  demonstrate  how  wholeheartedly  the  nations  that  had  striven 
shoulder  to  shoulder  on  the  battlefield  could  turn  to  friendly  rivalry 
in  the  stadium,  but  it  showed  the  indomitable  spirit  surviving  more 
than  four  years  of  war  which  had  drained  the  very  lifeblood  of  almost 
every  nation  involved.  Men  who  saw  as  through  a  glass  darkly  in 
1916  and  1917  whispered  that  it  would  be  years  before  a  pitifully 
broken  world  could  create  again  such  heroic  epics  of  athletics  as  the 
Olympiads  of  London  and  Stockholm.  But  it  was  the  good  fortune 
of  the  Intef-Allied  Games  to  give  a  rosier  hue  to  that  pessimistic 
forecast  and  to  prophecy  for  the  next  Olympic  competition  even 
greater  success  than  has  attented  the  games  of  the  past.  The  Games 
would  have    been  notable  for  that  one  achievement  even   had  the 

11  bis. 


176b  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

events  of  22  June-6  July  at  Pershing  Stadium  failed  to  produce  as 
brilliant  competition  as  they  did.  They  showed  that  if  old  stars  of 
track  and  field,  links,  court,  mat  and  ring  had  faded  in  the  red  glare  of 
war  or  been  rendered  incapable  of  participation,  new  ones  could 
be  developed  under  conditions  of  active  service  to  take  their  places. 
Further,  the  Games  served  to  stimulate  interest  in  sport  in  coun- 
tries that  have  come  into  being  in  the  travail  of  world  war  and 
which  in  the  future  will  take  their  part  in  the  improvement  of 
athletics. 

The  Inter-Allied  Games  were  unique,  for  it  is  hardly  conceivable 
that  ever  again  can  there  be  held  a  sport  contest  with  the  identical 
eligibility  requisite  that  every  man  competing  should  have  earned 
the  right  to  wear  his  country's  colors  in  the  stadium  by  having  first 
borne  them  in  her  service  as  a  soldier.  There  was  no  talk  of  amateurs 
or  professionals;  no  haggling  over  the  status  of  the  competitors.  In 
the  eyes  of  the  quahfication  committee,  every  entrant  had  to  show 
that  he  was  quahfied  in  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  honored  of  all 
professions — that  of  arms.  The  records  made  on  the  fields  of  Inter- 
Allied  competition  stand  as  Inter-Allied  Records.  Probably  they 
will  never  be  contested  and  will  stand  by  themselves  for  all   time. 

Nearly  1500  athletes,  representing  eighteen  nations  or  dominions, 
participated.  The  list  of  entrant  countries  differed  of  course  materi- 
ally from  that  of  any  Olympiad  as  only  those  nations  linked  together 
in  the  commom  cause  of  justice  in  the  war  were  eligible  to  compete. 
It  was  universally  regretted  that  Great  Britain  decided  to  send  only 
rowing  crews  and  a  golf  team  as,  wherever  the  sport  world  foregathers, 
the  Englishman  is  a  welcome  competitor  and  one  whose  chances  of 
winning  must  be  minutely  calculated  by  his  adversaries.  Old  England, 
however,  if  absent  in  the  flesh,  was  present  in  the  spirit,  and  indeed 
in  the  blood,  for  Australia,  Canada  and  New  Zealand  played  an  impor- 
tant part  in  the  competitions.  The  Dominions  gave  a  good  account 
of  themselves,  too. 

The  simple  plan  developed  by  which  a  sport  might  become  a  point- 
scoring  event  on  the  program  guaranteed  a  varied  and  intensely 
interesting  series  of  competitions.  Of  the  twenty-six  forms  of  sport 
originally  designed  to  fill  the  major  portion  of  the  program,  it  was 
necessary  to  abandon  but  two.  Cricket,  included  as  a  courtesy  to 
expected  EngHsh  entries,  was  given  up  when  the  three  Dominions 
decided  not  to  enter  teams  against  each  other;  and  for  a  similar  reason 
American  intercollegiate  football  failed  to  take  its  place  with  soccer 


PERSHING    STADIUM  —  PARIS  176c 

and  Rugby.  Nor  were  exhibitions  of  these  sports  held.  The  Domin- 
ions concentrated  their  attention  on  the  many  events  in  which  they 
were  entered,  while  the  warm  weather  made  it  undesirable  to  employ 
the  equipment  and  to  undergo  the  training  and  practice  necessary  to 
bring  American  intercollegiate  football  up  to  its  standard  of  presentation. 

In  the  Games  themselves  the  athletes  of  the  American  Expedi- 
tionary Forces  made  a  handsome  showing,  not  only  in  their  chosen 
branch  of  track  and  field,  a  phase  of  sport  in  which  Americans  have 
been  particularly  successful  ever  since  they  have  been  participants 
in  international  meets,  but  often  they  displayed  like  ability  in  other 
major  divisions  of  the  program. 

Of  the  twenty-four  separate  events  listed  in  the  program  the 
United  States  militarized  athletes  won  first  place  for  their  country 
in  twelve  and  second  in  seven  more,  A.E.F.  entrants  making  clean 
sweeps  of  all  three  places  in  five  events  and  in  a  sixth  having  three 
of  four  men  who  succeeded  in  placing.  Again  in  the  service  shooting 
events  the  A.E.F.  was  successful  with  both  rifle  and  pistol,  taking 
four  first  places.  Other  first  places  were  gained  by  the  United  States 
in  baseball,  basketball,  boxing,  prize  jumping  with  horses,  swim- 
ming,  tug-of-war  and   catch-as-catch-can  wresthng. 

Counting  two  team  championships  in  fencing  not  included  in  the 
major  list  of  the  original  program,  France  made  the  next  best  showing 
as  an  event  winner.  The  French  entrants  annexed  first  honors  in 
six  events  and  second  in  as  many.  Their  first  included  three  titles 
in  fencing,  one  in  horsemanship,  the  cross-country  run,  and  the  indi- 
vidual singles  in  tennis.  France  also  won  both  team  and  individual 
golf  events.  Italy  won  two  fencing  titles,  one  in  riding,  and  three 
second  places.  Australia's  two  brilliant  tennis  victories  were  backed 
up  by  four  second  places.  Belgium  won  one  fencing  title  and  two 
second  places.  Czecho-Slovakia  trimmed  all  comers  in  soccer  and 
divided  a  first  place  with  Belgium  in  Greco-Roman  wrestling,  while 
Portugal  had  three  second  places  to  its  credit  and  Canada  one. 

In  the  events  which  might  be  described  as  strictly  military  in  char- 
acter, the  notable  American  victories  were  in  the  new  hand-grenade 
event  in  which  a  world's  record  was  created  by  an  A.E.F.  chaplain, 
F.  C.  Thompson,  and  in  the  events  with  the  service  rifle  and  revolver. 
In  riding  and  fencing,  however,  the  new  world  had  to  give  place  to 
the  old.  France,  Italy  and  Belgium  took  all  but  one  place  in  horse- 
manship, while  the  A.E.F.  failed  to  figure  at  all  in  the  field  of  foil  and 
saber,  where  France,   Italy,  Belgium  and  Portugal  divided  the  six 


176d  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

championships  between  them.  Similarly,  while  the  United  States  team 
pinned  its  competitors  to  the  mat  in  catch-as-catch-can  wrestling, 
they  were  lost  in  the  field  of  Greco-Roman  endeavor  in  which  Czecho- 
slovakia, Belgium  and  Italy  divided  the  honors. 

America's  notable  success  in  winning  first  and  second  places  in  so 
many  varied  events  was  due  of  course  in  no  small  degree  to  the  prepon- 
derance of  entries  and  to  the  consistent  preliminary  training,  not  only 
immediately  prior  to  the  Games,  but  also  in  numerous  athletic  compe- 
titions fostered  in  the  Expeditionary  Forces  by  Y.M.C.A.  experts  and 
Army  officers  before  the  Inter-Allied  classic  was  undertaken.  It  is 
no  mean  tribute  to  the  sportsmanlike  spirit  of  the  competing  nations 
that  they  fared  gaily  into  the  competitions  against  this  handicap. 
Indeed,  the  sportsmanship  that  characterized  every  nation  and  every 
individual  contender  was  a  prominent  feature  of  the  Games.  In 
the  two  weeks  at  Pershing  Stadium  there  was  hardly  one  untoward 
incident  in  regard  to  team  conduct  on  the  field,  and  in  general  there 
was  so  little  protest  against  even  the  official  conduct  of  the  Games 
as  to  make  them  stand  out  over  every  preceding  tournament  of  a 
similar  kind  where  bickering  over  points  and  technicalities  have 
sometimes  left  unhappy  memories. 

The  absolutely  new  arena  at  Pershing  Stadium  discouraged  the 
establishing  of  world  records.  The  cinder  path  was  fairly  fast  but 
not  exceptionally  so,  and  the  playing  fields,  formed  of  sand,  made 
speed  difficult  in  the  competitions.  It  was  impossible  to  provide 
ideal  ground  in  the  short  time  necessarily  employed  in  erecting  the 
Stadium. 

In  spite  of  this,  one  new  world's  record  was  established.  This 
was  Thompson's  hand-grenade  toss  of  245  feet,  11  inches.  But  for 
a  record-smashing  performance  in  the  United  States  a  few  weeks 
earlier,  another  world's  mark  would  have  been  made,  as  the  American 
team  in  the  800-meter  relay,  composed  of  Paddock,  Haddock,  Tor- 
kelson  and  Teschner,  notched  5  1-5  seconds  from  the  recorded  best 
mark  for  the  event  by  negotiating  it  in  1  minute,  30  4-5  seconds,  In 
the  preliminaries  of  this  event,  both  the  American  and  Canadian  teams 
had  succeeded  in  beating  the  old  mark  by  running  the  distance  in 
1  minute  33  1-5  seconds. 

French  records  in  track  and  field  went  by  the  boards  frequently. 
Mason,  the  dashing  New  Zealand  runner,  turned  the  800  meters  in 
1:50  2-5,  while  Butler,  the  broad-smiling  American  black,  went  24  feet, 
9  3-4  inches  in  the  running  broad  jump.     Bob  Simpson  was  no  stranger 


PERSHING    STADIUM  — PARIS  176e 

to  Frenchmen  who  have  followed  the  athletic  story  of  the  past  three 
years,  but  he  gave  them  two  mementos  to  keep  his  memory  green 
along  the  boulevards  by  setting  two  new  French  hurdle  records,  one 
of  15  1-5  seconds  over  the  110-meter  high  sticks,  and  the  other  of 
24  4-5  over  the  200-meter  low  ones. 

Paddock  equalled  the  world's  record  of  21  3-5  in  the  200-meter 
dash.  Perhaps  the  most  briUiant  individual  star  of  the  two  weeks 
was  the  American  swimmer,  Norman  Ross.  He  not  only  set  new 
French  marks  in  the  100-meter  free  style  at  1:04  3-5  and  in  the 
1500-meter  free  style  at  24:22  2-5,  but  by  negotiating  the  400-meter 
free  style  in  5:40  2-5  in  the  finals,  smashed  a  record  a  few  days  old 
by  Stedman  of  Australia.  When  Stedman  made  his  register  he  beat 
a  record  performance  by  Ross  on  the  same  day. 

While  the  two  weeks'  meet  brought  into  prominence  many  really 
wonderful  individual  feats — Paddock  in  the  dashes,  Butler  in  the 
jumps,  Thompson  with  the  grenade,  O'Hara-Wood,  Patterson  and 
Lycette  of  Australia  in  tennis.  Major  Ubertalli  of  Italy  in  riding,  Lt. 
Nedo  Nadi  of  Italy  with  the  foils,  Vermeulen  of  France  over  the 
cross-country  and  modified  Marathon,  and  outstanding  figures  in 
boxing  and  wrestling — no  single  entry  in  any  sport  in  the  two  weeks 
compared  with  the  dazzling  performances  of  Norman  Ross,  already 
a  noted  swimmer  in  American  tanks  prior  to  his  entry  into  the  Army, 
in  which  he  served  as  a  Lieutenant  in  the  Air  service.  Indeed,  Ross' 
record  in  the  Inter-Allied  swimming  competition  stands  out  as  the 
greatest  individual  achievement  in  the  history  of  competitive  natation. 

Aside  from  the  actual  conduct  of  the  Games,  interest  during  the 
two  weeks  at  Pershing  Stadium  and  the  other  places  where  the  Inter- 
Allied  sports  were  held,  was  centered,  as  is  always  the  case, 
on  the  crowds  themselves.  It  is  a  psychological  factor  of  immense 
importance  in  the  sport  world  that  the  spectators  constitute  for  them- 
selves a  great  part  of  the  spectacle. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  admission  was  entirely  free  to  all  the  com- 
petitions, the  actual  attendance  at  the  Games  could  not  be  accur- 
ately checked.  Only  estimates  could  be  made,  but  a  daily  average 
of  20,000  at  Pershing  Stadium  was  easily  maintained  for  the  fifteen 
days  from  opening  to  closing.  Between  300,000  and  320,000  saw 
the  competitions  at  the  Stadium.  As  there  were  several  other  places 
where  events  were  staged,  it  is  perhaps  a  very  conservative  estimate 
to  say  that  the  Inter-Allied  Games  played  to  a  gallery  of  half  a  million 
persons. 


176f  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

Every  available  seat  in  the  huge  concrete  Stadium  was  occupied 
on  Opening  Day,  and  in  addition,  the  throngs  overflowed  upon  the 
field  and  surged  against  every  entrance.  Thousands  who  found  it 
impossible  to  get  inside  the  barriers  spent  the  afternoon  simply  walking 
around  the  vicinity  or  strolling  through  the  adjacent  Bois  de  Vincennes. 

The  scene  of  Opening  Day  was  repeated  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  and 
on  the  two  Saturdays  and  Sundays  included  in  the  course  of  the  events. 

The  tennis  competition,  which  was  held  more  than  a  fortnight 
before  the  other  Games,  also  drew  splendid  crowds  in  spite  of  the 
fact  that  at  that  time  Paris  transportation  was  tied  up  by  the  strike 
on  the  Metro  and  surface  lines. 

Parisian  sportlovers  had  a  difficult  problem  in  choosing  where 
they  wished  to  go  to  witness  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  The  track  and 
field,  boxing  and  wrestling  bouts,  and  a  major  portion  of  the  other 
competitions  were  held  at  Pershing  Stadium.  But  on  a  number  of 
days,  there  were  simultaneous"  attractions.  The  swimming  events 
were  held  in  the  beautiful  lake  St.  James  in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne. 
The  earlier  riding  events  took  place  at  Ghennevieres,  most  of  the 
fencing  was  scheduled  at  the  Ecole  d'Escrime  at  Joinville,  and  Rugby 
was  at  home  at  Golombes  Field  north  of  Paris.  The  golf  matches 
took  place  on  the  La  Boulie  links  outside  the  gates  of  Paris — -a  course 
regarded  as  one  of  the  best  in  Europe.  The  Inter-Allied  shooting 
events  were  not  held  in  Paris  at  all,  but  hours  away  by  rail  on  the 
d'Auvours  range  near  Le  Mans.  The  tennis  tournament  was  divided 
between  the  Racing  Club  and  the  Stad  Frangais  near  Paris. 

Spectators  at  Pershing  Stadium  faced  an  added  difficulty  in  deter- 
mining their  preference  in  sport  as  several  events  were  conducted 
simultaneously,  though  games  of  the  type  of  baseball,  soccer  and 
basketball  were  usually  halted  between  periods  to  permit  a  track  race 
to  be  run.  On  the  last  day  of  actual  competitions,  several  wrestling 
matches  were  staged  outside  the  Stadium  owing  to  the  needs  of  the 
riding  program. 

Although  variable  weather  was  encountered  in  the  course  of  the 
two  week's  program,  on  the  whole  the  weather  was  good.  Rain  on 
a  few  afternoons  dampened  the  enthusiasm  of  the  crowd  and  necessi- 
tated the  postponement  of  several  events  to  later  dates,  but  no  feature 
of  the  program  was  permitted  to  lapse  entirely. 

Ceremonies,  principally  military  in  character,  served  to  stimulate 
the  interest  of  the  show-loving  Parisians.  The  martial  splendor  of 
both  American  and  French  Armies  was  lent  to  the  occasion. 

*     See  map  of  location  ol  events,  page  81. 


PERSHING    STADIUM  —  PARIS  176g 

The  principal  military  feature  of  the  A.E.F.  was  the  presence  of 
the  Composite  Regiment  formed  from  the  ranks  of  the  first  six,  or 
Regular,  Divisions  of  the  United  States  Army.  Originally  intended 
as  the  Guard  of  Homor  for  General  Pershing  in  his  planned  trip  to 
London  for  Empire  Day,  which  was  postponed  by  the  possibility  of 
an  advance  into  unoccupied  German  territory,  the  Regiment  was  kept 
together  and  brought  to  Paris  for  the  Games. 

Each  infantry  brigade  of  the  first  six  divisions  supplied  a  rifle 
company  to  the  Regiment,  the  men  being  selected  for  size,  military 
bearing,  and  excellence  in  drill.  With  these  requisites  as  a  basis, 
and  after  an  intensive  drill  program  in  the  training  area  at  Coblenz, 
the  Regiment  made  a  splendid  showing.  One  battalion  was  always 
on  duty  at  the  Stadium.  A  Third  Division  band  accompanied  the 
Composite  Regiment  to  Paris. 

After  the  formal  Opening  Day  ceremonies,  the  gala  event  at  the 
Stadium  took  place  on  4  July,  an  Independence  Day  that  will  never 
be  forgotten  by  the  American  Army  in  Europe  or  the  spectators  from 
the  French  capital.  The  day  was  made  the  occasion  of  a  special 
program  at  the  Stadium  in  connection  with  the  official  celebration  of 
the  holiday  throughout  the  District  of  Paris. 

The  performances  of  a  squadrilla  of  military  airplanes,  low-flying 
and  "circusing"  over  the  field,  formed  a  spectacular  feature  of  the 
program.  In  the  afternoon  a  parade  and  a  series  of  drill  maneuvers 
by  the  Composite  Regiment  received  vociferous  compliments  from  the 
assembled  crowd  and  were  applauded  by  General  Pershing  himself. 
The  Commander-in-Chief  remained  on  the  field  but  a  short  time,  as  he 
was  an  afternoon  honor  guest  at  Maison  Lafitte.  In  the  evening  there 
was  an  exhibition  of  fireworks,  a  display  of  Serbian  gymnastics,  Arabian 
sword  dancing,  a  parade  of  symbolical  floats  and  living  tableaux. 

There  were  two  decoration  ceremonies  during  the  Games  at  the 
Stadium.  The  picturesque  character  of  the  second  was  augmented 
by  the  fact  that  just  before  it  occurred  (28  June)  an  official  announce- 
ment was  made  to  the  immense  Saturday  throng  that  Germany  had 
just  signed  the  Peace  Treaty;  and  amid  a  stirring  display  of  enthu- 
siasm, M.  Valdor  of  the  Opera  Comique  had  just  rendered  the  Marseil- 
laise. It  was  at  this  moment  that  several  star  athletes  were  summoned 
to  the  royal  box  of  King  Nicholas  of  Montenegro  and  were  decorated 
by  His  Majesty  in  person  with  the  Order  of  Danilo  of  Montenegro. 

On  the  preceding  afternoon,  before  30,000  cheering  spectators, 
M.   Henry  Pate,   president  of  the  Comite  National  de  I'Education 


176h 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 


Physique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygiene  Sociale,  acting  for  the  French 
government,  decorated  with  the  Legion  of  Honor  the  chief  Americans 
who  organized  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  Colonel  Wait  G.  Johnson, 
chairman  of  the  Games  Committee,  was  made  an  officer  of  the  Legion. 
The  following  were  made  knights:  Lt.  Col.  David  M.  Goodrich,  vice- 
chairman  and  head  of  the  Liaison  Section;  Lt.  Col.  T.  G.  Lonergan, 
member  of  the  Committee  and  head  of  the  Technical  Section;  Lt.  Col. 
J.  A.  McDermott,  head  of  the  General  Section,  and  Mr.  Elwood  S. 
Brown,  Y.M.C.A.,  member  of  the  Committee  and  Director  General 
of  the  Games. 

The  concluding  ceremony  of  the  Games  took  place  on  Sunday, 
6  July,  when  the  medals  were  presented  to  the  victors  by  General 
Pershing,  the  AlHed  flags  lowered  and  the  French  standard  left  to 
float  alone  over  Stade  Pershing — now  the  official  property  of  the 
French  nation — an  abiding  monument  to  the  most  unique  sport 
carnival  in   athletic  history. 


CHAPTER  XV 
DEDICATION    DAY 


o  one  of  the  fifteen  eventful  days  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games 
surpassed  in  enthusiasm  the  remarkable  scene  presented  by 
the  formal  opening  of  Pershing  Stadium  on  the  afternoon 
of  Sunday,  22  June,  1919.  The  glamour  of  military  splen- 
dor, joined  with  the  briUiant  changing  spectacle  of  color  inseparable 
from  a  Continental  holiday  crowd,  made  the  day  one  long  to  be  remem- 
bered by  those  fortunate  enough  to  witness  it. 

There  were  distinguished  guests  from  all  of  the  Allied  nations, 
mihtary  delegations,  well-turned  speeches  and  there  was  the  double 
presentation  by  which  Pershing  Stadium,  planned  and  built  by  the 
American  Y.M.C.A.  and  presented  to  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces,  became  in  turn  the  perpetual  property  of  the  French 
people — but  above  all  there  was  The  Crowd. 

Approximately  90,000  people  filled  every  possible  seating  space 
in  the  huge  concrete  stands,  overflowed  on  the  grounds,  or  stormed 
in  vain  outside  the  circular  walls  in  efforts  to  get  a  glimpse  of  the 
ceremonies  inside.  Thousands  of  American  soldiers  helped  to  fill 
the  stands,  and  there  was  a  riot  of  color  ranging  from  the  sober  olive 
drab  of  the  A.E.F.  and  the  striking  horizon  blue  of  the  poilu,  through 
the  many  gradations  of  shading  that  can  be  presented  only  by  Europe's 
numberless  uniforms  and  Paris  on  a  jour  de  fSte.  With  the  sun  of 
ideal  summer  weather  smiling  over  the  scene.  Opening  Day  proved 
a  grand  success. 

As  the  inauguration  of  the  Games  took  place  during  one  of  the  most 
momentous  periods  in  the  diplomatic  and  political  history  of  the  world, 
the  two  leading  figures  in  the  international  situation  found,  at  the 
last  moment,  that  they  would  not  be  able  to  attend  the  dedication 
ceremonies.     But  while  urgent  business  of  the  moment  prevented  the 


176j  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

attendance  of  President  Wilson  and  M.  Clemenceau  at  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  Stadium,  there  was,  nevertheless,  a  notable  gathering  of 
distinguished  people.  The  President  and  Mme.  Poincare  occupied 
the  seats  in  the  center  of  the  platform  of  honor,  with  General  Pershing 
on  their  right.  On  General  Pershing's  right  sat  Mrs.  Hugh  Wallace, 
wife  of  the  American  Ambassador,  and  Mme.  Jusserand,  wife  of  the 
French  Ambassador  in  Washington.  On  the  left  of  Mme.  Poincare 
sat  Mr.  Wallace,  the  American  Ambassador,  and  M.  Leygues,  the 
French  Minister  of  Marine.  M.  Leygues  was  accompanied  by  M.  Pate, 
Deputy,  and  other  officials  of  the  Government.  On  his  left  sat  General 
Bliss  and  next  to  him,  Mr.  E.  C.  Garter,  Chief  Secretary  of  the  A.E.F.- 
Y.M.G.A.  Others  on  the  platform  were:  Mr.  W.  F.  Massey,  Prime  Min- 
ister of  New  Zealand;  General  Sir  Charles  Rosenthal  of  the  Austra- 
lian forces;  General  Alby,  Chief  of  the  French  General  Staff;  General 
Dubail;  M.  Politic,  Greek  Minister  for  Foreign  Affairs;  Colonel  Wait 
G.  Johnson,  Chief  Athletic  Officer  of  the  A.E.F.,  and  the  officers  of 
his  staff;  Mr.  Elwood  S.  Brown  of  the  Y.M.G.A.,  Director  of  the  Games; 
M.  Vesnich,  the  Serbian  Minister;  M.  Jusserand;  General  Laorat,  the 
French  officer  attached  to  President  Wilson;  Rear  Admiral  Knapp; 
Admiral  Long,  Naval  Attache  of  the  American  Embassy,  and  others 
of  the  Embassy  staff;  Miss  Sarah  Beecher,  niece  of  Ambassador  and 
Mrs.  Wallace;  the  Japanese  Ambassador  and  his  wife,  and  officers 
representing  all  the  nations  contesting  in  the  athletic  field. 

The  day's  events  began  at  2:30  in  the  afternoon  when  the  mili- 
tary parade,  headed  by  the  Garde  Republicaine  band,  entered  the 
oval  and  marched  past  Gol.  W.  S.  Babcock,  U.S.A.,  the  Grand  Mar- 
shal. The  review  included  companies  from  the  two  famous  old  French 
military  schools,  the  Polytechnic  and  St.  Gyr;  detachments  from  the 
Chasseurs  Alpins,  Zouaves  and  Tirailleurs;  the  89th  Infantry,  and  a 
battalion  from  the  superb  Composite  Regiment  of  the  American  Expe- 
ditionary Forces.  Led  by  Commandant  Rolland  and  his  staff,  the 
French  contingents  carried  tattered  battle  flags,  many  of  them  dyed 
in- the  blood  of  campaigns  far  older  than  the  World  War,  while  the 
American  color  guard  bore  the  Stars  and  Stripes  and  the  regimental 
colors.  After  marching  around  the  oval,  the  troops  were  drawn  up 
in  line  facing  the  central  stand  and  inspected  by  President  Poincare 
and  General  Pershing. 

On  the  completion  of  the  review  the  march  around  the  Stadium 
by  the  athletes  selected  to  compete  in  the  Games  constituted  the  single 
non-mihtary  feature  of  the  day.     Headed  by  the  band  of  the  45th 


PERSHING    STADIUM  —  PARIS  176k 

Infantry,  the  parade  followed  the  course  of  the  military  procession, 
the  athletes  eventually  lining  up  in  front  of  the  serried  ranks  of 
French  and  American  troops. 

The  parade  of  the  athletes  was  a  notable  event.  Nearly  1500 
men,  representing  sixteen  nations  and  colonies,  participated  in  this, 
the  first  ceremony  of  the  kind  since  the  close  of  the  Olympic  Games 
at  Stockholm  in  1912.  Despite  the  four  years  of  world  war  involving 
countries  and  men  who  had  helped  to  make  athletic  history  in  the 
last  three  Olympics,  here  and  there  in  the  march  around  Pershing 
Stadium  might  be  detected  the  figures  of  those  who  had  achieved 
victories  on  Olympic  fields  in  the  years  which  now  seem  so  far  in  the 
background. 

To  the  French  was  given  the  honor  of  heading  the  parade.  The 
teams  of  other  competing  nations  followed  in  alphabetical  order, 
ranging  in  number  from  the  lone  representative  of  far  Guatemala  to 
the  300  or  more  wearing  Uncle  Sam's  colors.  Following  France  in 
order  came  Austraha,  Belgium,  Brazil,  Canada,  China,  Czecho-Slo- 
vakia.  Great  Britain,  Greece,  Guatemala,  the  Hedjaz,  Newfoundland, 
New  Zealand,  Portugal,  Roumania,  Serbia,  and  finally,  the  United 
States.  Once  in  line  in  front  of  the  soldiers,  the  long  array  of  inter- 
national athletes  stretched  from  end  to  end  of  the  oval. 

The  formal  double  presentation  of  the  Stadium  followed,  the 
ceremony  taking  place  on  the  reviewing  platform  constructed  as  an 
abutment  from  the  center  of  the  main  stand.  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter,  Chief 
Secretary  of  the  A.E.F.- Y.M.C.A.,  on  behalf  of  his  organization, 
presented  the  deed  to  the  Stadium  to  General  Pershing  in  these  brief 
and  well-chosen  words: 

"   Mr.  President  and  General  Pershing — 

"  In  America,  years  ago,  France  built  a  noble  monument  to  hberty. 
Today  in  France,  America  has  here  completed  a  monument  to  one 
aspect  of  liberty— the  right  to  play.  From  the  arrival  in  Europe  of 
the  very  first  American  troops,  the  Y.M.C.A.  has  been  in  a  great 
partnership  with  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  in  making  uni- 
versal the  best  play  spirit  of  our  country— of  play  for  all,  strong  and 
weak,  rich  and  poor. 

"  The  meaning  of  the  A.E.F.  championships  hes  not  in  a  few 
hundred  final  competitors,  but  in  the  hundreds  of  thousands  of  soldiers 
of  average  skill  who  unconsciously  have  established  play  for  play's 
sake,  and  sport  as  the  possession  of  all. 


176  1  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

"  These  Inter-Allied  Games,  at  the  invitation  of  the  American 
Commander-in-Chief,  mark  the  culmination  of  the  ideals  which  have 
been  stressed  in  Europe  by  the  American  Army  and  fostered  by  the 
Association's  Department  of  Athletics— the  democracy  of  sport  and 
the  wider  internationahzation  of  athletics. 

"  In  making  this  gift  to  the  American  Army,  as  trustees  of  money 
subscribed  by  the  American  people,  the  Association  beheves  it  has 
used  their  money  for  the  largest  good  of  the  American  and  Alhed 
Armies.  Our  thanks  are  due  not  only  to  the  American  people,  but 
also  to  the  Army  itself,  particularly  to  the  engineer  and  pioneer  troops 
who  have  completed  this  structure  in  so  short  a  time. 

"  To  you,  General  Pershing,  on  behalf  of  the  American  people, 
through  the  Y.M.C.A.,  I  present  this  Stadium  for  the  American  Expe- 
ditionary Forces.  I  am  greatly  honored  in  handing  you  this  certifi- 
cate of  the  deed  of  gift." 

The  following  is  the  wording  of  the  deed: 

The  undersigned,  Edward  C.  Carter,  Chief  Secretary  Young  Men's  Christian 
Association,  under  a  General  Power  of  Attorney,  does  hereby  give,  transfer  and 
convey  to  John  J.  Pershing,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces,  all  and  singular  the  property  described  herein,  the  structure  known  as 
the  "  Pershing  Stadium.  " 

Which  consists  of  a  building  constructed  of  cement  and  steel,  erected  by  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  the  United  States  of  America,  together 
with  all  appliances,  appurtenances  and  apparatus  belonging  thereto,  and 
erected  on  land  ceded  by  the  City  of  Paris  to  the  Comit6  National  de  I'Educa- 
tion  Physique,  Sportive  et  del' Hygiene  Sociale,  situated  in  the  Bois  de  Vincennes, 
at  the  place  called  "Mortemart"  for  the  establishment  of  a  stadium,  being  more 
specifically  described  as  follows  : 

A  piece  of  ground  consisting  of  200  meters  to  the  side  situated  upon  the 
aforesaid  racefield  in  the  part  called  "Champ  de  Manoeuvres",  adjoining  the 
Camp  de  St.  Maur,  and  the  Municipal  Nurseries,  and  comprised  within  the 
limits  traced  in  red  ink  on  the  sketch  attached  hereto; 

This  ground  being  designed  solely  for  the  establishment  of  a  stadium  offered 
to  the  people  of  France  by  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

The  conditions  of  this  transfer  are  : 

That  the  grantor  conveys  the  above  described  personal  property  to  the 
Comit6  National  de  I'Education  Phyisique,  Sportive  et  de  1' Hygiene  Sociale, 
as  trustee  for  the  people  of  France  and  for  their  sole  use  and  exclusive  benefit; 
it  being  understood  that  the  said  properties  herein  conveyed  shall  not  be 
retransferred  by  the  said  Comit6  National  de  I'Education  Physique,  Sportive 
et  de  I'Hygitoe  Sociale,  to  any  person,  firm,  partnership  or  corporation,  or  any 
other  society,  by  which  the  rights  of  the  people  of  France  could  in  any  way  be 
curtailed;  it  being  the  intention  of  the  grantor  herein  that  people  of  France  shall 
for  ever  enjoy  the  rights,  benefits  and  privileges  of  the  property  conveyed 
without  price;  provided,  however,  that  the  said  Comit6  National  may  charge 
reasonable  admission  fees  to  said  Pershing  Stadium  for  sporting  events  and 
other  entertainments  conducted  directly  by  said  Comit6  National  and  provided 
further  that  any  other  person,  agency  or  organizations,  having  first  obtained 
the  right  to  use  said  Pershing  Stadium,  shall  also  have  the  right  to  charge  a 
reasonable  admission  fee,  it  being  understood,  however,  that  in  all  such  cases 


PERSHING   STADIUM  — PARIS  176m 

said  person,  agency,  or  organisation  shall  be  required  to  pay  said  Comit6  National 
—or  Its  successors —  a  reasonable  percentage  of  the  net  proceeds  where  admis- 
sion fees  are  so  charged,  to  be  used  for  the  up-keep  of  the  said  Pershing  Stadium 
»T  ,  Witness  Whereof  the  said  Edward  C.  Carter,  Chief  Secretary  Young' 
Men  s  Christian  Association  has  executed  the  above  and  foregoine  instrument 
this day  of  July,  1919. 

Witnesses :  (Seal) 

Elwood  S.  Brown  Edward  C.  Carter. 

Cass  Connoway 

General  Pershing  followed  with  a  simple  and  soldierly  speech  of 
acceptance  of  the  gift  for  the  A.E.F.  The  Commander-in-Chief  of 
the  Expeditionary  Forces  said: 

"  Mr.  President,  ladies  and  gentlemen — 

"  It  is  very  gratifying  to  us  of  the  Army  to  be  able  to  testify  to  the 
extraordinary  results  that  have  come  to  us  through  athletics,  especi- 
ally since  the  Armistice.  Hundreds  of  thousands  of  our  officers 
and  men  have  participated  in  these  Games  and  have  received  material 
benefit  through  theni,  because  of  having  to  prepare  for  these  compe- 
titions.    The  results  have  been  very  gratifying  indeed. 

"  But  we  could  not  be  here  today  to  testify  to  these  things  if  it 
had  not  been  for  the  assistance,  the  aid,  the  encouragement  given 
us  by  the  Y.M.C.A.  of  America,  who,  by  their  financial  aid  and  by 
the  assistance  given  us  through  their  trained  instructors,  have  made 
these  things  possible. 

"  Mr.  Carter — and  I  address  all  your  associates  as  well — we  most 
fully  appreciate  all  that  you  have  done.  This  monument  that  you 
leave  here  is  a  material  evidence  of  what  you  have  accomplished. 
But  beyond  that  you  are  leaving  in  our  memories  something  more — you 
are  leaving  with  us  a  lesson  which  will  benefit  not  only  those  of  us 
who  are  here,  but  we  hope  will  be  transmitted  to  those  who  are  to 
follow. 

"  In  accepting  this  deed,  I  extend  to  you  the  most  cordial  appre- 
ciation of  the  Army  for  what  you  have  done  for  us". 

In  turn  General  Pershing  presented  to  M.  Georges  Leygues,  Minister 
of  Marine,  acting  for  Premier  Clemenceau,  the  deed  of  gift  trans- 
ferring the  Stadium  to  France.  A  touching  tribute  to  the  spirit  of 
comradeship  in  arms  was  paid  by  the  American  Commanding  General 
in  his  address.     He  said: 

"  The  association  of  nations  and  of  armies,  M.  le  Ministre,  on  the 
field  of  battle,  developes  ties  of  friendship  which  naturally  lead,  if 
followed  to  their  logical  conclusion,  to  a  stronger  friendship  and 
naturally  enable  us  to  accomplish  greater  things. 


176n  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

"  Since  the  war  has  happily  ended  we  have  been  able  to  assemble 
here  athletes  from  all  the  Allied  Armies,  and  we  feel  that  this  is  but 
a  beginning  of  that  which  will  be  carried  out  later  by  the  French 
government   and   the   French   people. 

"  In  transmitting  to  you  this  deed  for  the  Stadium,  I  do  so  with 
the  hope  that  those  bonds  of  friendship,  which  have  been  developed 
by  us  when  fighting  side  by  side,  may  continue,  and  that  they  may 
become  everlasting  memories." 

The  following  is  the  wording  of  the  deed: 

The  undersigned,  John  J.  Pershing,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American 
Expeditionary  Forces  in  France,  does  hereby  give,  transfer  and  convey  to  the 
Comite  National  de  I'Education  Physique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygitae  Sociale, 
all  and  singular  the  property  described  herein,  the  structure  known  as  the 
"Pershing  Stadium." 

"Which  consists  of  a  building  constructed  of  cement  and  steel,  erected  by  the 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  the  United  States  of  America,  together 
with  all  appliances,  appurtenances  and  apparatus  belonging  thereto,  and  erected 
on  land  ceded  by  the  City  of  Paris  to  the  Comit6  National  de  I'Education  Phy- 
sique Sportive  et  de  I'HygiSne  Sociale,  situated  in  the  Bois  de  Vincennes,  at 
the  place  called  "Mortemart",  for  the  establishment  of  a  stadium,  being  more 
specifically  described  as  follows: 

A  piece  of  ground  consisting  of  200  meters  to  the  side  situated  upon  the 
aforesaid  racefleld  in  the  part  called  "Champ  de  Manoeuvres",  adjoining  the 
Camp  de  St.  Maur,  and  the  Municipal  Nurseries,  and  comprised  within  the 
limits  traced  in  red  ink  on  the  sketch  attached  hereto; 

This  ground  being  designed  solely  for  the  establishment  of  a  stadium  offered 
to  the  people  of  France  by  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  the  United 
States  of  America. 

The  conditions  of  this  transfer  are  : 

That  the  grantor  conveys  the  above  described  personal  property  to  the 
Comit6  National  de  I'Education  Pyhsique,  Sportive  et  de  I'Hygitae  Sociale, 
as  trustee  for  the  people  of  France  and  for  their  sole  use  and  exclusive  benefit; 
it  being  understood  that  the  said  properties  herein  conveyed  shall  not  be 
retransferred  by  the  said  Comit6  National  de  I'Education  Physique,  Sportive  et  de 
I'Hygiene  Sociale  to  any  person,  firm,  partnership  or  corporation,  or  any  other 
society,  by  which  the  rights  of  the  people  of  France  could  in  any  way  be  cur- 
tailed; it  being  the  intention  of  the  grantor  herein  that  the  people  of  France 
shall  forever  enjoy  the  rights,  benefits  and  privileges  of  the  property  conveyed 
without  price,  provided,  however,  that  said  Comit6  National  may  charge  reason- 
able admission  fees  to  said  Pershing  Stadium  for  sporting  events  and  other 
entertainments  conducted  directly  by  said  Comit6  National,  and  provided 
further,  that  any  other  person,  agency  or  organizations,  having  first  obtained 
the  right  to  use  said  Pershing  Stadium,  shall  also  have  the  right  to  charge  a 
reasonable  admission  fee,  it  being  understood,  however,  that  in  all  such  cases 
said  person,  agency,  or  organization  shall  be  required  to  pay  said  Comit6  National 
— or  its  successors — a  reasonable  percentage  of  the  net  proceeds,  where  admis- 
sion fees  are  so  charged,  to  be  used  for  the  up-keep  of  the  said  Pershing  Stadium. 

In  Witness  Whereof  the  said  John  J.  Pershing,  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
American  Expeditionary  Forces  in  France,  has  executed  the  above  and  fore- 
going instrument,  this day  of  July,  1919. 

Witnesses :  (Seal) 

Quekemeyer  John  J.  Pershing. 

Holmes 


PERSHING    STADIUM  — PARIS  176o 

M.  Leygues'  acceptance  was  brief.  The  French  Minister  said: 
"  I  accept  with  the  greatest  of  gratitude  and  joy  the  magnificent 
gift  of  the  Pershing  Stadium  which  you  have  just  made  to  the  Premier 
of  the  French  nation.  This  Stadium  will  be  the  center  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games.  It  will  very  powerfully  contribute  to  develop  the  taste 
for  physical  education  which  forms  strong  races  and  victorious  sol- 
diers. It  will  perpetuate  forever  the  remembrance  in  France  of  the 
generosity  of  the  Y.M.G.A.  and  the  American  Army.  It  will  also 
remind  us  of  the  gracious  help  of  your  splendid  legions  at  the  most 
dramatic  hour  of  the  history  of  the  world,  as  brought  to  the  defense 
of  the  sacred  cause  of  liberty  and  right." 

Upon  the  completion  of  the  double  presentation,  General  Pershing 
turned  and  faced  the  ranks  of  soldiers  and  athletes,  and  in  a  loud, 
clear  voice  proclaimed  the  formal  opening  of  the  Inter-Alhed  Games. 
The   General  said: 

"  It  is  very  gratifying  to  the  Army  of  the  United  States  to  be 
assembled  here  and  ask  all  the  athletes  of  the  Allied  Armies  to  contest 
in  friendly  games  among  themselves  and  with  us. 

"  We  feel  sure  that  this  is  a  new  beginning  for  the  development 
of  athletics  among  the  people  with  whom  we  have  been  associated  in 
the  Great  War. 

"  I  trust  that  we  may  all  carry  in  our  minds  the  thought  that 
strong  men  make  strong  nations,  and  I  predict  this  as  a  beginning  of  a 
new  era  in  such  development. 

"  I  extend  to  you  athletes  and  your  friends  a  most  cordial  welcome 
to  these  Games. 

"   I  now  declare  the  Inter-AlHed  Games  opened." 

At  this  juncture  the  flags  of  the  competing  nations  were  raised 
to  the  tops  of  the  tall  poles  erected  at  intervals  around  the  Stadium, 
"Old  Glory"  being  the  first  to  float  from  its  pinnacle. 

The  athletes  then  marched  off  the  field  in  order,  followed  by  all  of 
the  troops  except  the  two  companies  selected  for  the  Guard  of  Honor. 
The  departure  from  the  field  as  signally  honored  as  was  the  appear- 
ance of  the  march  companies,  for  at  this  time  the  outer  barriers  had 
been  removed,  and  the  huge  crowd  had  overflowed  to  the  field,  forming 
a  dense  fringe  of  humanity  around  the  oval,  through  which  with  diffi- 
culty the  French  Garde  Nationale  and  American  Military  Police  held 
a  passage  for  the  paraders.  As  the  companies  filed  past,  the  crowd 
burst  into  storms  of  cheers  for  their  favorites,  the  detachments  from 


176p  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES  —  1919 

the  Ecole  Polytechnique  and  St.  Cyr  coming  in  for  a  share  as  well 
as  the  older  combat  organizations.  The  American  troops  went  off 
the  field  at  double  time. 

The  Guard  of  Honor  from  the  Composite  Regiment,  led  by  the 
District  of  Paris  band,  was  drawn  up  in  front  of  the  reviewing  stand, 
-taking  the  field  for  its  formal  inspection.  It  was  late  in  the  afternoon 
at  this  time  and  most  of  the  principal  guests  found  it  necessary  to 
leave  the  Stadium,  a  considerable  portion  of  the  crowd  trailing  out 
after  them.  This  left  comparatively  empty  stands  to  watch  the  most 
spectacular  event  of  the  day — a  parade  of  airplanes  which  reached 
its  climax  in  a  thrilling  sham  in  air,  and  culminated  in  an  accident 
which  luckily  proved  fatal  only  to  the  machine. 

Throughout  the  ceremonies  planes  had  swooped  low  over  the 
crowded  Stadium.  Two  hugh  bouquets  which  were  let  fall  were  recov- 
ered and  presented  to  Mme.  Poincare  and  Mrs.  Wallace,  wife  of  the 
American  Ambassador. 

Twelve  types  of  machines  took  part  in  the  air  review,  displaying 
between  them  almost  a  complete  series  of  the  dashing  feats  of  the 
airman's  repertoire,  to  the  great  delight  of  the  spectators.  The  acci- 
dent occurred  when  Captain  Moseley,  United  States  Air  Service, 
wrecked  a  Fokker  he  was  flying  in  a  mimic  fight  with  a  Frelich-piIo|ed 
Spad.  Moseley  displayed  splendid  airmanship  in  his  enforced  landing 
at  Vincennes  racetrack  but  he  had  so  little  clearing  space  that  the 
little  plane  was  completely  wrecked  in  a  smash  against  a  tree,  the 
pilot  escaping  unhurt.  The  crowd  tore  the  machine  to  pieces  for 
souvenirs. 

The  airplane,  exhibition  concluded  the  official  ceremonies  of  the 
Opening  Day  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  though  it  was  nearly  three 
quarters  of  an  hour  before  the  huge  Stadium  was  finally  cleared  of  the 
tremendous  crowd  that  had  helped  make  the  brilliant  and  colorful 
initial  program  an  unqualified  success. 


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PANORAMIC     VIEW     OF     PERSHING    STADIUM     ON     OPENING     DAY 


Top  left— Van  den  Eynde,  Belgium,  counted  out  in  bout  with  Spalla,  Italy.  Top  nght—Goghill, 
Australia,  down  in  fight  with  Martin,  U.  S.  Center  Ze/i—Checkett  Australia,  knocked  out 
by  Harris,  Canada.  Center  right— honncits,  Belgium,  down  m  bout  with  Arnold,  Canada. 
Bottom  left— Spa.\U,  Italy,  knocking  out  Van  den  Eynde,  Belgium.     Bottom  rtgAi— Martm,  U.S., 

knocking  out  Coghill,  Australia. 

12 


CHAPTER   XVI 
THE    COMPETITIONS 


1 

Baseball 

2 

Basketball 

3 

Boxing  and  Wrestling 

4 

Equitation 

5 

Fencing 

6 

Football 

7 

Golf 

8 

Rowing 

9 

Shooting 

10 

Swimming 

11 

Tennis 

12 

Track  and  Field 

13 

Tug-of-War 

14 

Mass  Games. 

BASEBALL 


INNING  three  out  of  four  games,  the  Le  Mans  team  of  the 
A.E.F.  League,  representing  the  United  States,  took  first 
place  in  the  Baseball  competition  against  the  Canadians  in 
the  Inter-Allied  Games  at  Pershing  Stadium.  The  Ameri- 
cans took  the  first,  third  and  fourth  games  ;  the  Canadians  won  the 
second.     These  two  teams  were  the  only  entries  in  Baseball. 

The  first  game  in  the  series  was  played  on  23  June,  the  United 
States  getting  five  runs  and  shutting  out  their  opponents.  On  25  June 
the  Canadians  took  their  only  victory  with  a  2-to-l  score.  The  third 
game,  played  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  was  a  10-to-O  victory  for  the 
Americans  and  the  final  game,  which  lasted  only  seven  innings,  ended 
in  a  score  of  12  to  1. 

In  the  four  games  played  the  United  States  showed  excellence  in 
every  feature.  The  United  States  team  made  a  total  of  28  runs 
against  3  for  the  Canadian  team.  There  were  24  hits  for  a  total 
of  29  bases  made  by  the  United  States  against  10  hits  for  a  total  of 
12  bases  by  Canada.  The  United  States  made  7  errors  in  the  four 
games,  Canada  22.  Pitchers  for  the  winning  team  showed  their  supe- 
riority not  only  in  holding  down  the  number  of  hits,  but  also  by 
striking  out  19  batters  to  8  strikeouts  by  the  losing  team  batteries. 
Base  running  honors  were  taken  by  the  United  States  with  19  stolen 
bases  against  6  by  Canada. 

Of  the  men  who  played  in  all  four  games,  but  one  batter  reached 
.300  per  cent.  This  was  Anderson,  shortstop  for  the  United  States, 
who  made  6  hits  out  of  13  times  at  bat.  His  nearest  competitor 
for  honors  was  Marriott,  second  baseman,  who  hit  5  times  out  of 
15  chances.  The  leading  Canadian  batter  was  Gilpatrick,  third 
baseman,  who  hit  3  times  with  12  chances  and  the  second  on  the 
Canadian  team  was  Carmel,  left  fielder,  who  got  3  hits  out  of 
14  chances. 

Two  men  on  each  team  played  in  all  four  games  and  fielded  per- 
fectly. The  Canadians  who  did  not  make  an  error  during  the  series 
were  Carmel  and  Thompson,  outfielders.  The  Americans  with  1.000 
fielding  average  were  Brausen,  third  baseman,  and  Dean,  center  fielder. 

See  page  153  for  baseball  pictures 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  181 

The  United  States  team  had  9  earned  runs  during  the  series 
against  2  for  the  Canadians.  Brausen  was  the  best  rungetter  for 
the  winning  team,  crossing  the  plate  5  times.  Debus  came  second 
with  4  tallies  to  his  credit.  Dean  and  Marriott  made  3  each. 

The  second  game,  won  by  the  Canadians,  was  the  best  exhibi- 
tion of  baseball  shown  on  the  field.  The  game  was  close  through- 
out and  played  fast.  Tate,  pitching  for  the  winners,  allowed  but  1 
hit  and  his  team  gave  him  strong  support,  only  1  error  being  made 
behind  him.  Taylor,  pitching  for  the  United  States,  allowed  a  total 
of  5  hits  and  received  perfect  support  from  his  fielders. 

In  the  first  game  most  of  the  credit  for  the  victory  was  due  to 
Fuller's  pitching  for  the  Americans.  Although  4  errors  were  made, 
the  former  Washington  pitcher  held  his  opponents  to  1  hit.  Loose 
fielding  allowed  the  Americans  to  pile  up  their  big  leads  in  the  third 
and  fourth  games.  In  the  third  contest  the  Canadians  made  6  errors 
and  in  the  last  game  10. 

The  Canadian  team,  fresh  from  a  final  series  against  the  other 
troops  from  their  country  in  London,  showed  themselves  to  be  worthy 
opponents  for  the  Americans  in  the  first  two  games  played.  After- 
wards, however,  the  Le  Mans  team  went  to  Germany  where  they 
played  three  games  while  the  Canadians  remained  at  Pershing  Stadium 
without  a  chance  to  play.  The  week  of  resting  showed  itself  plainly 
in  the  last  two  games  of  the  series. 

The  Le  Mans  team,  representing  the  United  States,  was  selected 
after  a  three-game  series  with  the  Third  Division  team  in  which  the 
former  took  two  of  the  contests.  These  two  teams  were  conceded 
to  be  the  best  in  the  A.E.F.  League.  The  Canadian  team  was  selected 
after  a  series  in  London  with  the  best  baseball  teams  in  the  Canadian 
Army.  The  winning  team  was  reinforced  by  the  best  players  from 
the  two  next  highest  teams  in  the  Canadian  finals. 

Although  the  United  States  and  the  Canadian  forces  were  the  only 
ones  in  the  Allied  Armies  to  have  baseball  teams,  much  interest  was 
taken  in  these  games  played  at  the  Stadium.  Many  French  soldiers 
and  civilians  gathered  in  the  stands  nearest  the  diamond  and  gave 
Baseball  first  place  in  their  attention  over  the  other  events  on  the 
field.  Even  the  fact  that  they  had  no  national  interest  in  any  of  the 
players  did  not  prevent  them  from  following  the  plays  and  enjoying 
the  exhibition.  Although  fewer  in  number,  representatives  of  the 
other  Allied  Nations  also  watched  the  series  with  evident  interest 


182 


THE     INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


and  probably  got  a  new  and  clearer  understanding  of  this  game  hither- 
to  played   almost   exclusively   in   North  America. 

Each  team  had  eighteen  players  entered.     Canada  used  sixteen 
of  her  men  in  the  four  games  and  the  United  States  eleven. 


First    Game    :        Score  by  innings 
Canada 000000000 


R  H  E  Batteries 

0    15     Clayton  and  Shep- 
pard. 
United  States.     OOSOOOllx—    5    64     Fuller  and  Novak. 
Umpires — Orth  and  Frambes.     Scorer- — Thornton.     Time  of  game 

—  1:45. 

Second  Game  :        Score  by  innings  R  H  E  Batteries 

United  States.     000000100—     1    1    0     Taylor  and  Novak. 

Canada 00020000x—    2    5    1     Tate  and  Peckham. 

Umpires  —  Orth  and  Frambes.     Scorer- — Doran.     Time   of  game 

—  1:35. 

Third    game    :       Score  by  innings  R  H  E  Batteries 

Canada 000000000—    0    1    6     Chalmers  and  Shep- 

pard. 
United  States.     10000126x  —  10    9   2     Fuller  and  Novak. 
Umpires— Orth  and  Roth.   Scorer— Doran.    Time  of  game— 1:45. 

Fourth  Game  :   Score  by  innings  R  H  E 

United  States.     0030324  —  12    81 

Canada 1000000 


Batteries 
Taylor  and  Novak. 


Umpires  —  Roth  and  Orth. 


—     1    310     Tate  and  Peckham. 


Top  left — Lieutpnant  Eagan,  U.  S.  middleweight.     Top  right — Oogliill,  Australia,  heavyweight. 
Bottom  left — Prunior,  France.     Bottom  right — Sal  van,  Roumania. 


F  the  Europeans  proved  superior  in  soccer,  the  sport  so 
popular  on  the  Continent,  the  United  States  quite  as 
decisively  showed  the  way  in  Basketball  to  Italy  and  France, 
the  only  other  entries.  Since  this  game  is  one  of  the  most 
popular  in  America  but  almost  unknown  in  Europe,  the  one-sided 
scores  by  which  the  United  States  won  both  games  from  their  sports- 
manlike but  less  practised  opponents  were  not  surprising. 

There  were  three  games  in  the  series,  the  first  between  Italy  and 
the  United  States,  the  second  between  France  and  Italy  and  the 
third  between  the  United  States  and  France.  The  contests  were 
held  on  the  site  of  the  baseball  infield  of  Pershing  Stadium.  Although 
basketball  is  an  indoor  sport,  the  floor  of  tightly  stretched  canvas 
and  the  movable  but  firmly  placed  standards  formed  an  excellent 
court.  Good  weather  prevailed  during  all  but  the  first  game  in  which 
the  second  half  was  played  in  the  rain. 

The  first  game  on  26  June  resulted  in  an  easy  victory  for  the  United 
States  over  the  Italian  quintette.  The  latter  was  the  first  team  ever 
organized  in  this  sport  in  Italy  and  it  had  enjoyed  little  opportunity 
for  training.  The  Americans  won  by  a  score  of  55  to  17  and  used 
substitutes  in  the  second  half.  Their  teamwork,  short  passing  and 
condition  stood  out  in  contrast  to  the  losers  who  tried  disastrous  long 
passes  and  were  weak  on  scoring.  Brennan  was  the  main  cog  m  the 
mechanism  of  the  winning  five,  scoring  six  field  goals.  The  players 
of  both  nations  were  as  follows:  United  States  — Ruddiger  (R.F.), 
Greene  (L.F.),  Brennan  (C.),  Pelletier  (R.G.),  Friedman  (L.G.),  sub- 
stitutes,  Kewallis,  May  and  Brown.  Italy— Sessa  (R.F.),  Baccanni 
(L.F.),  H.  Muggiani  (G.),  M.  Muggiani  (R.G.),  Pecelle  (L.G.). 

Italy  defeated  France  15  to  11  on  28  June.  This  game  was  exciting 
throughout,  the  play  at  times  being  excellent.  France  led  at  the  end 
of  the  second  half  6  to  5,  but  Secca,  starring  for  Italy,  shot  his  team 
into  victory  in  the  final  period  with  4  successive  baskets  from  the 
field  and  one  foul  goa.  Because  of  unfamiliarity  with  the  rules, 
more  fouls  were  called  in  this  contest  than  in  either  of  the  other  two. 
As  the  low  scores  indicate,  both  teams  were  weak  on  offensive  and 


See  pages  159  165  for  basketball  pictures. 


186 


THE     INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


often  missed  easy  baskets.  The  players  were  as  follows  :  France — 
Bagay  (R.F.),  Aube  (L.F.),  Chauvet  (C),  Aguillaume  (R.G.),  Turaglie 
(L.G.);  substitute,  Maurier.  Italy — Sessa  (R.F.),  Baccarini  (L.F.), 
H.  Muggiani  (C),  Pecollo  (R.G.),  Bagnoli  (L.G.). 

The  final  game  on  29  June  was  won  by  the  United  States  from 
France,  93  to  8.     The  winners  went  at  top  speed  all  the  way  and  scored 
at  will.     Brennan  was  again  the  mainstay  with  sixteen  goals.     He 
seldom  lost  the  tipoff  and  usually  started  the  ball  towards  another 
score.     The  forwards,  Ruddiger  and  Kewallis,  found  the  net  for  nine 
counters  each,  while  Pelletier,   in  addition  to  holding  his  opposing 
forward    scoreless,    shot    eight    baskets.     The    French    players    were 
helpless  and  seldom  had  the  ball.     An  entirely  new  American  team 
was  substituted    in   the  last  five  minutes.     Players  follow :  United 
States— Ruddiger    (R.F.),    Kewallis    (L.F.),    Brennan    (C),  [Pelletier 
(R.F.),   Friedman  (L.G.);    substitutes,   Greene,   Clarke,   May,  Brown, 
and    Doing.     France — ^Bagay    (R.F.),    Aube    (L.F.),     Chauvet    (C), 
Turaglio  (R.G.),  Aguillaume  (L.G.). 

Final  Standing  of  Teams  : 


United  States 

Italy 

France     


Won 

2 
1 
0 


Lost 
0 
1 
2 


BOXING  8.WRESTLING 


HROUGHOUT  the  Intcr-Allied  Games  the  Y.M.C.A.  model  ring 
occupied   a    conspicuous   place  in  Pershing  Stadium  and 
those  who   performed  in  it  were  the  center  of  interest  for 
thousands  of  spectators  always  willing  to  stay  late  for  the 
attractive  boxing  and  wrestling  bouts. 

Keener  competition  than  that  developed  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games 
ring  contest  will  not  be  seen  for  a  long  time.  Cleaner  sportsmanship 
will  never  be  seen. 

Practically  every  nation  competing  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games  had 
a  list  of  entrants  in  the  boxing  and  wrestling  tournaments.  Next 
to  the  track  and  field  meet  the  ring  contests  were  the  sports  most 
popularly  received  alike  by  the  competing  nations  and  by  the  specta- 
tors. Boxing  bouts  and  wrestling  matches,  both  Greco-Roman  and 
Gatch-as-catch-can,  took  place  every  day  that  weather  permitted. 


BOXING 

In  the  boxing  contests  the  team  competition  was  exceedingly  keen 
and  the  results  close.  Although  from  the  .start  Australia's  string 
of  fighters  loomed  up  strong  on  the  fistic  horizon,  America's  team 
bested  that  of  the  Dominion.  France  had  counted  on  winning ;  her 
entrants  were  all  veterans  and  promising  contenders  for  honors.  The 
United  States  entered  its  A.E.F.  champions  with  two  substitutions. 
Belgium  and  Italy  both  entered  strong  teams. 

Difficult  is  the  task  of  selecting  the  tournament's  star  perforniers. 
Perhaps  the  two  winning  men  at  the  extreme  limits  of  the  weight 
scale  stood  out  throughout  the  tourney  above  the  other  winners. 

"Digger"  Evans  of  Australia  cleverly  boxed  his  way  to  the  bantam- 
weight title.  His  good-natured  sportsmanship,  his  winning  and 
cheerful  smile,  made  him  a  decided  favorite  with  the  ring-side  fans 
of  all  nations.  He  was  far  and  away  the  cleverest  boxer  in  the  tourney. 
The  fact  that  his  punches  lacked  "steam"  was  overbalanced  by  the 
fact  that  he  hit  almost  at  will  and  where  he  wanted  to  hit.  His  favo- 
rite trick  was  to  wait  for  his  opponent  to  lead  and  then  to  step  m  with 

See  pages  171  177  183  189  195  201  207  213  for  pictures  of  boxing  and  wrestling. 


188  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

a  fusilade  of  rights  and  lefts  to  the  head  or  body.  All  of  his  bouts 
were  won  on  judges'  decisions;  all  of  them  but  one  were  by  wide 
margins. 

Evans'  closest  battle  was  his  bout  with  "Babe"  Asher,  the  A.E.F. 
bantamweight  champion.  The  drawings  brought  these  two  boys 
together  on  the  first  day  of  the  tournament.  Although  Asher  hit 
harder  than  Evans,  the  latter's  cleverness  kept  the  American  out  of 
range  for  the  most  part  and  won  for  the  Australian  the  decision.  Some 
neutrals  at  the  ringside  thought  that  the  bout  could  have  been  called 
a  draw.     Evans  had  no  difficulty  in  his  other  matches 

The  other  star  uncovered  in  the  tourney  was  "Bob"  Martin,  the 
big  A.E.F.  heavyweight  champion.  In  the  A.E.F.  tournament 
Martin,  a  green  boxer,  won  his  title  by  his  terrific  hitting.  His  fight- 
ing was  devoid  of  cleverness  and  he  seemed  ill  at  ease.  When  he 
stepped  into  the  Inter-Allied  ring  "Bob"  seemed  a  different  fighter. 
Schooling  subsequent  to  the  A.E.F.  matches  had  given  him  much 
needed  cleverness  and  style  and  had  taught  him  something  of  ring 
generalship.  His  ability  to  coordinate  muscle  and  mind,  to  take 
advantage  instantly  of  any  slip  on  his  opponent's  part,  won  him  his 
title.  Martin's  two  bouts  in  the  Inter-Allied  tourney  were  short 
affairs.  He  disposed  of  the  French  heavyweight  contender  in  the 
second  round  of  their  scheduled  ten-round  bout.  He  was  more  than 
a  match  for  the  Frenchman  in  cleverness  and  his  sledge-hammer 
blows  quickly  subdued  the  latter  and  put  Martin  in  the  final  heavy- 
weight bout  with  Captain  Coghill  of  Australia.  The  latter  had  been 
judged  the  equal  of  Georges  Garpentier,  France's  well-known  heavy 
who  was  unable  to  fight  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  Coghill  lasted 
one  minute  and  thirty-six  seconds  with  Martin  in  the  title  bout.  The 
American  led  very  cleverly  three  times  to  the  Australian's  stomach 
with  left  jabs.  These  three  leads  caused  Coghill  to  lower  his  guard, 
which  was  what  Martin  wanted.  The  Australian  led  with  his  left 
and  Martin's  instantaneous  counter,  a  right  swing  to  the  face,  ended 
the  bout  and  won  the  American  the  heavyweight  title.  Sportsman- 
like, Martin  carried  Coghill  to  his  corner. 

No  better  boxing  card  has  ever  been  witnessed  than  the  cham- 
pionship bouts  staged  in  Pershing  Stadium  on  the  Fourth  of  July 
before  a  record-breaking  and  enthusiastic  crowd.  General  Pershing 
was  among  those  who  kept  their  seats  until  the  final  bout  was  conclud- 
ed. The  lightweight-championship  tilt  between  "Benny"  McNeil, 
United  States,  and  Watson,  Australia,  was  generally  proclaimed  the 


Top     Ze/i  — Martin,    U.    S.,    heavyweight    champion.       Top    riff/ii-De    Ponthieu,    France, 
featherweight  champion.     Cen^^-r  if/<-McNeill,  U.  S.    lightweight  cliampion      C^^^^   "^ht-- 
Al    Norton    U.  S.,  heavyweight.     Bo<tom  Ze/i—Atwood,  Canada.    Bo«om  rij/W— Martm,  U.  h., 
'  '  Coghill,  Australia;  Bronson,  referee. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  191 

star  bout  of  the  tourney.  Both  men  are  clever,  hard-hitting  boxers , 
and  each  called  into  play  all  the  resourcefulness  at  his  command. 
Although  the  bout  was  a  slashing  affair  it  was  not  the  wild-swinging 
fight  of  unskilled  boxers.  Both  men  gave  and  received  considerable 
punishment.  At  the  end  they  stood  arm-in-arm  with  broad  smiles 
on  their  battered  faces  and  submitted  to  the  photographic  ordeal. 
Here  is  the  lineup  of  the  Inter-Allied  champions  who  won  their  titles 
by  virtue  of  that  day's  fighting  : 

Bantamweight. — Evans,   Australia,  outpointed  Marzzorati,  Italy,  in 
10   rounds. 

Featherweight. — De  Ponthieu,  France,  outpointed  Fundy,  United 
States,  in  10  rounds. 

Lightweight. — McNeil,  United  States,  outpointed  Watson,  Aus- 
tralia, in  10  rounds. 

Welterweight. — Attwood,  Canada,  outpointed  Prunier,  France, 
in  11  rounds.     (No  decision  at  end  of  scheduled  10  rounds). 

Middleweight. — Eagan,  United  States,  won  from  Thomas,  France, 
by  default. 

Light  Heavyweight. — Spalla,  Italy,  outpointed  Pettibridge,  Aus- 
tralia, in  10  rounds. 

Heavyweight. — Martin,  United  States,  knocked  out  Coghill,  Aus- 
tralia, in  first  round  of  10-round  bout. 

By  the  scoring  system  employed  under  the  rules  of  the  Inter-Allied 
Games  a  nation  was  credited  with  2  points  for  every  bout  which  was 
won  by  one  of  its  fighters.  The  nation  whose  fighter  lost  in  the  bout 
was  credited  with  1  point.  The  scoring  included  both  preliminary 
and  final  bouts.  With  20  points  to  its  credit,  by  Virtue  of  8  wins 
and  4  losses,  the  United  States  led  the  field  in  team  scoring.  Aus- 
traha  was  second  with  17  points  while  Canada  and  France  tied  for 
third  with  16  points  each.     The  tabulated  score  sheet  is  as  follows  : 

Wins     Losses     Points 

United  States 8  4  20 

Australia 6  5  17 

Canada 6  4  16 

France 6  4  16 

Belgium 2  6  10 

Italy 2  6  10 

Roumania 1  1  ^ 

Portugal J?  _i  _1 

31  31  93 


192  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Lieut.  "Ben"  Steinel,  Red  Cross,  matchmaker,  and  his  assistant, 
Sgt.  "Joe"  Levins,  handled  the  ring  cards  admirably.  "Jimmy" 
Bronson,  Y.M.C.A.,  was  third  man  in  the  ring  in  most  of  the  bouts. 
The  satisfaction  that  he  gave  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  several 
non-American  fighters  requested  that  he  officiate  even  when  they 
were  boxing  American  fighters.  He  conducted  the  bouts  with  the 
finished  hand  of  the  expert  that  he  is.  Capt.  "Harry"  Sharpe,  Red 
Cross,  and  Monsieur  Lerda,  the  French  expert,  shared  the  task  of 
officiating  with  Bronson  and  rendered  excellent  service,  as  did  Maj. 
Beveridge,  Canada,  Lt.  Kelaher,  Australia,  and  Lt.  Maker ,^  Belgium. 

The  boxing  rules  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  which 
governed  the  contests  at  the  Stadium  as  they  had  those  of  the  A.E.F. 
finals,  were  the  work  of  Col.  Wait  C.  Johnson,  assisted  by  Lt.  Col. 
J.  A.  McDermott  who  had  charge  of  the  A.E.F.  boxing  and  wrestling 
championships.  These  rules  embraced  some  important  modifications 
of  the  standard  ring  rules,  notably  the  reduction  of  the  length  of  rounds 
from  three  minutes  to  two  minutes.  Their  use  during  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  gave  universal  satisfaction  and  they  achieved  a  standing 
which  very  probably  will  result  in  their  continued  and  increased 
employment  in  the  future. 

WRESTLING 

From  the  beginning  of  the  Wrestling  tourney  the  problem  of  devel- 
oping competitions  which  would  attract  both  Americans  and  other 
nationalities  was  rendered  difficult  by  the  fact  that  of  the  two  styles 
of  wrestling  recognized,  Greco-Roman  was  unknown  to  the  Americans 
and  Catch-as-catch-can  equally  unknown  to  the  other  nationalities. 
The  difficulty  was  never  overcome.  Twenty-two  Greco-Roman  bouts 
were  staged  and  only  seven  Catch-as-catch-can.  Slinger,  the  United 
States  Catch-as-catch-can  bantamweight,  found  no  opponent  and 
hence  won  undisputed  championship  title.  Whereas,  American  mat- 
rtien  won  six  of  the  seven  championships  in  Catch-as-catch-can  wrest- 
ling, other  nations  won  six  of  the  seven  championships  in  the  Greco- 
Roman  style. 

Mat  matches  started  in  Pershing  Stadium  simultaneously  with 
the  boxing  bouts.  Each  day's  ring  card  included  both  boxing  and 
wrestling.  Both  the  Greco-Roman  and  the  Catch-as-catch-can  tour- 
naments were   concluded   on  5   July. 

Greco-Roman  wrestling,  which  occupied  the  ring  the  greater  part 
of  the  time,  is  not  as  spectacular  as  the  Catch-as-catch-can  form  of  the 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  193 

sport  known  to  the  American  ring  followers.  Nevertheless  the  mat 
matches  vied  with  boxing  in  attracting  interest  from  the  ring  enthusiasts 
who  followed  the  Inter-Allied  Games. 

Keen  competition  was  developed  in  the  Greco-Roman  tourney. 
The  scarcity  of  entrants  in  the  Catch-as-catch-can  did  not  give  the 
American  grapplers  an  opportunity  to  demonstrate  their  skill.  Some 
of  the  world's  best  men  competed  in  the  Inter-Allied  ring.  After  the 
preliminary  bouts  the  title  matches  were  staged.  The  list  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  title  holders  is  as  follows  : 

CATCH-AS-CATCH-CAN 

Bantamweight. — Slinger,  United  States,  won  title.  No  challenger 
appeared. 

Featherweight. — Littlejahault,  |United  States,  defeated  Taylor. 
Australia . 

Lightweight. — Metropolis,  Uaited  States,  defeated  Marshall,  New- 
foundland. 

Welterweight. — Farley,  United  States,  defeated  Bridges,  Australia, 

Middleweight. — Prehm,  United  States,  defeated  Palmer,  Australia. 

Light  Heavyweight. — Parcault,  United  States,  defeated  Meeske, 
Australia. 

Heavyweight. — -Salvator,  France,  defeated  Polk,  United  States. 

GRECO-ROMAN 

Bantamweight. — Wiseman,  United  States,  defeated  BeUiomet, 
France. 

Featherweight. — Dierek,  Belgium,  defeated  Vaglio,  Italy. 

Lightweight. — ^Beranek,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Parro,   Italy. 

Welterweight. — Halick  Gzecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Savonet,  Bel- 
gium. 

Middleweight. — Van  'Antwerpen,  Belgium,  defeated  Gargano, 
Italy. 

Light  Heavyweight. — Kopriva,  Serbia,  defeated  Dostal,  Czecho- 
slovakia. 

Heavyweight. — Bechard,  France,  defeated  Coelst,  Belgium. 

Team  scoring,  as  in  boxing,  ^ave  2  points  to  the  nation  whose 
wrestler  won  each  bout,  including  preliminary  matches,  and  1  point 

13 


194  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

to  the  nation  whose  man  was  the  loser  in  each  bout.  The  United 
States  scored  15  points  to  4  points  scored  by  Austraha  the  second- 
place  nation  in  the  Catch-as-catch-can  tourney.  In  the  Greco-Roman 
series  Czecho-Slovakia  and  Belgium  were  tied  for  first  place  with 
14  points  each  ;  Italy  was  third  with  13  points;  France  and  the  United 
States  were  tied  for  fourth  place  with  7  points  each.  The  complete 
scoring  table  is  as  follows  : 

CATCH-AS-CATCH-CAN 

Wins     Losses      Points 

United  States 7  1  15 

Australia 0  4 

France 1  ^  ^ 

Czecho-Slovakia 0  1  1 

Newfoundland 0  1  1 

8  7  23 

Shnger,  United  States,  won  the  bantamweight  title  when  no  chal- 
lenger appeared.  Hence  no  nation  is  credited  with  a  loss  and  the 
total  wins  and  losses  do  not  balance. 


GRE  co-ROM  AN 


Wins     Losses      Points 


Czecho-Slovakia. 

Belgium 

Italy 

United  States. .  . 

France  

Greece     

Serbia 

Roumania 


6 
5 
5 
1 

2 
1 

2 
0 


2 
4 
3 
5 

3 

2 
0 
3 


14 
14 
13 

7 
7 
4 
4 
3 


22 


22 


66 


To  the  individual  efforts  of  Capt.  Harry  Sharpe,  Red  Cross,  was 
largely  due  the  success  of  the  Wrestling  tournament.  As  director, 
judge  and  referee  he  worked  unceasingly  for  the  smooth  running  of  the 
matches.  He  was  assisted  by  Maj.  Defigier,  France,  Lieut.  Pellerin, 
France,  Lieut.  Hall,  U.S.A.,  Lt.  Pikios,  Greece  "Jimmy"  Bronson, 
Y.M.C.A.,  Lt.  "Ben"  Steinel,  Red  Cross,  and  Sgt.  "Joe"  Levins,U.S.A. 


Top  left— Digger  Evans,  Australia,  aud  Johnnie  Ashcr,  V.  S..  bantamweights.  Top  riyht— 
Evans  and  Asher  shaking  hands  before  the  bout.  Center  left— Two  lightweights  in  action. 
Center  right— Opening  round  Evans-Asher  bout.  Bottom  left— An  exchange  of  blows  in  a 
middleweight  bout.  Bottom  Hr/?i«— Norton,  U.  S.,  and  Herscovitch,  Canada,  in  light  heavy- 
weight bout. 


EQUITATION 


AJOR  honors  in  the  riding  events  of  the  Inter-AUied  Games 
went  to  Italy.  The  ItaHan  riders  made  a  brilliant 
showing  in  the  two  concluding  features  of  the  program 
and  by  taking  the  first  two  places  in  the  pairs  and  first 
and  third  in  the  individual  jumping  contest,  offset  the  initial  victory 
of  France  in  the  team  and  individual  mihtary  competitions. 

Owing  to  the  fundamentally  military  character  of  the  Inter-AUied 
Games,  horse-riding  competitions,  long  honored  in  army  sport,  were 
recognized  from  the  beginning  as  among  the  principal  events  of  the 
program.  All  of  the  competing  nations  manifested  the  greatest  interest 
in  horseriding  and,  while  some  were  prevented  from  competing  by  the 
difficulty  of  finding  the  necessary  mounts  and  of  transporting  them 
to  Paris,  seven  countries — America,  Belgium,  Hedjaz,  France,  Italy, 
Portugal,  and  Roumania — entered  the  lists. 

The  great  crowds  which  braved  the  rain  on  the  first  day  that  prize 
jumping  was  included  in  the  program  at  the  Stadium,  and  the  almost 
breathless  interest  with  which  they  followed  the  course  of  the  riders 
over  the  obstacles,  testified  to  the  fact  that  the  love  of  horses  is  keen, 
not  only  with  the  Parisian  public  but  also  with  the  rank  and  file  of 
the  American  Army. 

The  organization  of  the  horse-riding  competitions  was  placed  by 
the  Games  Committee  in  charge  of  Col.  Henry  P.  Richmond.  Through 
the  courtesy  of  the  French  Ministry  of  War,  quarters  and  messing 
places  for  the  enlisted  men  of  all  competing  teams,  and  stables  for  the 
horses,  were  provided  at  Fort  de  Champigny  on  the  hills  east  of  the 
Marne,  Capt.  GaUini  of  the  French  General  Staff  having  charge  of  these 
matters  while  Col.  F.  P.  Lahm,  A.  S.,  U.S.  Army,  with  a  suitable  staff, 
was  designated  as  commanding  officer  of  the  fort.  The  competing 
officers  of  the  Allied  Armies  were  billetted  in  adjoining  towns.  Auto- 
mobile transportation  for  trips  to  and  from  Paris  and  the  Stadium 
and  all  other  desirable  conveniences  were  provided  for  them,  and  m 
the  vicinity  of  Fort  de  Champigny  all  of  the  competing  teams  took 
up  their  training  until  the  days  of  the  contests.  A  suitable  saddling 
stable,  at  a  distance  of  about  1,000  yards  from  the  Stadium,  was 

See  pages  219  327  233  239  245  249  for  equitation  pictures. 


198  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  teams  for  use  on  the  days  when  the  riding 
occurred   in  the   Stadium. 

The  adoption  of  the  final  program  for  riding  was  delayed  until 
the  exact  number  of  competing  nations  could  be  known  and  until 
an  accurate  judgement  could  be  formed  upon  the  limitations  of  the 
Stadium  for  certain  events.  In  the  end  it  was  decided  that  the  pro- 
gram should  consist  of  four  days  of  riding,  the  events  themselves 
to  be  three  in  number:  first,  the  Mihtary  Competition,  of  which  the 
long-distance  and  cross-country  rides  should  occur  on  the  first  day 
and  the  military  prize  jumping  on  the  next  day;  second,  prize  jumping 
in  pairs;  third,  individual  prize  jumping.  It  was  found  that  it  would 
be  impossible  to  include  the  steeple  chase  in  the  Military  competition 
owing  to  the  impracticability  of  arranging  a  suitable  course  in  the 
short  time  available.  The  omission  of  this  picturesque  and  exciting 
event  was  generally  regretted. 

The  competitors  in  the  program  were  all  officers  of  the  AUied 
Armies  who  had  been  selected  by  their  respective  nations,  some  by 
being  picked  out  as  the  most  favorably  known  among  available  riders 
and  others,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Americans,  by  elimination  contests. 
The  rules  permitted  them  to  ride  either  private  or  government-owned 
horses.  The  minimum  weight  of  riders  in  the  Military  competition 
was  placed  at  165  pounds,  while  bitting  and  saddling  in  all  of  the  events 
were  optional. 

The  Itafian  team,  reaching  the  practise  course  only  two  days 
before  the  commencement  of  the  program,  entered  seven  riders  but 
had  twenty  mounts.  France  had  ten  competitors  and  nineteen  ani- 
mals. Belgium  entered  nine  officers  and  as  many  horses.  The  three 
Hedjaz  entries  had  but  one  mount,  Portugal  one  entry  and  one  horse, 
and  Roumania  three  riders  to  five  animals.  Seven  American  officers 
competed  for  the  A.E.F.  with  nine  horses.  The  American  team  gave 
an  unusually  fine  exhibition  of  horsemanship  but  were  handicapped 
by  the  lack  of  good  mount  material.  They  were  unable  to  take  advan- 
tage of  the  privilege  of  using  privately  owned  stock,  because  of  the 
distance  from  home,  and  had  to  be  content  with  what  mounts  they 
could  pick  up  in  the  remount  depots  and  the  different  organizations 
of  the  A.E.F. 

During  the  four  days  of  the  Competitions,  the  weather  was  excep- 
tionally good  save  during  the  Military  Prize  Jumping  competition 
when  a  heavy  downpour  of  rain  temporarily  stopped  the  riding. 
Although   the   ground   afterwards   was    almost   covered   with   water 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  199 

and  the  footing  was  rather  soft  and  slippery  the  event  proceeded 
without  apparent  difiiculty. 

The  riding  program  began  with  the  Long-distance  and  Cross- 
country ride  on  30  June.  The  ground  was  a  Httle  hard  in  some 
places  on  the  Long-distance  ride  but  the  location  selected  was  the 
best  obtainable  near  Paris.  The  two  courses  *  covered  about  55  kilo- 
meters. Starting  at  Ghennevieres,  about  12  kilometers  outside  Paris, 
the  ride  followed  a  zig-zag  course  to  the  Chateau  du  Piple.  From 
there  it  circled  through  Chatenay  to  Pattie  d'Oie  in  the  Bois  de  Meudon. 
At  this  point  began  the  five-kilometer  Cross-country  ride  which  had 
to  be  completed  in  fifteen  minutes.  There  were  twelve  jumps  over 
this  part  of  the  course,  which  was  not  exceptionally  difficult,  the 
obstacles  consisting  chiefly  of  fences,  ditches,  and  imitative  stone 
walls,  none  exceeding  three  feet  in  height  or  eight  feet  in  width.  The 
finish  point  was  at  Croix  de  Berny. 

The  Long-distance  and  Cross-country  ride  was  purely  an  endu- 
rance test  but  had  to  be  completed  within  four  hours.  The  weather 
was  good  and  all  the  horses  and  nien  finished  in  excellent  condition 
without  undue  physical  strain.  Every  competitor  finished  within 
the  required  time.  Two  of  the  Arabian  team,  who  were  unable  to  take 
the  jumps  in  the  Cross-country  because  their  mounts  were  untrained, 
were  eliminated  but  finished  out  the  ride. 

The  French  team  supplied  the  day's  star  in  Major  Joseph  de  Soras 
whose  mount,  Le  Minotier,  a  9-year-old  gelding  thoroughbred,  led 
the  field  in  the  matter  of  fast  time,  completing  the  course  more  than 
three  minutes  ahead  of  any  other  entry.  With  time  allowance  de 
Soras  made  the  fifty-five  kilometers  in  3:42:5.  His  actual  time  was 
3:47:41  with  a  total  time  credit  of  5  minutes  36  seconds.  He  was 
held  2  minutes  by  the  starter  in  the  Cross-country  and  3  minutes 
36  seconds  at  the  railroad  gate.  Major  Felip  Jacob,  Roumania,  on 
Beby,  a  12-year-old  Irish  bay  mare,  was  credited  with  3:45:27;  Lt.  de 
Brabanderc,  Belgium,  on  Pilouche,  3:46:33;  and  Lt.  Col.  H.  D.  Cham- 
berlain, A.E.F.,  on  Nigra,  3:47:27. 

The  greatest  sensation  of  the  Long-distance  riding  was  supplied 
by  one  of  the  Hedjaz  riders.  Captain  Fowzi,  who  at  the  half-way  point 
began  to  bring  his  little  gray  Arabian,  Masoud,  past  opponent  after 
opponent  until  he  landed  seventh  in  the  field.  He  held  his  own  until 
the  Cross-country  course  put  him  out  of  the  running.  Captain  Faraj 
was  the  only  one  of  three  Hedjaz  riders  able  to  take  the  jumps. 

Every  contestant  except  Major  Jacob,   Roumania;  and  Captain 

*  See  charts  of  courses,  page  249  and  insert  opposite  page  208. 


200  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Van  Welssenaers,  Belgium,  received  the  maximum  number  of  points, 
130,  for  the  spectacular  ride. 

After  a  day's  rest  the  same  horses  and  riders  were  entered  in  the 
third  section  of  the  Military  competition,  the  Individual  Prize  Jump- 
ing, which  took  place  in  the  Stadium.  Although  rain  fell  intermit- 
tently all  through  the  contest  the  jumping  was  marked  by  brilliant 
riding.  Major  de  Soras,  France,  whose  thoroughbred,  Le  Minotier, 
had  registered  the  best  time  over  the  long  grind,  lived  up  to  his  repu- 
tation as  one  of  the  finest  horsemen  on  the  Continent  by  literally 
lifting  the  big  gelding  into  first  place  and  coming  within  seven  points 
of  the  perfect  240  in  spite  of  the  adverse  field  conditions. 

The  American  team  captured  a  tie  for  second  place  and  won  fourth 
place.  Lt.  Col.  H.  D.  Chamberlain  on  the  7-year-old  American  mare. 
Nigra,  took  the  fifteen  obstacles  in  brilliant  fashion.  Nigra  had  the 
advantage  of  the  rest  of  the  field  as  she  was  the  only  entry  to  come 
to  the  post  before  the  start  of  the  rain  which  left  the  field  in  a  muddy 
condition.  Colonel  Chamberlain  held  her  well  in  hand  and  gave 
a  splendid  exhibition  of  horsemanship.  Lt.  Col.  E.  Taulbee  came  in 
on  Raven  for  the  fourth  place  for  the  A.E.F. 

Some  of  the  prettiest  riding  of  the  day  was  furnished  by  the  Bel- 
gian, Major  Morel,  who  rode  the  skittish  Miss  Daisy  into  the  tie  with 
Chamberlain.  The  Irish  mare  refused  the  brick  wall  and  ditch.  The 
latter  jump  occasioned  the  downfall  of  nearly  every  rider  and  mount. 

It  was  a  day  of  exciting  interest  in  spite  of  the  weather  and  one 
that  stirred  the  enthusiasm  of  the  spectators.  At  the  end  of  the 
contest  the  Arabian  riders  gave  an  exhibition  of  horsemanship  and 
spectacular  riding. 

The  points  in  the  event  for  the  first  four  places  were  scored  as 
follows:  de  Soras,  France  (Le  Minotier),  233;  jChamberlain,  U.S.A. 
(Nigra),  231;  Morel,  Belgium  (Miss  Daisv),  231;  Taulbee,  U.S.A. 
(Raven),  230.  .;  ,  , 

As  a  result  of  the  three  sections  of  the  Military  event,  de  Soras, 
France,  was  placed  first  with  29.708  points;  Chamberlain,  U.S.A. 
and  Morel,  Belgium,  second,  29.625  points;  Taulbee,  U.S.A.,  fourth, 
29.583  points.  It  was  agreed  that  the  tie  between  Chamberlain  and 
Morel  should  be  decided  by  their  respective  showing  in  the  Individual 
Prize  Jumping  contest  scheduled  for  5  July.  On  that  occasion,  al- 
though neither  finished  among  the  high  point  scorers,  Colonel  Cham- 
berlain led  the  Belgian,  taking  second  place. 

The  totals  by  teams  in  the  Military  event  gave  France  the  victory 


Wrestlin"  Top— Parcaut,  America,  versus  Fristfnsky,  Czecho-Slovakia—Parcaut  winner. 
Center  Z?/<— Same— Parcaut  on  top.  Center  riff/ti— Greco-Roman— Wiseman  of  America 
versus  Piere  of  Italy.     BoHom— Heavyweight— Colles   of  Belgium 


ersus  Poll£  of  America. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  203 

with  88.707.     The  United  States  was  second,  88.541,  and  Italy  third 
87.832. 

The  Prize  Jumping  in  pairs  which  took  place  on  3  July  was  the 
prettiest  exhibition  of  the  Horse-riding  competitions.  Before  the 
event  the  captains  of  all  competing  teams  were  taken  over  the  course 
of  the  Stadium  and  they,  in  turn,  took  the  members  of  their  teams 
over  it,  giving  each  competitor  an  opportunity  to  examine  the  ground, 
the  obstacles  and  the  other  arrangements.  The  Prize  Jumping  deve- 
loped into  distinctly  an  Italian  affair,  the  riders  from  the  South  regis- 
tering a  clean-cut  victory.  Two  of  their  pairs,  living  up  to  reputa- 
tion and  working  like  machines,  came  through  for  first  and  second 
places.  The  ditch  jump,  which  gave  the  Italian  team  so  much  worry 
in  the  military  event,  no  longer  seemed  a  mental  or  physical  hazard. 
Both  teams  went  over  it  in  excellent  form. 

There  was  a  dash  of  Irish  in  the  victory  as  Voli,  Captain  Alessandro 
Alvisi's  9-year-old  bay  gelding,  was  bred  in  the  Emerald  Isle,  but 
Otello,  ridden  by  his  team-mate,  Major  Giacomo  AntoneUi,  was  Ita- 
lian. This  team  finished  first  with  236.  A  score  of  234  was  regis- 
tered for  second  place  by  another  Irish-Italian  combination,  Ernani, 
ridden  by  Major  Ruggero  Ubertalh,  and  Nabucco  by  Major  Ettore 
Caffaretti.  France  won  third  place  with  231,  the  team  being  made 
up  of  Captain  Antoine  Costa  on  Gayeuse,  and  Lt.  Paul  Larregain  on 
Tapageur.  The  American  honors  were  upheld  by  Lt.  Col.  C.  L.  Ste- 
venson on  Raven  and  Major  D.  L.  Henderson  on  Moses,  who  went 
over  the  jumps  for  fourth  place  with  a  total  score  of  229.5.  Both 
horses  were  American  bred. 

The  last  day  of  the  meet  was  taken  up  with  the  Individual  Prize 
Jumping  and  was  of  an  exceedingly  spectacular  nature.  The  fif- 
teenth and  last  obstacle  on  the  course,  a  water  jump,  had  been  increased 
to  four  meters  in  width  and  became  a  Waterloo  for  many  of  the  con- 
testants. No  less  than  ten  horses  fell  at  this  point  and,  failing  to 
complete  the  course,  were  eliminated,  while  ten  others  landed  in  the 
water  although  not  for  a  fall. 

The  event  was  a  personal  triumph  for  Major  Ruggero  Ubertalli  of 
Italy  whose  brilliant  horsemanship  won  both  first  and  third  places 
for  his  team.  His  first  score,  made  on  the  10-year-old  Jrish  bay 
gelding,  Treviso,  came  within  one  point  of  the  perfect  240,  the  only 
fault  against  him  being  on  the  dyke.  Then  on  Ernani,  Major  Uber- 
talli registered  a  clean-cut  237.  Ernani  is  an  Irish  veteran  of  sixteen 
vears  service.     Incidentally,  the  Major's  other  ride  over  the  jumps  on 


■204  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    I9I9 

Sprone  was  scored  at  235,  a  mark  beaten  only  by  two  other  riders  of 
the  55  attempts.  Second  place  went  to  Major  Felip  Jacob,  Roumania, 
on  Beby,  a  12-year-oId  Irish  bay  mare.  He  scored  238,  losing  his 
2  points  at  the  fourth  fence.  As  Caffaratti  finished  fourth,  the  Italian 
team  won  four  of  the  five  first  places. 

On  6  July  at  3:00  p.  m.  the  following  prizes  were  presented  to  the 
successful  competitors  in  the  Stadium   : 

Silver  Cup,  France,  1.  Bronze  Medals,  France,  9. 

Gold  Medals,  Italy,  1.  Bronze  Medals,  America,  7. 

Silver  Gift  Medals,  Italy,  2.  Bronze  Medals,  Roumania,  1. 

Bronze  Medals,  Italy,  12.  Bronze  Medals,  Belgium,  1. 

In  addition  to  the  general  regulations  governing  the  Horse-riding 
competitions,  the  following  general  requirements  and  information 
relative  to  the  Long-distance  and  Cross-country  rides  and  the  Prize 
Jumping  Military  competition  and  relative  to  the  Prize  Jumping, 
individually  and  in  pairs,  were  given  to  all  competitors  prior  to 
their  entry  upon  the  events  : 

LONG-DISTANCE    AND    CROSS-COUNTRY    RIDES— PRIZE    JUMPING 
MILITARY  COMPETITION— GENERAL   REQUIREMENTS 

1.  A  map  will  be  given  each  contestant  or  the  course  (road  and  cross- 
country sections)  for  the  Long-distance  ride  (55  kilometres). 

2.  The  course  for  the  Long-distance  ride  will  be  shown  to  contestants 
on  the  28  June,  1919.  The  competitors  will  meet  at  8:30  a.m.  28  June,  1919, 
at  Fort  de  Champigny,  where  roll  call  will  be  held. 

3.  In  Tests  1,  2  and  3,  riders  will  start  according  to  special  starting  list 
which  will  be  determined  by  drawing  for  places. 

Riders  who  do  not  appear  at  the  start  at  the  time  fixed,  will  be  excluded 
from  the  competition  unless  their  excuses  are  accepted  by  the  committee. 

4.  The  rider  must  weigh  out  at  the  weighing  tent  not  later  than  20  mi- 
nutes before  the  start. 

5.  On  weighing  out,  a  number  will  be  pinned  on  the  back  of  each  com- 
petitor by  attendants  who  will  be  present  for  the  purpose.  On  weighing  in,  this 
number  must  be  returned. 

6.  Five  minutes  before  the  start,  the  rider  shall  notify  his  presence  to 
the  assistant  starter  at  a  point  100  metres  from  the  starting  point  (cross  roads 
at  Chennevieres). 

The  rider  will  be  notified  one  minute  before  the  start. 

7.  The  starting  point  (Chennevieres)  is  marked  by  two  (2)  yellow  flags. 
The  start  shall  be  made  on  the  word  "Ride"  being  given  and  a  yellow  flag 

being  lowered.     The  time  will  be  reckoned  from  this  instant. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  205 

8.  Military  guides  or  arrow  indicators  will  be  at  all  crossways,  etc.,  to 
show  the  way. 

9.  If  the  railway  crossings  at  1  and  2  (as  indicated  on  the  map)  are  blocked 
the  time  lost  will  be  deducted  by  a  timekeeper  who  will  be  stationed  at 
these  points  for  the  purpose.  The  rider  must  start  again  as  soon  as  the  way  is 
clear,  the  deduction  ceasing  from  this  moment.  A  man  stationed  about 
100  metres  from  the  crossing  will  raise  a  flag  as  a  signal  to  stop,  the  rider  thus 
halting  at  once.  The  time  deduction  begins  with  the  halt,  and  ceases  when 
the  flag  is  lowered  again. 

10.  A  competitor  who  rides  more  than  seventy-five  metres  from  the  course 
(Long-distance  and  Cross-country)  will  be  disqualified. 

11.  At  Patte  d'Oie,  the  contestants  must  state  their  programme  number 
to  the  control  official  stationed  there. 

12.  The  starting  point  of  the  Cross-country  ride  is  marked  by  two  yellow 
flags,  between  which  the  rider  must  pass  and,  at  the  same  time,  state  his  pro- 
gramme number  to  the  control  official  there.  The  taking  of  time  for  the  Cross- 
country ride  will  begin  when  the  flags  are  passed. 

13.  The  Cross-country  course  is  marked  by  flags.  The  obstacles  where 
points  are  counted  are  marked  by  red  flags,  and  the  obstacles  must  be  taken 
between  these  flags. 

14.  The  finish  of  the  Cross-country  course  is  marked  by  two  yellow  flags, 
between  which  the  rider  must  pass.  His  time  wiU  then  be  taken,  and  he  must 
state  his  programme  number  to  the  control  ofiicial  stationed  there. 

15.  The  finish  of  the  Long-distance  ride  will  be  at  (X)  as  indicated  on  the 
map.     The  time  will  be  taken  when  the  rider  passes  the  finish. 

16.  Immediately  after  arrival  the  competitor  will  ride  to  the  weighing 
tent  to  weigh  in. 

17.  During  the  ride  veterinary  surgeons  and  horseshoers  may  be  consulted 
at  Chateau  du  Piple,  (X)  (as  indicated  on  the  map)  and  Patte  d'Oie,  and  after 
passing  the  finish  of  the  Cross-country  course,  horses  can  also  be  watered  at 
these  points. 

18.  If  a  rider  retires  during  the  course  of  the  ride,  information  must  be 
given  to  the  nearest  control  official  or  judge,  stating  the  rider's  programme 
number  and  approximate  time  of  retirement. 

19.  In  the  event  of  a  competitor  not  starting,  information  of  the  fact 
should  be  given  to  the  starter  before  8:00  o'clock. 

I.  —  Instructions  for  Competitors  in  Test  No  3,  Military  Competition 
(Peize  Jumping  Competition  C)  m  Stadium 

1.  These  Instructions  wiU  be  referred  to  as  Instructions  No.  1. 

2.  On  the  2nd  day  of  July,  at  1:30  p.m.,  the  competitors  wifi  meet  on  foot 
for  rollcall  at  the  saddling  stables  near  the  Stadium,  when  the  starting 
times  will  be  given. 

First  start  at  2:30  p.m. 

3.  Each  rider  shall  weigh  out  not  later  than  twenty  minutes  before  the  time 
set  for  his  start,  and  when  directed  will  proceed  to   the  west  entrance  of  the 


•2Q6  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Stadium  and  notify  his  presence  to  an  assistant  Master  of  Ceremonies  stationed 
thereat  (This  ofTicial  will  wear  a  blue  ribbon  marked  "Official"  in  gold  letters). 

When  directed  by  said  official,  the  rider  enters  the  Stadium,  crosses  the 
bridge  over  the  running  track  and  proceeds  to  a  point  in  front  of  the  center  of 
the  Tribune  d'Honneur. 

Attention  will  be  sounded  by  a  bugler  stationed  near  this  point  whereupon 
the  riding  begins. 

4.  On  passing  the  starting  place  a  flag  will  be  lowered  and  time  will  begin 
from  this  moment. 

5.  On  passing  the  finish  (marked  by  two  flags  15  meters  beyond  the  15th 
obstacle)  a  flag  will  be  lowered  at  which  time  will  be  taken. 

6.  Upon  notification  of  elimination  or  upon  completion  of  the  course  each 
rider  will,  without  delay,  ride  directly  out  of  the  Stadium  through  the  same 
entrance  used  upon  entering  the  Stadium  and  then  proceed  to  the  saddling 
stables. 

Those  officers  about  whom  there  is  any  possibility  of  a  tie  for  place  should 
not  leave  the  saddhng  stables  until  final  instructions  are  given. 

7.  See  Instructions  for  Competitors  in  the  Prize  Jumping  Competition 
( Individual  and  in  Pairs)  hereafter  referred  to  as  Instructions  No.  2. 

II.  —  Instructions  for  Competitors  in  the  Prize  Jumping  Competition 
(Individual  and   in   Pairs)   in   Stadium 

1.  These  Instructions  will  be  referred  to  as  Instructions  No.  2. 

2.  On  the  3rd  and  5th  days  of  July,  at  1:30  p.m.,  Competitors  in  the  Prize 
Jumping  competitions.  III  and  II,  will  meet  on  foot  for  rollcall  at  the  saddling 
stables,  when  the  starting  times  will  be  given. 

The  competitors  will  ride  in  the  order  given  in  the  list. 
The  first  rider  starts  on  July  3rd  and  5th  at  2:30  p.m. 

3.  Each  rider  or  pair  will,  when  directed,  proceed  to  the  west  entrance  of 
the  Stadium  and  notify  his  or  their  presence  to  an  Assistant  Master  of  Ceremonies 
(same  official  as  on  July  2nd)  stationed  thereat. 

When  directed  by  said  official  the  rider  or  pair  enter  the  Stadium,  cross 
the  bridge  over  the  running  track  and  proceed  to  a  point  in  front  of  the  center 
of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur. 

Attention  will  be  sounded  by  a  Bugler  stationed  near  this  point  whereupon 
the  riding  begins. 

4.  On  passing  the  starting  point,  a  flag  will  be  lowered  and  time  will 
begin  from  this  moment. 

On  passing  the  finish  (marked  by  two  flags  15  meters  beyond  obstacle  No.  15) 
a  flag  will  be  lowered  at  which  moment  time  will  be  taken. 

5.  Upon  notification  of  ehmination  or  upon  completion  of  the  course  each 
rider  or  pair  wifi,  without  delay,  ride  directly  out  of  the  Stadium  through  the 
same  entrance  used  upon  entering  the  Stadium  and  then  proceed  to  the  saddling 
stables. 

Those  riders  or  pairs  of  riders  about  whom  there  is  any  possibility  of  a  tie 
for  place  should  not  leave  the  saddling  stables  until  final  instructions  are  given. 


mnnnnnnmn 


Cross-Oountry    Courso. 
Lon{;-Disla,ncc  Ooursc. 


5X 


Courses  of  the  liOng-Distance  and  Cross-Oountry  Horae-Kiding  Competitions. 


Courses  of  the  Long-Distance  and  Cross-Country  Horse-Riding  Competitions, 


Wrestling.     Top— Dostal,   Czecho-Slovakia,  versus  Pampuri,  Italy— Dostal   on    top.     Center 
left    and   ria/ti!— Heavyweight    bouts— Basha-Dane,    France,    versus    Fristensky,   Czecho-81o- 
vakia— Prance   the    winner.      Bottom— Catch-as-catch-can—Parcaut,    America,   versus   Fris- 
tensky, Czecho-Slovakia — America  on  top. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  209 

6.     The  following  notes  are  given  to  elucidate  the  "Principles  for  Judging:" 

a.  A  flying  start  will  be  made. 

b.  The  course  must  be  taken  over  Obstacle  No.  1  first  time  around  and 
outside  Obstacle  No.  1  thereafter  and  always  on  the  outside  of  the  flags  at  the 
end  of  the  course. 

c.  Touching  or  knocking  down  the  fences  will  be  counted  only  if  part  of  the 
obstacle  falls  down. 

d.  At  refusal  or  falling  of  the  horse  at  a  combined  obstacle,  the  part  of  the 
obstacle  passed  need  not  be  taken  again. f  If,  however,  the  rider  elects  to  again 
take  the  part  of  the  obstacle  passed,  additional  penalties  acquired  will  be  recorded. 

e.  If  a  horse  stands  still  or  refuses  an  obstacle  and  knocks  down  the  whole 
or  part  of  it,  the  rider  has  to  ride  over  the  obstacle  in  the  condition  it  is  in. 

/.  All  ditches  must  be  taken  in  their  whole  breadth;  the  far  side  is  marked 
with  two  small  flags  between  which  the  horse  (or  horses)  must  pass. 

g.  In  case  of  hedges,  neither  touching  nor  knocking  down  will  be  counted. 

h.  No  outside  assistance  is  allowed  the  rider  (or  riders)  if  he  falls  (is  unseated) 
or  if  the  horse  falls,  provided  the  competition  is  to  be  continued. 

LIST    OF   COMPETITORS   A^D    HORSES   IN   MILITARY   COMPETITION 

Prog.  Prog. 

No.  Name  of  Rider  Country  Name  of  Horse  Letter 

353  Maj.  Joseph  de  Soras  .     France     Le  Minotier,  9y-g-tb.  K 

355  Lt.  Paul  Larregain France     Brillant,  8y-g-tb-English-ch.  E 

354  Lt.Frangois  de  Rivoyre     France     Hebe,  lly-m- 14  Anglo-Arab.  T 

356  Lt.  Alexis  Tinel France     Poker,  Sy-g-^  Anglo-Arab-ch.      T 

1,229  Capt.  Faraj   Hedjaz     Masoud,  9y-g-Arab. 

1,228  Capt.  Fowzi Hedjaz 

1,231  Lt.  Izzet Hedjaz 

949  Capt.    Giulio    Caccian- 

dra Italy      Faceto,  lOy-g-b-Ireland-bay. 

952  Capt.  Leone  Valle Italy      Virginia,  9y-m-i/2B.  R 

948  Capt.  Francesco  Amalfl       Italy      Bifourchette,  12y-m-bI-Ireland  I 

946  Maj.  RuggeroUbertalli       Italy       Gioconda,   lly-m-gray-Ireland.  B 

771  Lt.  C.  Van  Grichen  .. .     Portugal  Volga,  8y-g-bay-American.  G 

2,127  Col.  D.  Soutzo Roumania  Happy  King,   12y-g-bay-Irel.  F 

2,123  Major  Filip  Jacob Roumania  Beby,   12y-m-bay-Ireland.  L 

2,262  Lt.  Daudouin  de  Bra- 

bandore Belgium     Pilouche,  12y-g-bay-Ireland  %B     G 

2,261  Lt.  Herman  de  Gaifiier.    Belgium    Duhaz,  lly-g-bay-Ireland.  J 

2,267  Cmdt.   Edouard  Morel  .      ^  .        ,„  r    1     ^         r> 

de  Westgaver Belgium   Miss  Daisy,  12y-m-a,  Ireland.        O 

2,270  Capt.  Pierre  Van  Wels-  1/13  i7„„  c 

senaers Belgium   Karysta,  lOy-m-bay-i/gB-Eng.  S 

1,067  Col.  B.  T.  Merchant...  America  Montabaur,  8y-g-br-American  Q 

1^068  Col.  W.  W.  West,  Jr.   .  America  Prince,  7y-g-ch-American  M 

1.069  Lt.  Col.  H.D.  Chamber-  „  v,,    a        •  a 
'             lain America  Nigra,  7y-m-bl-American.              A 

1.070  Lt.  Col.  E.  W.  Taulbee     America  Raven,  8y-g-bl-American.  H 


D 


N 


210  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

SUMMARY   OF   SCORE    FOR   TRIAL    1 LONG-DISTANCE    RIDE 

Maximum  time,  4  hours.  Distance,  55  km. 

S.    Prog.                                                  Started    Arrived       Time       Time  Total 

N.     No.              Name  of  Rider           h.  m.    s.  h.  m.   s.    Taken       Ded.  Points 

1  1,069    Chamberlain 8  59  42  12  47     9  3-47-27         0  10 

2  946    Ubertalli 9     3  16  12  58     8  3-54-52        0  10 

3;  2,262    De  Brabandere 9     8  54    1     6  27  3-47-33*       0  10 

4  1,229    Faraj 9  13  59    114  43  4-0-44*       0  10 

5  355    Larregain 9  19     6    1   14     8  3-55-  2*      0  10 

6  2,127    Soutzo 9  23  55    126  14  4-2-19*      0  10 

7  771    Van  Grichen 9  28  56    125  20  3-56-24        0  10 

8  1,070    Taulbee 9  34  12    130  29  3-56-17        0  10 

9  947    Amalfi 9  39  10    137  56  3-58-46*       0  10 

10  2,261     De  Gaiffler 9  44   16     140  57  3-56-41*       0  10 

11  1,228    Fowzi 9  49   19     144  00  3-54-41         0  10 

12  353    De  Soras 9  54  31     142  12:3-47-41*      0  10 

13  2,123    Jacob 9  59  00    148  27  3-49-27*       0  10 

14  1,068    West 10     4  55     159  00  3-54-5*       0  10 

15  949    Cacciandra 10     9  19    2     1    15  3-51-56         0  10 

16  2,263    Morel 10  14  21     2     7  38  3-53-17         0  10 

17  1,231     Izzet 10   19   19    2     1    10  3-51-51*       0  10 

18  356    Tinel 10  24  21     2  20  26  3-56-  5         0  10 

19  1,067    Merchant 10  29  39    2  2126  3-51-47*       0  10 

20  952    Valle 10  34  41     2  29  00  3-54-19         0  10 

21  2,264    Van  Welssenaers 10  39  46    2  35  43  3-55-57        0  10 

22  354    De  Rivoyre 10  44  41    2  4124  3-56-43*       0  10 

*  No  3  held  by  starter.  Cross-country  ride,  1  minute. 

*  No  4  held  by  starter,  Cross-country  ride,  1  minute. 
*'  No  5  held  at  R.R.,  gate  for  15  seconds. 

*  No  6  held  at  R.R.,  gate  2  minutes,  8  seconds — Additional  credit  of  12  sec- 
onds given  by  Judges  at  finish  — Total  time  credit,  2  minutes,  20  seconds. 

*  No  9  held  at  R.R.,  gate  3  minutes,  50  seconds. 

*  No  10  held  at  R.R.,  gate  3  minutes,  45  seconds  and  held  by  starter,  Cross- 
country ride  2  minutes  — Total  credit,  5  minutes,  45  seconds. 

*  No  12  held  by  starter.  Cross-country  ride,  2  minutes;  held  at  R.R.,  gate 
3  minutes,  36  seconds  — Total  credit,  5  minutes,  36  seconds. 

*  No  13  held  by  starter.  Cross-country  ride,  4  minutes. 

*  No  14  held  at  R.R.,  gate,  2  minutes,  45  seconds. 

*  No  17  held  at  R.  R.,  gate,  2  minutes,  45  seconds. 

*  No  19  held  by  starter.  Cross-country  ride,  2  minutes. 

*  No  22  held  by  starter.  Cross-country  ride,  2  minutes. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  211 

SUMMARY    OF    SCORE    FOR    TRIAL    2. —  CROSS-COUNTRY    RIDE. 


Maximum  time,  15  minutes.  Maximum  points,  130. 

Prog.              Name                Started           Arrived  Time  Deductions    Total. 

No.             of  Rider             h.   m.   s.         li.    m.   s.  Taken  TimeObstda    Pts 

1069  Chamberlain.        11  39  59       11   50  12  10-13  0  0         130 

946  Ubertalli  ....        11  57  39        12  08  23  10-44  0  0         130 

2262  Brabandere..        II  59  57        12   12  24J  12-27|  0  0         130^ 
1229        Faraj 12     2  30       12   15  19^  12-49  J  0  0         130^ 

355  Larregain  ...        12     4  57        12   16  11  11-14  0  0         130 
2127         Soutzo 12  20  15        12  32  17^  12-2^  0  0         130 

771        VanGritchen.        12  15  16        12  25  37  10-21  0  0         130 

1070  Taulbee 12  27  17        12  39  43  12-26  0  0         130 

947  Amalfl 12  31   53        12  41  38  9-45  0  0         130 

2261        De  Gaiffler  .  .        12  34     I        12  44  36  10-35  0  0         130^ 

1228         Fowzi 12  29  31        12  44  23  14-52  ^ 

353  DeSoras....        12  36  14        12  47  20  11-6  0  0         130^ 

2123        Jacob 12  38  22        12  49  38  11-16  0  2         128« 

1068        West 12  44     9        12  55   17  11-8  0  0         130 

949        Cacciandra  . .        12  47  21        12  58     0  10-39  0  0         130 

2263  Morel 12  55  50          1   04  28J  8-38^           0  0         130 

1231         Izzet 12  40  22        12  52  44  12-22  ' 

356  Tinel 1     6  57          1    17  56  10-59  0  0         130 

1067        Merchant  ...          1     9  20          1    19  23^  10-3J  0   0        130^ 

952        Valle 1    18  48          1   29  lOJ  10-22^  0  0         130 

2264  Van  Welsse 

naers 1  25  19          1   39  34  14-15  0  2         128 

354  De  Rivoyre  .           1  27   19          1   38  2H  H-^i  0  0         130» 

1  Held  by  starter  1  minute. 

2  Held  by  starter  1   minute. 

3  Held  by  starter  2  minutes. 

*  Eliminated— did  not  complete  course. 

^  Held  by  starter  2  minutes. 

«  Held  by  starter  4  minutes. 

'  Eliminated — did  not  complete  course. 

8  Held  by  Starter  2  minutes. 

'  Held  by  starter  2  minutes. 

INDIVIDUAL   PLACING   AFTER   TRIALS    1    AND    2 30   JUNE,    1919. 

Start       Prog.  Total 

No.          No.       Name  of  Rider     Points  Placing  Remarks 

1  1,069     Chamberlain...     20  1         United  States. 

2  946     Ubertalli 20  1  Italy. 

3  2,262     De  Brabandere      20  1        Belgium. 


212  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 

Start  Prog.                                 Total 

No.  No.  Name  of  rider    Points        Placing 

4  1,229  Faraj 20 

5  355  Larregain 20 

6  2,127  Soutzo 20 

7  771  Van  Gritchen..     20 

8  1,070  Taulbee 20 

9  947  Amalfi 20 

10  2,261  De  Gaiffier  ....     20 

12  353  De  Soras 20 

14  1,068  West 20 

15  949  Cacciandra 20 

16  2,267  Morel 20 

18  356  Tinel 20 

19  1,067  Merchant 20 

20  952  Valle 20 

22  354  De  Rivoyre  ...     20 

13  2,123  Jacob  19.85  2 

21  2,264  VanWelssenaers     19.85  2 

11  1,228  Fowzi* 

17  1,231  Izzet*  


1919 


Remarks 

Arabia. 

France. 

Roumania. 

Portugal. 

United  States. 

Italy. 

Belgium. 

France. 

United  States. 

Italy. 

Belgium. 

France. 

United  States. 

Italy. 

France. 

Roumania. 

Belgium. 

Arabia. 

Arabia. 


"Eliminated — did  not  complete  Cross-country  course. 


Wrestling.  Top— Group  of  American  wrcstlf  r.s— loft  to  right  :  Pvt.  Joe  Polk,  Pvt.  Alf 
Parcaut,  Pvt.  Prank  Sliger,  Sgt.  Paul  Prehm,  Hgt.  Cal  Parley.  Bottom  Ze/i— Savonnet  of 
Belgium,  welterweight,  winner  over  Banghieri  of  Italy.  Bottom  center— Parcaut,  U.  S.,  catch- 
as-catch-can  wrestler.  Bottom  rigid— Beranek,  Czecho-Slovakia,  winner  over  Mitropohs,  U.  S. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


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216 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


INDIVIDUAL     PLACING    AFTER    TRIALS     1,     2,     AND    3, 
30   JUNE   TO   2  JULY,    1919. 


Prog.  Total 

No.  Name  of  Rider  Points 

353  De  Soras  29.708 

1.069  Chamberlain 29.625 

2,267  Morel 29.625 

1.070  Taulbee 29.583 

355  Larregain 29.541 

949  Cacciandra 29.541 

354  DeRivoyre 29.458 

771  Van  Gritchen 29.458 

1.067  Merchant 29.333 

952  Valle 29.333 

356  Tinel 29.208 

948  Amalfi 28.958 

2,264  Van  Welssenaers....  28.933 

1.068  West 28.917 

946  Ubertalli 28.583 

2,262  De  Brabandere 28.541 

2,261  De  Gaiffier 27.958 

2,127  Soutzo 

2,123  Jacob 

1,229  Faraj 


Placing 

1 

2  * 

2  ** 

4 

5 

5 

7 

7 

9 

9 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 


Remarks 


Eliminated  in  Trial  3. 
Eliminated  in  Trial  3. 
Eliminated.     Did  not 
ride  in  Trial  3. 


It  was  agreed  that  this  tie  should  be  decided  in  the  Prize  Jumping. 
Individual  contest  held  July  5,  1919. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


217 


FINAL    RESULTS MILITARY    COMPETITION. 


S              Name  ^  ^  ^  ^           |       ^| 

£             of  Rider  -  I  ^  I            ^       S^ 

353  De  Soras 10  10  9.708     France    29708    1 

355  Larregain 10  10  9.541     France    29.541    5 

354  De  Rivoyre 10  10  9.458     France    29.458    7 

356  Tinel 10  10  9.208     France    29.208  11 

1069  Chamberlain  ...  10  10  9.625       U.S.       29.625    2 

1070  Taulbee 10  10  9.583       U.S.       29.583    4 

1067,  Merchant 10  10  9.333       U.S.       29.333    9 

1068  West 10  10  8.917       U.S.       28.917  14 

949  Cacciandra 10  10  9.541       Italy      29.541    5 

952  Valle 10  10  9.333      Italy      29.333    9 

948  Amalfi 10  10  8.958       Italy      28.958  12 

946  Ubertalli 10  l6  8.583       Italy      28.583  15 

2267  Morel ; 10  10  9.625   Belgium  29.625    3   * 

2264  Van  Welssenaers  10  9.85' 9.083   Belgium  28.933  13 

2262  DeBrabandere  .-  10  10  8.541    Belgium  28.541  16 

2261  De  Gaiffier 10  10  7.958   Belgium  27.958  17 

771  Van  Gritchen. . .  10  10  9.458      Port'I.     29.458    7 


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88.707 


II      88.541 


III       87.832 


IV       86.099 


29.458 


*  In  the  Prize  Jumping  Individual    Contest,   5  July,    1919,  in   jumping 
off  the  tie  for  second  place,  Chamberlain  of  United  States  won. 


218  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

LIST   OF   COMPETITORS  AND   HORSES PRIZE   JUMPING  IN   PAIRS 3  JULY. 

Prog.  Where  Prog. 

Number       Name  of  Rider         Country  Name  of  Horse  Foaled  Letter 

358     Capt!  Antoine  Costa.     France       Gayeuse,    16y-g-br.    Unknown    W 

bay. 
355     Lieut.  Paul  Larregain     France       Tapageur,    8y-g-br.    Unknown     X 

bay. 

946  Major  Ruggero  Uber- 

talli Italy  Ernani,  16y-g-bay. .  Ireland  Y 

951     Major    Ettore    Caffa-  Italy  Nabucco,  I2y  -  g  -  Italy  Z 

ratti gray. 

1.067  Col.  B.  T.  Merchant.  America  Sandy,  8y-g-sor.  America  AA 

1.068  Col.  W.  W.  West,  Jr.  America  Prince,   7y-g-chi  America  M 
354     Lieut.     Frangois     de  Hebe,  lly-m- J  An-  Unknown  T 

Rivoyre France  glo-Arab-ch. 

366     Lieut.     Tardieu France      Gamine,    7y-m-ch-J    Unknown     AE 

Anglo- Arab. 

364  Lieut.    Holland France       Joyeux    II,12y-g         Unknown    AF 

bay. 

365  Capt.    Wallon France       Jolly  Jockey,  g- bay.     Unknown    AM 

947  Major  Giacomo  Anto- 

iielli Italy        Otello,    9y-g-bay.  Italy  AJ 

953     Capt.  Alessandro  Al- 

^*^' Italy        Voli,  9y-g-bay.  Ireland      AK 

1.073  Lt.  Col.  C.  L.   Ste  -    America     Raven,  8y-g-bl.  America       H 

venson  

Major  D.  L.  Hender- 

1.074  son America     Moses,  14y-g-ch.  America     AX 


Top  left — Italian  riding  team.     Top  center — Colonfl  Soutzo   of  Roumnnia.     Top  right — Italian 

contestants.      Center — United    States    riding    team.      Bottom    fe/<— Lieut,    de    Bivoyre    and 

Lieut.  Tardieux  o£  Prance.    Bottom  right — Capt.  Wullon  and  Lieut.  EoUand  of  Prance. 


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222 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


LIST    OF    COMPETITORS    AND    HORSES PRIZE   JUMPING — INDIVIDUAL    (ll) 


Prog. 

No. 

358 


359 

360 

361 


948 


949 


951 


954 


Name  of  Rider  Country 

Capt.  Antoine  Costa.  France 

Capt.  Franck  Tisnes.  France 

Capt.  Jacques  des 

Moutis France 


Capt.  August  De  Lais- 

sardiere  France 


356     Lt.  Alexis  Tinel . 


France 


363     Capt.  Count  Leonard     France 
de  Mezamat  de  Lisle 


771     Lt.  C.  Van  Gritchen .    Portugal 
946     Major  R.  Ubertalli  .  .       Italy 


947     Major  G.  Antonelli. .  .        Italy 


Capt.   F.  Amalfi Italy 


Capt.  G.  Cacciandra.       Italy 


Major  E.  Caffaratti..       Italy 


Capt.  Guado  Luigi..       Italy 


1,067     Col.  B.  T.  Merchant.     America 


Name  of  Horse 

Joyeux,  16y-g-bay. 
Tapageur,  8y-g-bay. 
Jacobine,  12y-m-ch. 
Farceur,  16y-g-bay. 
Ugolin,  lOy-g-L  bay 

Fol-Espoir,lIy-g-ch. 

Energique,    lly-g 
ch  tb. 

Othello,    16y-g-dk 
bay. 

Loot,  7y-g-br,  bay. 

Jap,  lOy-g-ch. 

Le  Minotier,  tb. 

Hebe,  lly-m-J  AA. 

Poker,  8y-g-chJ  AA. 

Noiraud,  8y-g-bl. 

Brilliant,  8y-g-ch  tb 

Caporal,     12y-g-dk. 
ch-J  AA. 

Volga,  8y-g-bay. 

Sprone,  8y-g-bay. 

Ernani,    16y-g-bay. 

Treviso,    lOy-g-bay. 

Ta-Pum,  9y-g-sor. 

Gin-Gin,  9y-g. 

Otello,  9y-g-bay. 

Martellini,    lly-g. 

Dodi,  lly-g-bay. 

Margherita,    lOy-m- 
bay. 

Faceto,  lOy-g-bay. 

Claudine,  lOy-n-bay 

Scimmiotto,    lly-g- 
bay. 

Nabucco,  12y-g-gry 
Neructio,  I2y-g-bl. 
Enea,  6y-m-bay-tb. 

Piave,   

Virginia,  9y-m-bay- 

ib 

Montabaur,  7y-g-br 
Sandy,  8y-g-sor. 


Where 
Foaled 

Unknown 
Unknown 
Unknown 
Unknown 
Unknown 

Norfolk 


Prog. 
Letter 

AF 

X 

BP 

AG 

BD 

BI 


England        AQ 


Unknown 

AV 

Normand 

BK 

Unknown 

BR 

English 

BT 

Unknown 

T 

Unknown 

P 

Unknown 

AY 

England 

BN 

Unknown 

BU 

American 

G 

Ireland 

BS 

Ireland 

Y 

Ireland 

BO 

Ireland 

AN 

Ireland 

BD 

Italian 

AJ 

Ireland 

AS 

Ireland 

AI 

Ireland 

BW 

Ireland 

N 

Ireland 

DL 

Ireland 

BV 

Italian 

Z 

Ireland 

BF 

Unknown 

BS 

Ireland 

BE 

Unknown 

BM 

America 

0 

America 

AA 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —  PARIS  223 

Prog-                                                                                                      Where  Prog. 

No.            Name  of  Rider          Country          Name  of  Horse        Foaled  Letter 

1.068  Col.  W.  W.  West,  Jr.    America     Prince,  7y-g-ch.          America  M 

America     Sam  Browne,  8y-g-b  America  BC 

1.069  Lt.  Col.  H.  D.  Cham- 

berlain       America     Nigra,  7y-m-bl.          America  A 

1,074     Maj.  D.L.Henderson.    America     Moses,  14y-g-ch.        America  AX 

1,076     Lt.  Van  C.  White  .  . .     America     Chief,  7y-g-ch.            America  AT 

2.123  Major  Filip  Jacob.  .  .    Rouman.     Beby,  12y-m-bay.       Ireland  L 

Lady's   Horse    I2y- 

g-bay.                        Ireland  BH 

2,127     Col.  D.  Soutzo Rounian.     Happy  King,  12y-g- 

bay.                          Ireland  F 

2.124  Maj.  N.  Madancovici.  Rouman.     Flirt,  12y-m-sor.       Ireland  AD 
2,242     Lt. Col.  C.L.Stevenson    America     Lady  Helen,  gy-m- 

bay.                          American  BJ 

Raven,  8y-g-bl.           American  H 
2,263     Cmdt.  Herman  d'Oul- 

tremont Belgium      Miss,   12y-m-bay.       Ireland  AL 

Kitchner,    14y-g- 

bay.                            Ireland  U 

2,265     Lt.   F.  de  la   Serna.    Belgium     Arsinoe,    9y-m-bay.   Ireland  AW 

2,268     Lt.  Henri  Laame ...  .    Belgium     Biscuit,     14y-g-bay.   Ireland  AR 

2.270  Capt.      Pierre     Van 

Welssenaers Belgium     Karysta,  lOy-m-J  br.  England  S 

2.271  Capt.  Edouard  Morel    Belgium     Miss  Daisy,  12y-m- 

deWestgaver bay.                          Inland  O 

2.272  Capt.   Nicholas   Le        Belgium     Vif- Argent,     ]2y-g- 

Roy bay.                            Ireland  AR 

2,290     Lt.  Gh.  Sodir Rouman.     Tarola,    12y-m-bl.       Ireland  AU 


224 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


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PERSHING    STADIUM 


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Top    leit—Ueut.  Van  Gritchen  of   Portugal.       Top  right—Ueiit.  de  Uaiffler  of  Belgiuiii. 

Center— Q&pt.  Costa  and    Lieut.  Larregain  of  France.     Bottom  left— Capt.  \  alle  of  Italy. 

Bottom  right— Lieut.  Tinel  of  France-. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  229 

2.     Individual  Placing  in  Military  Competition. 
First— 353  Major    Joseph    de    Soras,     . 

France Points,   29.708 

Second— 1069  Lt.  Col.  H.  D.  Chamberlain, 

America "        29.625 

Third- 2267    Comdt.  Edouard  Morel    de  ' 

Westgaver,  Belgium "        29.625 

II.  Prize  Jumping— in  Pairs. 

First— 

947 —  Major  Giacomo  AntonelH  -  Italy  ^  rp  ,   , 

953  -  Captain  Alessandro  Alvisi  -  Italy  j  ^"^^^  P'''"''''  ^^^• 

Second — 

946  -  Major  Ruggero  UbertalH    -  Italy  ( 

951  -  Major  Ettore  Caffaratti      -  Italy  |  ^"^^^^  ^*^'''^®'  ^*' 

Third— 

358  -  Captain  Antoine  Costa       -  France  \  m  x  i  r.  •  i.     r.r,i 
oco     T-     t   n     IT  •  r.  Total  Points,  231. 

353  -  Lieut.  Paul  Larregain         -  France  | 

III.  Prize  Jumping — Individual. 

First— 

946  -  Major  Ruggero  Ubertalli  -  Italy.     Total  Points,  239. 
(Riding  Treviso) 

Second — 

2123  -  Major  Filip  Jacob  -  Roumania.     Total  Points,  238. 
(Riding  Beby) 

Third— 

946  -  Major  Ruggero  Ubertalli  -  Italy.     Total  Points,  237. 
(Riding  Ernani). 


FENCING 


o  France  went  the  premier  honors  in  the  three  Fencing  events 
of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  program,  the  fencers  of  the  Tricolor 
winning  three  out  of  the  six  possible  championships  which 
the  Games  program  offered. 
Italy  took  second  place  and  Belgium  third  in  the  matter  of  cham- 
pionships, the  Italians  winning  two  titles  and  the  Belgians  one.  France 
took  team  honors  by  winning  two  of  the  team  championships  while 
the  individual  titles  were  evenly  divided  between  the  three  countries 
named. 

Nine  nations  participated  in  the  competition  which  lasted  through- 
out the  Games  with  matches  set  for  practically  every  morning  and 
afternoon.  With  one  or  two  exceptions,  the  fencers  of  each  nation, 
at  one  time  or  another  during  the  events,  took  high  place  among  the 
leaders.  Portugal  was  the  strongest  of  those  countries  which  did  not 
finally  capture  championships.  Her  saber  team  made  a  powerful 
effort  for  the  title,  losing  in  the  finals  to  the  Italian  champions. 
The  Portuguese  epee  team  also  went  into  the  finals,  losing  to  France. 
Her  individual  contestants  always  stood  high  in  the  single  honors. 
Roumania,  Czecho-Slovakia,  and  Greece  presented  fencers  to  be 
reckoned  with  in  every  contest.  America  and  Poland,  the  latter  with 
but  a  single  entry,  seldom  went  beyond  preliminary  rounds. 

An  Italian  was  the  individual  star  of  the  Games  though  he  never 
succeeded  in  winning  a  championship  for  himself.  Aldo  Nadi  partici- 
pated in  all  save  one  of  the  six  events  and  he  was  a  factor  in  every 
contest.  His  work  in  the  individual  saber  competition,  during  the 
early  part  of  the  match,  marked  him  as  a  probable  winner  until  an 
unfortunate  accident  unnerved  him  for  the  following  matches.  De 
Strooper  of  Belgium  was  a  consistent  fencer.  Nedo  Nadi,  brother 
of  Aldo  Nadi  and  a  more  brilliant  fencer  than  the  younger  Italian,  did 
not  participate  in  as  many  events,  but  made  a  name  for  himself  during 
the  Games. 

As  in  previous  world's  fencing  meets,  the  usual  conflict  between 
the  French  and  the  Italian  schools  was  presented  during  the  Games 
events.     The  French  school,  by  reason  of  its  own  success  and  that 


See  page  257  for  fencing  pictures. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  231 

of  its  follower,  Belgium,  scored  a  distinct  victory  so  far  as  this  meet 
was  concerned.  Portugal's  work,  following  Italian  instruction,  was 
a  vindication  of  Latin  tenets  in  fencing,  but  it  is  certain  that  the  experi- 
ences of  the  1919  Games  will  have  little  effect  in  persuading  either 
nation,  or  school,  to  change  its  systems  or  its  beliefs. 

No  nation  competing  presented  its  strongest  possible  team.  Italy 
brought  to  the  Games  a  squad  composed  entirely  of  amateur  fencers, 
the  supposition  being  that  no  professionals  would  compete.  Puliti, 
one  of  the  best  of  the  Italian  team,  had  not  been  in  training  for  many 
years.  Three  of  France's  best  fencers  were  sick  during  the  days  of 
the  Games.  The  ravages  of  war  had  thinned  the  ranks  of  Belgian, 
Roumanian  and  Czecho-Slovakian  fencers.  America's  team  was  com- 
posed principally  of  novices  and  repeated  failures  to  appear  at  matches 
caused  many  unnecessary  forfeitures  by  the  United  States  team. 
The  Italian  squad  was  small  and  the  strenuous  competition  so  taxed 
the  strength  of  its  members  that  on  several  days  the  entire  Italian 
team  was  out  of  the  competition.  France,  on  the  other  hand,  pre- 
sented different  fencers  for  different  events  and  in  this  way  was  able 
to  pit  fresh  and  strong  men  against  tired  and,  on  several  occasionsi 
injured  men. 

Following  the  two  foils  competitions  an  attempt  was  made  to  stage 
the  Fencing  matches  in  the  arena  of  Pershing  Stadium.  But  constant 
rains  made  footing  on  the  improvised  platform  uncertain  and  as  a 
result  practically  the  whole  of  the  Fencing  meet  was  held  in  the  halls 
of  the  Ecole  de  Joinville.  These  small  rooms  furnished  little  accom- 
modation for  spectators  and  those  who  closely  followed  the  progress 
of  the  Games  were  forced  to  rely  almost  entirely  on  the  newspapers 
for  their  information  on  Fencing.  In  spite  of  these  difficulties  praise 
for  the  management  of  the  events  was  unanimous. 

The  team  foils  competition  presented  the  closest  contest  and  the 
hardest  fighting  of  any  of  the  Fencing  events.  Italy  and  France  defeated 
their  opponents  in  the  early  rounds  and  met  one  another  in  the  finals. 
The  French  team  led  throughout  the  struggle  and  it  was  not  until 
the  last  match  that  the  Italians  tied  the  score.  It  then  became  neces- 
sary to  make  a  count  of  touches  in  order  to  decide  the  championship 
and  here  also  France  won  by  a  very  small  margin.  These  two  nations 
duphcated  their  excellent  team  play  achievements  by  taking  prac- 
tically all  places  in  the  individual  events.  The  brilhant  Nedo  Nadi, 
with  his  brother,  won  first  and  fourth  places  for  the  Italians  while 
French  fencers  took  second,  third,   fifth,  seventh  and  eighth  places. 


232  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  strenuous  play  with  its  resultant  bruises  kept  Italy  out  of  the 
team  play  in  the  epee  event.  The  epee,  distinctly  a  French  weapon, 
proved  the  stronghold  for  the  Tricolor  and  both  championships 
were  won.  Portugal  was  bested  in  the  finals  of  the  team  play  and 
Laurent   won   the   individual    event. 

The  Italians  proved  winners  in  the  team  saber  matches,  winning 
with  the  weapon  which  they  have  favored  for  many  years.  A  Belgian, 
however,  won  the  individual  honors  with  this  peculiarly  Italian  weapon. 

The  following  are  the  summaries  of  the  three  fencing  features  as 
carried  through  during  the  two  weeks  of  the  Games. 

TEAM    CHAMPIONSHIPS 

Foil:  Trials — Roumania  19,  America  3. 
Semi-finals — France  19,  Belgium  3. 
Italy  19,  Roumania  17. 
Finals— France  18,  Italy  18. 
(Tie  decided  by  a  count  of  touches  which  gave  France  the  decision  127  to  125) 

Epee:  Trials — Roumania  17,   Greece  15. 

Portugal  17,  Czecho-SIovakia  11. 
Semi-finals — Portugal  16,  Belgium  9. 
France  9,  Roumania  6. 
Finals— France  17,  Portugal  10. 

Saber:  Trials — Greece   19,  America  12. 

France  19,  Czecho-SIovakia  8. 
Italy  19,  Belgium  8. 
Semi-finals— Portugal  19,  Greece  10. 
Italy  19,  France  11. 
Finals— Italy  19,  Portugal  8. 

INDIVIDUAL    CHAMPIONSHIPS 

Foil:  Trial  Pools— 1st  Pool— Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  first; 

Andrieux,  France,  second; 
Van  de  Wiele,  Belgium,  third ; 
Atanasiu,  Roumania,  fourth. 
2nd  Pool— Piquemal,  France,  first; 

Deladrier,  France,   second; 
Gesarano,   Italy,  third; 
Theodoreau,  Roumania,  fourth. 


Top    left — Capt.    Van    Valsr-ner    of    Bflgium    riding    .,  _ 

•Capt.  Cacciandra   of   Italy.      Center   left — Col.   Merchant   and 
right — Italian  riding  contestants.     Bottom  left — Lieut.  Col.  T; 

Lieut,    de    Bivoyre     of    Fra 


Karysta,     his    favorite.      Top    right — 
Col.   West   of    America.  Center 
Taulbee  of  America.     Bottom  right — 
nee. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  235 

3rd  Pool — Gauthier,  France,  first ; 

Nedo  Nadi,  Italy,  second; 

De  Strooper,  Belgium,  third; 

Cavianu,  Roumania,  fourth. 
4th  Pool— Puliti,  Italy,  first; 

Renon,  France,  second; 

Hugnet,  France,  third; 

Gheorghiu,  Roumania,  fourth. 
Semi-final  Pools — 1st  Pool — Nedo  Nadi,  Italy,  first; 

Gauthier,  France,  second; 

Andrieux,  France,  third; 

De  Strooper,  Belgium,  fourth. 
2nd  Pool — Piquemal,  France,  first ; 

Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  second; 

Hugnet,  France,  third; 

Renon,  France,  fourth. 
Final  Pool —  Nedo  Nadi,  Italy,  first,  Champion ; 

Piquemal,   France,   second; 

Gauthier,  France,  third; 

Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  fourth; 

Renon,  France,  fifth; 

De  Strooper,  Belgium,   sixth; 

Andrieux,  France,  seventh; 

Hugnet,  France,  forfeited. 

Epee:  Trial  Pools— 1st  Pool— Piquemal,  France,  first; 

De  Strooper,  Belgium,  second; 
Botassis,     Italy,    and    Pfeiffer,   Czecho- 
slovakia, tied  for  third. 
2nd  Pool— Laurent,  France,  and  Feyerick,  Belgium, 
tied  for  first; 
Zavkadis,  Greece,  and  Svorcki,  Czecho- 
slovakia, tied  for  third. 
3rd  Pool — Cornereau,  France,  first; 
Gevers,  Belgium,  second; 
Valaoritis,  Greece,  third; 
Piava,  Portugal,  fourth. 
4th  Pool— Anspach,  Belgium,  and  Delerce,  France, 
tied  for  first; 
Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  third; 
Triantiafilicos,  Greece,  fourth; 


-236 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


5th  Pool— Ochs,  Belgium,  first ; 

Hugnet,  France,  second; 

Urbani,  Italy,  third; 

Skotidas,  Greece,  fourth. 
6th  Pool— Tom,   Belgium,    and    de    St.    Germain, 
France,  tied  for  first ; 

Paredes,  Portugal,  third; 

Nunes,  Italy,   fourth. 
7th  Pool — Mascarehas,  Portugal,  first; 

Garbere,    France,    second; 

Delongueville,  Belgium,  third; 

Notaris,  Greece,   fourth. 
8th  Pool — Schmalzer,  France,   first; 

Durao,  Portugal,  second; 

Zalacostas,  Greece,  third; 

Stephens,  America,  fourth. 
Preliminary  Pools — 1st  Pool — Laurent,  France,  first; 

Gardere,  France,  and  Feyerick,  Belgium, 
tied  for  second; 

Tom,  Belgium,  fourth. 
2nd  Pool — Hugnet,  France,  Nunes,   Italy,  and  De- 
lerce,  France,  tied  for  first; 

Ochs,  Belgium,  fourth. 
3rd  Pool — Piquemal,  France,  first; 

Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  second; 

Gornereau,  France,  third; 

Piava,  Portugal,  fourth. 
4th  Pool — De  St-Germain,  France,  first; 

Paredes,   Portugal,  second; 

Schmalzer,  France,  third; 

Anspach,  Belgium,  fourth. 
Semi-final  Pools — 1st  Pool — Gornereau,  France,   first; 

Piava,  Portugal,  Anspach,  Belgium,  and 

Delerce,  France,  tied  for  second. 
2nd  Pool — Laurent,  France,  and  Feyerick,  Belgium, 
tied  for  first; 

Nunes,  Italy,  and  Paredes,  Portugal,  tied 
for  third. 
Final  Pool —  Laurent,  France,  first,  Ghampion; 

Piava,  Portugal,  second; 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  237 

Delerce,  France,  and  Cornereau,  France, 

tied  for  third; 
Feyerick,  Belgium,  fifth; 
Nunes,    Italy,    and   Paredes,    Portugal, 

tied  for  sixth ; 
Anspach,  Belgium,  eighth. 

Safccr:  Trial  Pools — 1st  Pool — Gillens,  Belgium,    first; 

Svorcki,  Gzecho-Slovakia,  second; 
Bias,  Portugal,  third ; 
Peredon,  France,  fourth. 
2nd  Pool— Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  first; 

Mondielle,  France,  second; 
Tom,   Belgium,   and   Zavkadis,    Greece, 
tied   for  third. 
3rd  Pool — Collin,  France,   and  De  Strooper,   Bel- 
gium, tied  for  first; 
Puliti,  Italy,  third; 
Cipera,  Gzecho-Slovakia,  fourth. 
4th  Pool — Piron,  Belgium,  Ancel,  France,  and  Oli- 
vieirs,  Portugal,  tied  for  qualification. 
Semi-final  Pools — 1st  Pool — Puliti,  Italy,  and  Gillens,  Belgium,  tied 

for  first; 
Peredon,  France,  third; 
Cipera,  Gzecho-Slovakia,  fourth; 
2nd  Pool — Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  and  De  Strooper,  Bel- 
gium, tied  for  first; 
Ancel,  France,   third; 
Zavkadis,  Greece,  fourth. 
Final  Pool —  Gillens,  Belgium,  first.  Champion ; 

Ancel,  France,  second; 
Cipera,    Gzecho-Slovakia,    and  Peredon, 

France,  tied  for  third; 
Aldo  Nadi,  Italy,  and  De  Strooper,  Bel- 
gium, tied  for  fifth; 
Puliti,  Italy,  seventh; 
Zavkadis,  Greece,  eighth. 


%i:^%^K^ 


FOOTBALL 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m^^smmammm 


RUGBY 


SERIES  of  three  games  was  played    between  teams  repre- 
senting France,  Roumania  and  the  United  States,     France 
took  the  championship,  defeating  both  Roumania  and  the 
United  States,  while  the  United  States,  by  a  victory  over 
j^oumania,  took  second  place. 

England,  the  home  of  Rugby,  and  the  British  Dominions,  which 
have  given  to  the  game  some  of  its  most  noted  exponents,  did  not  send 
entries. 

The  French  presented  a  team  of  experienced  players,  all  of  whom 
had  participated  in  international  series  against  teams  from  England, 
Wales  and  New  Zealand.  The  Roumanians  likewise  sent  an  excellent 
team  composed  of  players  from  Rugby  clubs  of  Bucharest. 

The  American  team  was  assembled  from  the  Army  by  Captain 
Herbert  R.  Stolz,  M.G.  It  included  California  college  players  and  two 
members  who  had  played  Rugby  at  English  universities. 

All  games  were  played  at  Colombes  Field.  The  English  Rugby 
Union  rules  governed. 

In  the  first  contest  France  defeated  Roumania  by  a  score  of 
48  to  5.  The  teams  played  an  even  game  for  the  first  fifteen  minutes 
after  which  the  Roumanians  weakened  and  allowed  France  to  score 
six  goals  and  six  tries.  In  the  second  half  the  Roumanians  showed  a 
flash  of  form  and  scored  a  well-earned  goal. 

The  second  contest,  played  between  Roumania  and  the  United 
States,  resulted  in  a  victory  for  the  United  States  by  a  score  of  23  to  0. 
The  superior  weight  and  physical  condition  of  the  Americans  counted 
in  their  favor.     The  Americans  scored  four  goals  and  one  try. 

The  final  game,  in  which  France  and  the  United  States  met  to 
decide  the  championship  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  resulted  in  a  memor- 
able struggle.  Against  the  science  and  experience  of  the  French  the 
Americans  pitted  their  youth,  perfect  physical  condition  and  an  extreme 
eagerness  to  win. 

The  Americans  opened  the  game  with  a  rush  and  kept  the  offensive 
durmg  the  first  half,  the  French  appearing  overawed  by  the  vigor  of 

See  pages  265  273  281  289  297  for  football  pictures. 


Top  left— liieut.  Colonel  Chamberlain  of  America.  Top  right— Jjiout.  de  Bivoyre  of  France. 
Center— General  Blague-Belair  of  France,  senior  judge  in  horse-riding  competition.  Bottom 
left— liient.    Colonel    Chamberlain  of  America.     Bottom   right—Majoi    Ubertalli  and    Major 

Caffaratti    of   Italy. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  241 

their  opponents'  attack.  Most  of  the  play  during  this  half  was  in  the 
French  in-goal  territory.     The  half  ended  without  a  score. 

The  Americans  scored  first  in  the  second  half.  A  fine  dribbling 
rush  brought  the  ball  down  from  midfield  and  Clock  made  the  try. 
Hauser  attempted  to  make  it  a  goal  but  the  angle  was  too  great. 

The  French,  nothing  daunted,  came  back  and  scored  within  a  few 
minutes.  A  series  of  kicks  brought  the  ball  within  striking  distance 
and  Struxiano  carried  it  over.  He  likewise  kiqked  goal.  Score: 
France  5,  United  States  3. 

An  offside  by  the  Americans  enabled  the  French  to  improve  their 
score,  Struxiano  making  a  successful  free  kick. 

The  Americans  individually  played  star  games,  but  having  had 
only  six  weeks'  team  practice,  they  were  unable  to  overcome  the  advan- 
tage of  longer  training  and  experience  which  the  French  had.  Under 
these  circumstances  it  was  a  commendable  achievement  for  the  Ameri- 
cans to  hold  the  French  team  to  a  low  score,  and  the  French  sport 
writers,  in  their  accounts  of  the  game,  paid  tribute  to  the  athletic 
prowess  and  enthusiasm  of  the  Americans  which  enabled  them,  with 
but  a  short  period  of  intensive  training,  to  match  more  experienced 
opponents. 

A  crowd  of  about  5,000  persons  witnessed  the  game,  and 
the  enthusiasm  and  interest  with  which  they  followed  the  play  in- 
dicated the  popularity  of  Rugby  in  France. 

THE    GAMES 

23  June,  1919— France,  6  goals,  6  tries Total   48 

vs 
Roumania,  1  goal Total     5 

26  June,  1919— United  States,  4  goals,  1  try Total  23 

vs 
Roumania Total  00 

29  June,  1919   France,  1  goal,  1  free  kick Total     8 

vs 
United  States,  1  try Total     3 

SOCCER 

The  Czecho-Slovakian  Republic,  represented  by  the  former  City-of- 
Prague  eleven,  won  the  Soccer  championship  from  the  seven  other 
teams  entered  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  This  team  had  established 
an  enviable  reputation  before  the  war  and  its  victory  caused  little 

16 


242  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —  1919 

surprise  to  the  followers  of  this  great  European  sport.     France  was 
the  runner-up  in  the  tournament.     Italy  and  Belgium  tied  for  third 

place. 

No  sport  attracted  more  interest  than  did  the  well-played  Soccer 
games.  The  French — and  in  fact  practically  the  entire  European 
population — know  Soccer  as  the  American  people  know  baseball  and 
appreciate  the  finer  points  of  the  game.  Although  several  of  the 
contests  lasted  until  almost  dark  the  stands  were  practically  filled  until 
the  final  whistle  blew  in  each  game. 

The  eight  entrant  countries  were  divided  by  the  rules  of  the  tourney 
into  two  groups.  The  drawings  resulted  in  the  following  division  : 
Group  A — France,  Italy,  Greece,  Roumania ;  Group  B — Czecho-Slo- 
vakia,  Belgium,  United  States,  Canada.  In  each  group  each  team 
played  each  of  the  other  teams  one  game.  The  winners  in  the  two 
groups  played  for  the  championship. 

The  play  started  on  24  June  and  was  concluded  on  29  June.  The 
results  of  the  preliminary  group  matches  and  the  standing  of  the  teams 
prior  to  the  championship  games  were  as  follows  : 

24  June — France  4,  Roumania  0. 

Czecho-SIovakia  4,  Belgium  1. 

25  June — United  States  5,  Canada  4. 

Italy  9,  Greece  0. 

26  June — Italy  7,  Roumania  1. 

Belgium  5,  Canada  2. 

France  11,  Greece  0. 

Czecho-SIovakia  8,  United  States  2. 
28  June — -Belgium  7,  United  States  0. 

France  2,  Italy  0. 

Czecho-SIovakia  3,  Canada  2. 

Greece  3,  Roumania  2. 
Group  A    Won     Lost      P.C.  Group  B         Won 

France....    3  0        1.000       Czecho-SIovakia.    3 

Italy 2  1  666       Belgium 2 

Greece  ...     1  2  333       United  States ...     1 

Roumania.    0  3  000       Canada 0 

The  game  between  Czecho-SIovakia  and  France,  which  decided  the 
championship,  was  played  Sunday  29  June  before  a  crowd  that  packed 
the  big  Stadium.  There  were  no  more  ardent  fans  present  than  the 
American  soldiers  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  game  they  carried  Janda, 


Lost 

P.C. 

0 

1.000 

1 

666 

2 

333 

3 

000 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  243 

the  hard  playing  Czecho-Slovak  forward,  from  the  field  on  their  shoul- 
ders. Janda,  by  his  aggressiveness  and  good  sportsmanship,  became 
one  of  the  most  popular  players  of  the  tournament. 

The  final  score  was  3  to  2  goals.  France  led  at  midtime  2  to  1  and 
maintained  that  lead  until  the  game's  eleventh  hour.  A  shift  in  the 
regular  Czecho-Slovak  lineup  had  put  Janda  in  the  backfield  with  a 
new  man,  Gerveny,  in  his  place  on  the  forward  line.  The  second  half 
saw  Janda  back  in  his  regular  position  at  inside  right  and  from  then 
on  the  team  hit  its  stride. 

France  hotly  contested  the  Czecho-Slovakia  bid  for  supremacy. 
The  addition  of  the  Gastiger  brothers,  Langenove,  Devic  and  Deydier 
had  greatly  strengthened  the  team's  lineup.  Chayrigues,  in  the 
French  goal,  put  up  a  spectacular  game  and  electrified  the  stands 
with  his  brilliant  stops.  The  contest  developed  into  a  battle  between 
the  Czecho-Slovak  forward  line  and  the  French  defense.  Chayrigues' 
phenomenal  play  and  the  long  kicks  of  Gueblin,  the  husky  French  back, 
all  but  defeated  the  brilliant  attack  of  the  skilful  Czecho-Slovak  for- 
ward line.  Besides  the  wonderful  work  of  Janda,  the  shifty  playing 
of  Pilat  at  center  was  a  big  factor  in  giving  the  victory  to  Czecho-Slo- 
vakia. 

The  Czecho-Slovak  team  was  schooled  for  several  years  by  "Johnnie" 
Madden,  the  Scotch  international  player.  With  his  corn-cob  pipe  in 
his  mouth,  "Johnnie"  watched  his  charges  from  the  sidelines  through- 
out the  series.  No  one  followed  the  play  with  keener  or  more  criti- 
cal eye  than  he.  Nor  did  any  receive  the  victory  in  the  final  game 
more  joyfully  than  the  little  Scotchman. 

The  lineup  of  the  Czecho-Slovak  team  was  as  follows:  Peyr,  goal 
Pospisil,   left   fullback;    Hojer,   right  fullback;   Pesek,   left  halfback 
Fivebr,   center  halfback;  Loos,  right  halfback;   Prosek,  outside  left 
Vanik,  inside  left;   Pilat,    center;   Janda,  inside  right;  Sedlacek,  out- 
side right.     In  the  final  game  Klapka  played  goal  in  place  of  Peyr, 
Janda  and  Gerveny  played  at  right  fullback  in  place  of  Hojer,  Vlk 
played  right  half  back  in  place  of  Loos. 


GOLF 


N   the    Inter-Allied  Golf   tournament   was  made  the    first 
serious  effort  ever  attempted  to  bring  together,  in  Olym- 
pic form,  golfers  from  every  nation  which  classes  the  game 
as  one  of  its  sports. 
The  Inter-Allied  gathering  at  La  Boulie  links,  almost  within  the 
shadow  of  the  historic  Palace  of  Versailles,  near  Paris,  will  probably 
be  the  predecessor  of  Olympic  golf.     During  recent  years  the  world's 
golfing  enthusiasts  have  discussed  around  the  "19th  hole"  the  possi- 
bility of  placing  golf  on  an  Olympic  status.     But  the  Olympic  games, 
with  their  wide  appeal  to  the  devotees  of  other  sports,  have  come  and 
gone  and  still  golf  was  absent  from  the  roll.     Prophets  of  the  future 
in  the  Scottish  game  believe  that  the  Inter-Allied  golf  tourney  was 
the  opening  wedge  for  placing  golf  in  the  1920  Olympics.     America, 
Great  Britain  and  France  hold  annual  open  tournaments  in  which 
players  from  other  countries  are  eligible  as  entries.     Each  tourney 
in  itself  constitutes,  therefore,  a  sort  of  minor  Olympic,  for  it  is  the 
custom  of  other  countries  to  send  a  few  of  their  mightiest  wielders 
of  the  iron-tipped  clubs  to  the  various  open  events.     Such  tournaments, 
however,  are  not  true  international  events,  but  rather  home  matches 
which  are  usually  won  by  the  home  players. 

The  idea  of  interallied  golf  sprang  from  the  chance  gathering  of 
golfers  from  the  AUied  Armies  who,  after  the  coming  of  peace,  met 
upon  various  links  to  indulge  in  their  favorite  sport.  In  April,  1919, 
on  the  sunny  Cannes  links  at  Nice,  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces 
held  a  tourney  of  their  own  with  130  entries.  Later  Great  Britain 
staged  an  Army  golf  tournament  and  France  has  also  held  an  informal 
"welcome  home"  for  the  Tricolor  golfers. 

When  the  American  army  golfing  event  occurred  plans  were  made 
to  hold  a  match  between  golfers  representing  the  A.E.F.  on  the  one 
hand  and  the  British  overseas  forces  on  the  other.  But  France  also 
signified  her  desire  to  participate  for,  despite  war's  ravages  among 
the  men  of  the  nation,  there  was  still  an  excellent  array  of  first-class 
players  capable  of  representing  the  Tricolor.  The  proposed  event 
thus  began  to  assume  an  international  aspect  and  all  other  AUied 
nations  were  invited  to  take  part. 

See  pages  305  313  for  golf  pictures. 


Horse  riding.   Top — Fi'cnch  team.   BoUom — Group  o£  Australian  contestants,   Military 
offlcers  and   Games  officials. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  247 

The  fact  that  the  Golf  tourney  did  not  begin  until  late  in  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  program,  2  July,  obhged  several  prominent  golfers 
belonging  to  various  overseas  organizations  to  forego  participation 
in  the  matches.  In  spite  of  this  fact,  the  players  of  three  nations 
met  upon  the  La  Boulie  links  on  the  opening  day  in  team  matches, 
eight  picked  men  in  each  team  representing  respectively  Great  Britain, 
France  and  America.  Under  all  the  circumstances  this  result  was  a 
worthy  achievement  on  the  part  of  those  who  had  arranged  the  Inter- 
Allied  meet,  the  organization  of  which  had  not  even  been  begun  until 
late  in  April. 

The  first  men  for  the  American  team  to  arrive  in  Paris  were  Sgt. 
William  Rautenbush,  A.E.F.  champion,  and  Lt.  H.  R.  Walton.  Lt. 
Harry  Davis,  ex-Panama-Pacific  champion,  became  the  third  member 
of  the  squad.  Within  three  weeks  a  presentable  list  of  American 
golfers  was  in  Paris.  In  addition  to  those  already  mentioned  they 
were:  Col.  G.  C.  Haskell,  Capt.  W.  S.  Greene,  Gapt.  C.  W.  Middleton, 
Lt.  F.  0.  Morse,  Lt.  Harlow  Hurley,  Lt.  S.  N.  Pierson,  Sgt.  A.  M.  Bart- 
lett,  Sgt.  Pearl  0.  Hart,  Sgt.  George  H.  Reid,  Sgt.  James  Beveridge, 
and  Cpl.  E.  L.  Davison. 

With  the  American  squad  established  on  the  links  and  practicing 
several  times  each  week,  efforts  were  begun  to  gather  teams  from 
other  countries.  France  chose  her  most  prominent  professional 
golfers,  several  of  them  with  continental  reputations.  The  Tricolor 
hneup  was :  Arnaud  Massy,  Jean  Gassiat,  Maurice  Dauge,  Rene  Gohas, 
his  brother  Gustave  Golias,  M.  Gommier,  Marius  Gavallo,  J.  Vogliano, 
A.  Bernard,  M.  LafFite,  M.  Loth  and  M.  Boudiac. 

It  was  announced  that  England  couldnot  enter  a  team  if  the  matches 
were  to  begin  at  the  same  time  as  the  Inter-Allied  Games  —  22  June. 
So,  although  golf  was  originally  intended  to  start  at  La  Bouhe  on 
24  June  and  to  finish  on  4  July,  the  dates  were  changed  to  2  July  for 
the  opening  and  12  July  for  the  closing. 

The  British  team  consisted  of  professional  players,  the  majority 
of  whom  were  instructors  in  golf  on  French  courses.  The  members 
were:  W.  W.  Marks,  J.  LaFoUy,  0.  Martin-Smith,  J.  Weatherby, 
Harry  Fulford,  A.  Tingey,  Aubrey  Boomer  and  his  brother  Percy. 

As  the  teams  in  the  team  matches  were  each  to  consist  of  eight 
men  only,  the  American  squad  held  an  elimination  tourney  at  La  Boulie 
with  the  result  that  the  following  were  picked  to  represent  the  A.E.F. 
in  the  team  event&  :  Capt.  C.  W.  Middleton,  Lt.  Harry  Davis,  Lt, 


248  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

H.  R.  Walton,  Lt.  F.  0.  Morse,  Lt.  Harlow  Hurley,  Lt.  S.  N.  Pierson, 
Sgt.  William  Rautenbush,  Sgt.  Pearl  0.  Hart  and  Sgt.  A.  M.  Rartlett, 
the  latter  being  a  substitute. 

France  got  a  bye  in  the  draw  for  play  and  America  met  the  English 
players  on  the  opening  day,  2  July.  Four  four-ball  matches  were 
played  in  the  morning  with  singles  making  up  the  program  of  the 
afternoon.  American  players  were  the  winners  by  securing  victories 
in  three  four-ball  matches  and  winning  four  of  the  eight  singles 
matches. 

The  totals:  America  7,  Great  Britain  5. 

The  summary:  Four-ball  matches — La  Folly  and  Marks,  Great 
Britain,  defeated  Pierson  and  Middleton,  America,  3-2;  Hart  and  Morse, 
America,  defeated  Martin-Smith  and  Weatherby,  Great  Britain,  5-4; 
Walton  and  Hurley,  America,  defeated  Fulford  and  Tingey,  Great 
Britain,  4-2;  Davis  and  Rautenbush,  America,  defeated  Boomer 
brothers,  Great  Britain,  1  up.  Singles — Marks,  Great  Britain,  defeated 
Middleton,  America,  5-4;  La  Folly,  Great  Britain,  defeated  Pierson, 
America,  2-1 ;  Morse,  America,  defeated  Weatherby,  Great  Britain, 
4-2;  Hart,  America,  defeated  Martin-Smith,  Great  Britain,  4-3;  Hurley, 
America,  defeated  Tingey,  Great  Britain,  1  up;  Fulford,  Great  Britain, 
defeated  Walton,  America,  2  up.,  Rautenbush,  America,  defeated 
P.  Boomer,  Great  Britain,  3-1;  A.  Boomer,  Great  Britain,  defeated 
Davis,  America,  3-2. 

Next  day  America  and  France  met,  France  taking  three  matches 
in  the  four-ball  play  in  the  forenoon  and  winning  five  of  the  singles 
events  in  the  afternoon.  One  of  the  chief  features  of  this  day's  play 
was  the  defeat  of  Massy  and  Gassiat,  reputed  France's  best  players, 
by  Lt.  Davis  and  Sgt.  Rautenbush,  who  were  paired  for  the  day. 
But  both  the  Americans  went  down  to  defeat  in  the  singles  matches 
in  the  afternoon  to  the  same  players. 

The  totals:  France  8,  America  4. 

The  summary:  Four-ball  matches— R.  Golias  and  Cavallo, France, 
defeated  Bartlett  and  Morse,  America,  6-5;  Gommier  and  Bomboudiac, 
France,  defeated  Hart  and  Pierson,  America,  3-2;  Laffite  and  Dauge, 
France,  defeated  Walton  and  Huriey,  America,  5-4;  Davis  and  Rau- 
tenbush, America,  defeated  Massy  and  Gassiat,  France,  2-1.  Singles 
— Gohas,  France,  defeated  Bartlett,  America,  6-4;  Pierson,  America, 
defeated  Cavallo,  France,  2-1;  Hart,  America,  defeated  Gommier, 
France,  5-4;  Bomboudiac,  France,  defeated  Morse,  America,  6-5; 
Walton,  America,   defeated  Laffite,   France,   1   up  20  holes;   Dauge, 


I 

i 


(30 


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51   i: 


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\ 

V 

t'^  5  "  I  c 


250  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

France,  defeated  Hurley,  America,  1  up  19  holes;  Gassiat,  France, 
defeated  Davis,  America,  5-3;  Massy,  France,  defeated  Rautenbush, 
America,  4-3. 

The  victory  gave  the  French  team  the  team  championship  of  the 
Inter- Allied  Golf  matches. 

The  3,  4  and  5  July  were  leisure  days  for  the  golfers  but  on  6  July 
the  individual  championships  commenced  with  a  qualifying  round 
of  18  holes.  The  next  day  another  qualifying  round  was  held,  the 
sixteen  best  totals  for  the  two  days'  play  being  entered  in  the  individual 
championships.  In  the  qualifying  rounds  each  nation  was  permitted 
to  have  as  many  as  twelve  players.  France  had  eleven  men,  as  did 
America,  but  only  five  British  players  appeared. 

Rainstorms  deluged  the  links  for  the  two  days  of  the  qualifying 
rounds  making  it  difficult  for  the  players  to  get  their  stance  and  the 
putting  greens  were  heavy.  This  reduced  the  scores  to  a  considerable 
degree.  One  of  the  results  of  the  storms  was  to  disqualify  from  fur- 
ther play  the  Boomer  brothers  of  England,  who  failed  to  appear  upon 
the  first  tee  within  the  appointed  time  limit.  Both  were  among  the 
first  sixteen  scores,  A.  Boomer  having  a  total  of  164  and  his  brother 
Percy  165. 

The  summary  of  the  qualifying  rounds,  with  eight  French  golfers, 
seven  Americans,  and  one  English  player  constituting  the  first  sixteen, 
follows  : 

Name  First  round     Second  round     Total 

Gassiat  (F.) 78  74  152 

Dauge(F.) 76  78  154 

R.  Golias  (F.)  ...  81  75  156 

Gommier  (F.)   ...  78  80  158 

Massy  (F.) 82  77  159 

Rautenbush  (A.)  .  80  80  160 

Bomboudiac  (F.).  85  77  i62 

Bartlett  (A.)   ....  82  81  163 

Walton  (A.) 84  81  165 

G.  Golias  (F.)  ...  80  85  165 

f^art  (A.) 84  82  166 

Davis  (A.)  84  82  166 

Hurley  (A.) 86  81  167 

Gavallo  (F.) 87  81  168 

LaFolly  (G.B.)  ..  87  82  169 

Pierson  (A.) 88  82  170 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  251 

Loth(F.) 89  83  172 

Bernard  (F.) 87  85  172 

Warren  (G.B.)  ..  .  90  84  174 

Vogliano  (F.)  ....  91  91  182 

Marks  (G.B.)  ....  89  94  183 

Davison  (A.) 94  90  184 

George  H.  Reid,  C.  W.  Middleton  and  W.  S.  Greene,  Americans, 
dropped  out  of  further  play.  Sergeant  Beveridge,  an  American  who 
was  eliminated  in  the  American  tryouts,  was  appointed  official  scorer. 

The  French  players  showed  their  strength  in  the  next  day's  games 
— the  first  round  of  match  play  for  the  individual  championship — 
and  as  a  result  Massy,  holding  a  70  for  the  forenoon  round,  had  his 
opponent,  Hart,  American,  well  down  at  the  turn.  Massy  won  13-12. 
Gassiat,  another  French  player,  also  showed  a  card  of  70  and  defeated 
his  American  opponent,  Pierson,  15-14. 

Only  two  Americans  survived  the  rounds  of  the  36  holes,  18  holes 
both  morning  and  afternoon.  They  were  Lieutenants  Davis  and 
Walton.  It  was  peculiarly  unfortunate  for  America  that  the  draw 
had  forced  Davis  to  play  Rautenbush  and  Walton  to  meet  Bartlett, 
as  the  quartet  constituted  America's  "big  four."  England's  repre- 
sentative was  eliminated  by  default.  Six  Frenchmen  still  remained 
in  the  game. 

The  summary  :  Massy,  France,  defeated  Hart,  America,  13-12; 
Bomboudiac,  France,  defeated  R.  Golias,  France,  1  up;  G.  Golias, 
France,  defeated  Cavallo,  France,  4-3;  Gommier,  France,  defeated 
Hurley,  America,  2  up;  Gassiat,  France,  defeated  Pierson,  America, 
15-14;  Davis,  America,  defeated  Rautenbush,  America,  5-3;  Walton, 
America,  defeated  Bartlett,  America,  3-2;  Dauge,  France,  defeated  La 
Folly,  Great  Britain,  by  default. 

Massy's  round  of  70  follows  : 

Out 4  4  3  5  5  3  5  4  4  37 

In 3  5  3  4  4  3  4  4  4  33     -     70 

The  following  day  the  American  player,  Davis,  found  himself 
matched  with  Gommier,  and  Walton  met  Dauge.  The  Walton-Dauge 
match  was  the  best  of  the  tourney.  Walton  carried  Dauge  through 
forty  holes  before  the  French  player  was  able  to  win.  Throughout 
the  morning  round  Walton  was  far  the  better  shot,  being  4  up  at 
the  mid-day  turn  of  18  holes.  But  Dauge  found  himself  in  the  after- 
noon and  squared  the  match  on  the  36th  hole. 

Davis  lacked  his  usual  putting  ability  and  Gommier  took  the  match 
7  and  6  to  play. 


252  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  summary  :  Dauge,  France,  defeated  Walton,  America,  1  up 
40  holes;  Gommier,  France,  defeated  Davis,  America,  7-6;  Massy, 
France,  defeated  G.  Golias,  France,  3-2;  Gassiat,  France,  defeated 
Bomboudiac,  France,  7-6. 

In  the  semifinals,  with  only  four  French  players  left  to  fight  for 
the  supreme  honors,  Massy  won  the  feature  match  of  the  day  against 
Gassiat  by  2  up.  Gassiat  is  a  figure  in  continental  golf,  having  held 
the  French  open  championship  and  also  that  of  Spain.  The  match 
was  a  close  event  with  Massy  at  all  times  in  the  lead.  Dauge  found 
an  easy  victory  in  his  match  with  Gommier,  winning  10-9. 

The  summary:  Massy,  France,  defeated  Gassiat,  France,  2  up; 
Dauge,  France,  defeated  Gommier,  France,  10-9. 

The  finals  brought  Massy  and  Dauge  into  the  limelight  before  the 
biggest  gallery  of  the  Inter-Allied  Golf  series.  Dauge  was  looked  upon 
as  a  possible  darkhorse  for  he  had  traveled  the  course  in  several  exceed- 
ingly low  scores.  But  Massy  played  persistent  golf  while  Dauge  lost 
heavily  through  his  failure  to  negotiate  short  putts.  Massy's  victory 
was  by  5-4. 

However,  the  game  was  much  more  even  than  the  score  would 
indicate.  Massy  laid  Dauge  stymie  four  times  in  the  morning  round, 
either  winning  the  hole  or  halving  it  because  of  the  stymied  ball. 
But  the  sturdy  Dauge  played  on  steadily  and  in  the  afternoon  came 
his  opportunity  to  cut  down  Massy's  lead,  although  he  was  four  down 
to  his  opponent  when  he  emerged  from  his  noon-day  meal  and  went 
to  the  first  tee,  and  to  the  spectators  at  that  time  it  looked  as  if  the 
match  was  practically  over. 

Both  accepted  5s  on  the  first  hole  and  Dauge  won  the  second  with 
a  4  against  a  5  for  Massy.  Two  3s,  on  a  short  hole,  halved  the  hole 
while  Dauge,  playing  a  straight  ball,  took  a  4  for  the  fourth  hole. 
Massy  had  a  5.  The  next  two  holes  were  halved  and  Dauge  came 
through  and  won  the  seventh.  Massy,  however,  won  the  eighth  in 
perfect  golf  and  the  ninth  was  halved.  Massy's  lead  was  now  only 
2  up. 

Dauge  had  a  35  against  a  38  for  Massy  on  the  opening  afternoon 
nine  holes.  With  the  thirty-sixth  hole  in  the  near  distance  Massy 
settled  down  and  won  the  eleventh  and  twelfth  holes.  Dauge  went 
after  the  thirteenth  hole  placing  a  fine  loft  shot  upon  the  green  on  his 
second.  Massy  played  closer  to  the  hole  than  Dauge  and  it  looked  as  if 
the  match  was  to  end  there. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  253. 

But  Dauge  sank  his  long  putt  and  Massy  missed  his  shorter  try 
with  the  result  that  Dauge  cut  the  lead  down  one.     The  halving  of 
the  next  hole  in  4  gave  the  match  to  Massy. 
The  summary  of  the  match: 

Morning  Round 

Massy  out 4  5  3  5  4  3  6  3  4  -  37 

Dauge  out 454555645  -43 

Massy  in 4  5  4  4  4  3  5  4  4  -  37  -  74 

Dauge  in 3  5  4  4  4  4  4  5  5  -  38  -  81 

Afternoon  Round 

Massy  out 5  5  3  5  4  3  6  3  4  -  38 

Dauge  out 543443444  -35 

Massy  in 3  4444 

Dauge  in 35534 

France  thus  emerged  from  the  Inter-Allied  Golf  tourney  as  winner 
of  the  team  match  and  also,  in  the  person  of  Massy,  of  the  individual 
laurel  wreath.  The  champion,  a  professional  at  La  Boulie  course,  has 
been  for  years  the  idol  of  French  golfers  and  had  already  gained  dis- 
tinction outside  of  France,  having  won  the  English  open  in  1907. 

Medals,  suitably  inscribed,  were  presented  to  each  of  the  team 
members  representing  France,  America  and  England.  The  winner 
and  the  runner-up  of  the  individual  championship  were  also  given 
medals. 


ROWING 


HE  final  events  of  the  Inter-AIIied  Games  were  the  boat 
races  on  the  Seine  17  and  18  July.  With  the  date  of  the 
Henley  Regatta  fixed  year  after  year  for  the  first  week  in 

, ,  July,   it  seemed  out  of  the  question  to  hold  the  Rowing 

events  at  the  same  time  as  the  Games  in  Pershing  Stadium  and  still 
have  a  representative  gathering  of  Allied  oarsmen.  Accordingly,  it 
was  decided  to  hold  the  Inter-Allied  Regatta  after  the  Pershing  Stadium 
events.  Henley  contestants  thereby  would  have  time  to  bring  their 
crews  and  shells  to  Paris. 

The  success  of  the  Regatta  justified  this  decision.  Ten  Allied 
nations  and  colonies  participated  in  what  proved  to  be  the  largest 
and  most  successful  service  Regatta  ever  held. 

Belgian,  Czecho-Slovakian,  ItaHan  and  Portuguese  crews  went  into 
training  for  the  races  early  in  July,  occupying  quarters  in  the  American 
Military  Police  Barracks  in  the  Bois  de  Boulogne  at  Aqueduct  Bridge. 
By  11  July  they  were  joined  by  Australian,  Canadian,  English, 
French,  New  Zealand  and  American  crews  from  the  Henley  Regatta. 
Their  shells  arrived  a  day  or  two  later,  ferried  across  the  Enghsh 
channel  by  destroyer  to  Havre  and  taken  from  there  to  Paris  by 
automobile  truck  and  trailer.  Rowing  championships  were  to  be 
awarded  in  single  sculls,  four-oared  shells  with  coxswain,  and  eight- 
oared  shells.  Each  competing  nation  was  allowed  but  one  entry  in 
each  of  these  events.  In  single  sculls,  Austraha,  Belgium,  England, 
France,  Italy,  New  Zealand,  and  United  States  were  represented. 
Belgium,  Canada,  France,  British  Army  of  the  Rhine,  New  Zealand, 
Portugal,  and  United  States  entered  crews  for  the  four-oared  shell 
races  and  ten  eight-oared  shell  crews  were  entered  from  Australia, 
Belgium,  Canada,  Czecho-Slovakia,  England,  France,  Italy,  New  Zea- 
land, Portugal,  and  United  States. 

The  elimination  heats  in  the  three  events  were  held  on  the  after- 
noon of  17  July  on  the  Seine  over  a  mile  and  a  half  course  between 
St.  Cloud  and  Suresnes  bridges.  A  cloudless  day  and  a  light  breeze 
which  scarcely  caused  a  ripple  in  the  water  made  rowing  conditions 
ideal. 


See  pages  321  329  387  345  for  rowing  pictures. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  255 

For  the  first  heat  of  the  single  sculls  eliminations  the  following 
were  entered:  Clarence  Buxton,  England;  Major  Paul  Withington, 
United  States;  Sergeant  D.  C.  Hadfield,  New  Zealand;  and  Alfred 
Felton,  Australia.  Hadfield  jumped  to  the  lead  at  the  start  and  it 
was  evident  that  the  New  Zealander,  who  won  the  single  sculls  event 
at  Henley,  would  be  the  winner,  leaving  Buxton,  Felton,  and  Withing- 
ton to  decide  who  would  be  the  second  to  qualify.  Hadfield,  leading, 
was  followed  in  order  by  Buxton,  Felton,  and  Withington  as  far  as 
Aqueduct  Bridge.  Felton,  by  a  spurt,  then  placed  himself  abreast 
of  Buxton,  but  he  had  the  misfortune  to  foul  a  marking  buoy  at  the 
three-quarters  distance.  Withington,  in  the  meantime,  passed  both 
Felton  and  Buxton  and  finished  a  length  and  a  half  behind  Hadfield 
and  a  quarter  of  a  length  ahead  of  Buxton. 

Giran,  France,  Dones,  Italy,  and  Haller  of  Belgium  started  the 
second  heat  of  the  singles.  Giran  led  Dones  by  a  length  the  first 
half  of  the  course  and  then  stopped  rowing  for  a  few  moments.  Giran 
then  continued  rowing  with  Dones  five  lengths  ahead  of  him  at  the 
finish,  while  Haller,  several  lengths  behind  Giran,  failed  to  qualify. 

Canada,  Belgium,  Italy  and  France  rowed  the  first  heat  of  the  four- 
oared  shell  eliminations.  At  the  first  quarter  Italy  led,  with  Belgium, 
France  and  Canada  following  closely.  At  the  half  Canada,  after  a 
short  spurt,  led  France  by  a  few  feet,  the  other  two  boats  a  length 
behind.  France,  continuing  her  spurt,  passed  Canada  600  yards 
from  the  finish  and  shot  over  the  line  two  lengths  ahead,  Italy  and 
Belgium  finishing  two  lengths  behind  Canada. 

Although  entered  for  the  second  elimination  heat,  the  British  Army 
of  the  Rhine  four  withdrew  from  the  race  on  account  of  not  obtaining 
a  shell  fitted  with  tholepins  to  which  the  crew  was  accustomed.  This 
left  New  Zealand,  Portugal  and  United  States  in  this  heat.  The  three 
boats  were  practically  even  at  the  first  quarter,  but  before  the  half 
was  reached  New  Zealand  led  United  States  by  a  quarter  of  a  length. 
Portugal,  in  the  meantime  catching  a  crab,  was  left  far  behind  and 
did  not  finish  the  race.  By  the  third  quarter  New  Zealand  and  the 
United  States  were  side  by  side  again.  America  spurting  early  finished 
a  length  and  a  half  in  front  of  New  Zealand. 

Czecho-Slovakia,  Australia,  and  Italy  raced  the  first  heat  of  eight- 
oared  shell  eliminations.  Unlike  the  singles  and  fours,  where  the  first 
two  in  each  heat  qualified  for  finals,  the  eights'  elimination  heats 
qualified  but  one  for  the  finals.  In  this  heat  Australia  had  no  diffi- 
culty in  maintaining  the  lead  throughout,  increasing  the  lead  over 


.^    9    t 


Fencing.     Top— Portugal  team.     Center    left— Ameviain  fencers.     Center  right— A   strenuous 
contest" on  the  platform.     BoHom— Klimiuation  contest  on  the  platform  at  Pershing  StacUuni. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  259 

behind  at  the  half  distance.  America,  with  a  short  spurt,  was  abreast 
of  France  at  the  three-quarter  mark  only  to  be  passed  again  a  few 
seconds  later.  Two  hundred  yards  from  the  finish  the  Americans 
were  not  equal  to  the  final  spurt  and  France  passed  over  the  line  tor 
the  Championship  by  a  length  and  a  half. 

The  Cambridge  eight  won  a  magnificent  victory  in  the  eight-oared 
shell  finals.  Left  a  half  a  length  behind  at  the  start,  the  English  crew 
crept  slowly  past  Australia  and  New  Zealand  to  finish  a  third  of  a 
length  ahead. 

As  they  paddled  upstream  to  the  stake  boats  the  eights  showed 
three  pronouncedly  different  strokes.  Cambridge  had  the  longest 
stroke  of  all  and  one  that  was  capable  of  being  rowed  at  high  speed. 
The  Australian  was  just  as  high  a  stroke  as  the  English  but  shorter 
and  more  slashing.  Although  not  reaching  for  so  much  water,  the 
New  Zealanders  rowed  a  very  pretty,  slow,  swinging  stroke.  At  no 
time  during  the  race  did  New  Zealand  row  as  high  a  stroke  as  either 
Australia  or  Cambridge. 

Austraha  got  off  first  at  the  start.  New  Zealand  but  a  yard  behind. 
When  the  eights  finished  their  spurt  at  the  start  and  settled  down 
for  the  mile-and-a-half  row,  Cambridge  was  half  a  length  behind  Aus- 
tralia. This  difference  was  made  up  within  the  first  six  hundred 
yards. 

At  the  half,  Cambridge  had  gained  two  yards  over  Australia 
New  Zealand  was  a  quarter  of  a  length  behind.  Then  came  the  pret- 
tiest sight  of  the  day.  For  over  a  quarter  of  a  mile  Cambridge  and 
Austraha,  side  by  side,  rowed  exactly  together.  The  oars  of  both 
crews  caught  and  came  out  of  the  water  together.  The  extra  reach 
of  Cambridge  was  practically  equalled  in  power  by  Austraha's  slashing 
stroke.  This  continued  until  the  last  quarter  when  Cambridge  led 
by  a  yard. 

Cambridge  continued  to  forge  ahead,  inch  by  inch,  from  here  on 
to  the  finish.  Australia,  but  three  quarters  of  a  length  ahead  of  the 
New  Zealanders  who  had  rowed  a  game  race  throughout,  finished  a 
scant  third  of  a  length  behind  Cambridge. 

This  was  the  final  race  of  the  Inter-Allied  Regatta.  Champion- 
ships were  awarded  to  D.  C.  Hadfield,  New  Zealand,  winner  of  smgle 
sculls;  France,  winner  of  four-oar  shell  race;  Cambridge  Service  Eight, 
representing  England,  winner  of  eight-oar  shell  race. 


260  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

SUMMARY   OF   ROWING   EVENTS 

Thursday,  17  July. 
Single  Sculls  Eliminations: 

First  Heat — D.  C.  Hadfield,  New  Zealand,  first  by  1  i  lengths; 
Paul  Withington,  United  States,  second;  Clarence  Buxton,  England, 
third;  Alfred  Felton,  Australia,  fouled  a  buoy  and  did  not  finish.  Time 
7  minutes,  59  seconds. 

Second  Heat — Ermino  Dones,  Italy,  first  by  5  lengths;  Giran, 
France,  second;  Jacques  Haller,  Belgium,  third.  Time  8  minutes, 
18-3/5  seconds. 

Four-Oared  Shell  Eliminations: 

First  Heat — France  first  by  2  lengths — 
Stroke,  Sgt.  Bouton 
3,  Pvt.  Vaganay 

2,  Sgt.  Cordier 
Bow,  Lt.  Barrelet 
Cox.,  Cpl.  Barberalle 

Canada,  second — 
Stroke,  Lt.  M.  H.  Rix 

3,  Lt.  A.  R.  Whittier 

2,  Capt.  C.  P.  Disney 
Bow,  Lt.  E.  E.  Norman 
Cox.,  Capt.  A.  S.  Poynton 

Italy,  third — 
Stroke,  E.  Olgeni 

3,  Vittorio  Bruna 

2,  E.  Scaturin 
Bow,  Aldo  Bettini 
Cox.,  Mario  Olgeni 

Belgium,  fourth — 
Stroke,  Pvt.  Desaever 

3,  Sgt.  Tabary 

2,  Lt.  Chaltin 
Bow,  Pvt.  de  Vise 
Cox.,  Sgt.  Lannoo 

Time,  7  minutes,  18  3-5  seconds. 
Second  Heat— United  States  first  by  1  1-4  lengths- 
Stroke,  Maj.  Paul  Withington 

3,  Capt.  C.  D.  Wiman 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  261 

2,  Capt.  Billings  Wilson 
Bow,  Lt.  H.  E.  Cooke 
Cox.,  Lt.  Guy  H.  Gale 

New  Zealand,  second — 
Stroke,  G.  L.  Croll 

3,  J.  Fry 

2,  A.  T.  White 
Bow,  H.  B.  Prideaux 
Cox.,  A.  H.  Tmssell 

Portugal  did  not  finish — 
Stroke,  Carlos  Burney 

3,  Raul  Brito 

2,  Rodrigo  Bessone 
Bow,  Jose  Serra 

Cox.,  Augusto  Neupart, 

British  Army  of  the  Rhine  withdrew — 
Stroke,  G.  M.  Penny 

3,  C.  M.Bere 

2,  J.  A.  Begg 
Bow,  A.  H.  Jackson 
Cox.,  Lewis  Morgan 

Time,  7  minutes,  35  2-5  seconds 

Eight-Oared  Shell  Eliminations: 

FiM  Heat — Australia,  first  by  3-4  lengths — 
Stroke,  Capt.  Clive  Disher 
7,  Gunner  George  Mettam 

6,  Lt.  Frederick  House 

5,  Lt.  Thomas  McGill 

4,  Gunner  Arthur  Scott 

3,  Lyndhurst  Davis 
2,  Lt.  Harold  Newall 
Bow,  Sgt.  A.  Robb 
Cox.,  Sgt.  Albert  Smedley 

Italy,  second — 
Stroke,  Emilio  Lucca 

7,  M.  L.  Colombo 

6,  G.  Torlashi 


262  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

5,  Nino  Castelli 

4,  T.  R.  Salvini 

3,  M.  0.  Pontiggia 

2,  Alfredo  Taroni 
Bow,  Fabio  Clerici 
Cox.,  Plinio  Urio. 

Czecho-Slovakia,  third — 

Stroke,  Jiri  Wihan 
7,  Jan  Hejda 

6,  Dominik  Stilip 

5,  Jiri  Romavacek 

4,  Joseph  Hungmann 

3,  Joraslav  Oplt 

2,  Vaclav  Romovacek 

Bow,  Jiri  Petr 

Cox.,  Vallav  Paruzek 

Time,  6  minutes,  48  2-5  seconds 

Second  Heat — New  Zealand  first  by  1  length — 

Stroke,  G.  A.  Healey 


7, 

D. 

C. 

Hadfield 

6, 

W 

.  G 

.  Coombes 

5, 

G. 

L. 

Lester 

4, 

W 

.  Patterson 

3, 

J. 

Mc 

;Roberts 

2, 

F. 

V. 

Home 

B( 

m, 

G. 

H.  Wilson 

Cox., 

A. 

H.  Trussell 

Canada,  second- 
Stroke,  Gapt.  F.  S.  Dyke 
7,  Capt.  H.  A.  Dawson 
6,  Lt.  A.  D.  Spragge 
5,  Lt.  C.  S.  M.  Fleming 
4,  Lt.  G.  W.  Machan  ' 
3,  Maj.  J.  C.  McCuaig 
2,  Cpl.  R.  R.  Harvey 
Bow,  Sgt.  W.  Gilliborn 
Cox.,  Capt.  A.  S.  Poynton 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  263 

Belgium,  third — 
Stroke,  Van  Waes 
7,  Hegimans 

6,  Joux 

5,  Boylemans 

4,  Demulder 

3,  Taymans 

2,  Janssens 
Bow,   Lalemand 
Cox.,  Nuytens 

Portugal,  fourth — 
Stroke,  A.  Talone 

7,  J.  Ferro 

6,  V.  G.  Silva 

5,  Carlos  Sobral 

4,  J.  Sasseti 

3,  J.  Branco 

2,  J.  M.  Silva 
Bow,  G.  Riberiro 
Cox.,  R.  P.  Dias 

Time,  6  minutes,  37  1-5  seconds. 

Third  Heat — England,  first  by  1-2  length — 
Stroke,  Hubert  Hartley 

7,  Clarence  Buxton 

6,  Maurice  Buxton 

5,  Arthur  Dixon 

4,  John   Campbell 

3,  Alfred  Swan 

2,  Harold  Peake 
Bow,  Herbert  Boret 
Cox.,  Robin  Johnstone 

United  States,  second — 

Stroke,  Capt.  Douglas  Kingsland 

7,  Lt.  J.  Amory  Jefferies 

6,  Maj.  H.  L.  Rogers 

5,  Capt.  Louis  Penny 

4,  Lt.  Henry  S.  Middendorf 

3,  Lt.  J.  H.  McHenry 


264  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

2,  Capt.  Royal  R.  Pullen 
Bow,  Lt.  Colles  J.  Coe 
Cox.,  Lt.  Guy  H.  Gale 

France,  third — 

Stroke,  M.  des  Logis  Bouton 

7,  Pvt.  Varanay 

6,  Lt.  Combarieu 

5,  Lt.  Barrelet 

4,  M.  des  Logis  Cordier 

3,  M.  des  Logis  Garnier 
2,   Pvt.   Poix 

Bow,  Sgt.  Richard 

Cox.,  Cpl.  Barbarelle 

Time,  6  minutes,  35  seconds. 

Friday,  18  July. 
Single  Sculls  Finals. 

Won  by  D.  C.  Hadfield,  New  Zealand,  by  3  lengths;  Giran,  France, 
second;  Withington,  United  States,  third;  Dones,  Italy,  withdrew. 
Time,  7  minutes,  54  seconds. 

Four-Oared  Shell  Finals. 

Won  by  France  by  1-2  length;  United  States,  second;  New  Zea- 
land, third;  Canada,  fourth.     Time  7  minutes,  26  2-5  seconds. 

Eighl-Oared  Shell  Finals. 

Won  by  England  by  1-3  length;  AustraUa,  second;  New  Zealand, 
third.     Time  6  minutes,  26  3-5  seconds. 


Top— Amuiicaii  Rugljy  tcKin.      Bottom — Roumanian  liugby  team. 


SHOOTING 


N  no  event  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  was  a  more  decisive 
success  gained  than  by  the  American  entrants  in  the  rifle 
and  pistol  marksmanship  contests  which  were  held  on  the 
d'Auvours  range,  Belgian  Camp,  near  Le  Mans,  Sarthe. 
Every  medal  place  obtainable  by  the  same  nation  in  every  event  fell 
to  the  United  States  marksmen.  The  first  day's  firing  sufficed  to 
demonstrate  the  American  superiority  and  thereafter  interest  in  the 
actual  competitive  feature  of  the  meet  shifted  to  the  rivalries  of  other 
nations  for  lesser  laurels,  notably  to  the  Franco-Canadian  struggle 
for  the  runner-up  honors. 

In  the  individual  rifle  match  the  United  States,  with  twenty-five 
entries,  took  the  first  eighteen  places  in  a  field  of  176,  the  lowest  Ameri- 
can finishing  thirty-fourth  on  the  list.  The  Americans  carried  the 
eight  topmost  places  in  the  individual  pistol  match,  the  last  of  the 
twenty-five  participants  finishing  in  thirty-first  place  among  108  start- 
ers. The  rifle  and  pistol  team  matches  were  won  with  corresponding 
margins,  the  Americans  leading  the  field  in  both  instances  at  every 
range. 

The  surprise  of  the  meet  was  the  defeat  of  Canada  by  the  French 
marksmen  in  both  individual  events  and  in  the  rifle  team  match. 
The  Dominion  did  not  enter  the  pistol  team  competition. 

Eight  nations— France,  Belgium,  Canada,  Greece,  Italy,  Portugal, 
Roumania  and  the  United  States— participated  in  the  competitions 
which  were  opened  on  23  June  by  General  Pershing.  The  inauguration 
ceremonies  were  simple.  At  10  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  competitors 
formed  by  national  groups,  armed  with  the  weapons  which  they  were 
to  fire,  at  a  designated  place  in  rear  of  the  330-yard  firing  point.  The 
captains  of  the  eight  contingents  were  presented  to  the  Commanding 
General  by  Colonel  A.  J.  Macnab,  officer  in  charge  of  the  competi- 
tions. The  captains,  in  turn,  presented  the  officers  of  their  respective 
groups.  The  Commander-in-Chief  inspected  the  enlisted  contestants, 
addressing  a  few  words  to  each  team,  after  which  the  teams  moved 
to  their  respective  stations.  The  first  order  was  called  up.  At  a 
signal  from  the  Commanding  General  the  buglers  sounded  "Commence 
Firing."     A  line  of  white  targets  flashed  into  the  brilliant  June  sun- 

See  pages  353  361  369  377  385  393  for  shooting  pictures. 


268  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

light  and  the  crack  of  rifles  proclaimed  that  the  greatest  of  military 
marksmanship  matches  was  on. 

The  meet  ended  on  June  28.  The  ensuing  schedule  of  competi- 
tions was  carried  out: 

Monday,  23  June — Rifle  individual  prehminary  course:  forenoon, 
300  yards  slow  Are,  200  yards  rapid  fire;  afternoon,  500  and  600  yards 
slow  fire,  300  and  500  yards  rapid  fire. 

Note:  No  scores  recorded. 

Tuesday,  24  June— Rifle  individual  match:  forenoon,  300  yards 
slow  fire,  200  and  300  yards  rapid  fire;  afternoon,  500  and  600  yards 
slow  fire,  500  yards  rapid  fire. 

Wednesday,  25  June — Program  suspended;  rain. 
Note:  By  firing  the  combined  Wednesday  and  Thursday  schedule 
on  the  latter  day  no  time  was  lost, 

Thursday,  26  June— Rifle  team  match:  forenoon,  200,  300  and 
400  yards  slow  fire;  afternoon,  500  and  600  yards  slow  fire. 

Friday,  27  June — Pistol  individual  match:  25  and  50  yards  slow 
fire,  15  and  25  yards  rapid  fire;  20  shots  at  each  range. 

Saturday,  28  June — 25  and  50  yards  slow  fire;  20  shots  at  each 
range. 

A  maximum  of  twenty-five  entries  from  each  nation  was  eligible 
to  compete  in  the  individual  matches.  Rifle  teams  were  limited  to 
twelve  men,  pistol  teams  to  ten. 

First  Sergt.  Stanley  Smith,  U.S.,  won  the  Inter-AUied  Individual 
Rifle  Championship  in  Tuesday's  match,  scoring  275  points  out  of 
300  possible.  He  made  a  brilliant  score,  outshooting  the  field  at 
every  range  save  one. 

Second  honors  went  to  Gunnery  Sergt.  Lester  V.  Henson,  U.S., 
with  a  total  of  266  and  Corp.  Richard  J.  Titus,  U.S.,  chnched  third 
with  a  tally  of  263.  At  all  times  the  championship  race  was  virtually 
between  these  three  and  other  high  American  contenders. 

Louis  Percy,  a  demobilized  French  soldier,  finished  ahead  of  the 
competitors  of  the  other  nations  with  a  score  of  245  which  yielded 
him  nineteenth  place.  After  a  bad  start  on  the  shorter  and  less 
difficult  ranges  Percy  exhibited  a  remarkable  eye  and  at  500  and  600 
yards,  both  on  slow  and  rapid  fire,  returned  scores  that  were  among 
the  best.  His  strong  finish  enabled  him  to  pass  Major  Wilham  0. 
Morris,  Canada,  who  stopped  in  twentieth  place  with  243. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  269 

The  high  competitors  of  other  nations,  their  scores  and  standings, 
follow:  Major  N.  Vasile  Ghitescu,  Roumania,  216,  forty-first  place; 
Lieut.  Licurgo  Fabi,  Italy,  204,  forty-ninth  place;  Sergt.  Andre  M. 
Vichos,  Greece,  203,  fifty-first  place;  2nd  Sergt.  Alfredo  da  Costa 
Paes,  Portugal,  197,  sixty-first  place;  Pvt.  Seraphin  Cornelius,  Belgium, 
191,  seventy-third  place. 

The  United  States  marksmen  took  the  rifle  team  match  with  a 
total  of  2,651  points  out  of  3,000  possible — a  margin  of  236  over  their 
closest  opponents.  The  ease  with  which  they  moved  into  first  place, 
with  the  firing  of  the  initial  shots,  and  speedily  fortified  themselves 
with  an  unassailable  lead,  swung  popular  interest  to  the  contests 
which  developed  for  second,  fourth  and  sixth  places.  These  were 
exciting  in  every  particular. 

The  issue  of  the  individual  match  had  sharpened  rivalry  between 
France  and  Canada.  Popular  opinion  favored  the  Canadians  at  the 
beginning  of  the  team  match,  the  individual  victory  being  regarded 
more  as  a  personal  triumph  for  Louis  Percy  than  as  a  national  achieve- 
ment. Another  factor  which  lent  interest  to  the  Franco-Canadian 
contest  was  the  fact  that  they  were  the  only  two  teams  firing  with 
their  own  rifles,  all  others  having  adopted  the  American  Springfield, 
generally  conceded  to  be  the  most  accurate  of  service  weapons.  The 
Canadians  remained  faithful  to  their  Enfield,  using,  however,  the 
long-barrelled,  pre-war  model  equipped  with  a  windgauge.  Two 
Frenchmen  adopted  the  Springfield;  the  other  ten  went  to  the  firing 
point  with  the  ancient  Lebele  model  of  1886,  the  service  rifle  of  the 
French  infantry.  As  a  target  rifle  it  is  regarded  as  a  very  inferior 
weapon. 

When  Canada  led  by  18  points  on  the  completion  of  firing  at  the 
200-yard  point,  it  seemed  that  it  would  be  easy  for  the  Dominion  men 
to  take  the  second  place  honors,  for,  as  the  ranges  lengthened,  the 
advantage  of  the  Enfield  riflemen  with  their  wind-gauged  weapon, 
would  increase.  At  300  yards,  however,  the  French  outshot  the  Cana- 
dians by  26  points,  giving  them  a  net  lead  of  eight.  Thenceforward 
they  beat  the  Canadians  at  every  range,  rolling  up  a  total  of  2,415  to 
2,351  for  Lieut.  Col.  William  Rae's  Dominion  team. 

Roumania  and  Italy  fired  a  close  score  for  fourth  place  and  the 
decision  in  favor  of  the  Balkan  team  came  only  in  the  last  few  minutes 
of  firing.  Roumania  scored  2,163  to  2,150  for  Italy,  despite  the 
creditable  individual  work  of  Vice-Brigadier  Amedeo  Santena,  the 
Italian  team's  best  marksman. 


270  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  three-cornered  struggle  which  developed  between  Belgium, 
Portugal  and  Greece  for  sixth-place  honors  was  the  closest  of  the 
match.  After  an  all-day  contest  so  close  that  it  gave  no  indication 
as  to  which  team  would  be  the  winner,  the  three  teams  went  to  the 
600-yard  firing  point  at  five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  with  only  three 
points  separating  them.  There  the  Belgians  shot  a  consistent  score 
while  both  the  others  went  to  pieces.  The  finish  was  in  this  order, 
Belgium,  2,071;  Portugal,  2,023;  Greece,  2,016. 

Master  Engineer  (senior  grade)  Michael  Kelley,  U.S.,  won  the 
individual  pisiol  championship,  scoring  669  out  of  800  possible  and 
defeating  his  greatest  rival  in  the  American  preliminaries,  Gapt.  D.  R. 
Raymond,  who  took  second  place  with  648.  Corp.  Paul  Bird,  a  young 
shot,  was  a  tight  third  with  647. 

Sergt.  Joseph  Pecchia,  France,  finished  at  the  top  of  the  foreign 
aspirants  with  a  score  of  635  which  gave  him  ninth  place.  Lieut. 
Antonio  da  Silva  Martijis,  Portugal,  one  of  the  spectacular  shots  of 
the  field,  gained  twenty-second  place  with  596.  Lieut.  Martins  shot 
an  eccentric  score,  now  firing  a  remarkable  string,  and  again  dropping 
among  the  poorest.  At  one  time  he  was  tied  with  Master  Engineer 
Kelley  for  first  place,  being  the  only  visiting  competitor  temporarily 
to  attain  such  a  high  score. 

The  following  were  the  high  men  of  the  other  nations  with  their 
scores  and  standings: 

Maresciallo  Pacificio  Santona,  Italy,  575,  twenty-eighth  place; 
Gapt.  Edwin  J.  Kaufman,  Canada's  sole  entry,  566,  thirty-fourth 
place;  Lieut.  Mathieu  Requile,  Belgium,  539,  thirty-ninth  place;  Sergt. 
G.  Giu  Amuzcescu,  Roumania,  507,  forty-seventh  place;  Pvt.  A.  Vras- 
sivanopoulos,  Greece,  494,  fifty-first  place. 

The  American  team  won  the  pistol  team  championship  with  a 
score  of  4,080  out  of  a  possible  5,000.  One  of  the  features  was  the 
individual  defeat  of  Master  Engineer  Kelley  by  his  team  mate,  Captain 
Raymond— an  event  without  official  significance,  however.  The 
French  team,  while  at  no  time  menacing  the  lead  of  the  United  States, 
was  in  a  class  of  its  own  as  far  as  second  honors  were  concerned.  It 
scored  3,828.  Gapt.  de  Castelbajac  made  an  individual  total  of  413 
and  tied  two  Americans  for  third  place  on  the  individual  list. 

Italy  finished  third  with  3,369,  Portugal  fourth  with  3,280,  Bel- 
gium fifth  with  3,204  and  Roumania  sixth  with  2,913.  There  were 
no  Canadian  or  Greek  teams. 

To  dissipate  any  suggestion  of  advantage  accruing  to  the  American 


PERSHING      STADIUM  —    PARIS  271 

competitors  by  comparison  of  weapons,  the  United  States  rifle,  model 
1903,  and  all  types  of  United  States  service  pistols  and  revolvers  were 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  foreign  competitors.  The  Belgians  dis- 
carded their  Mauser,  the  Roumanians  their  Manhcher  and  the  Greeks 
their  Steyr  rifles  through  choice  and  adopted  the  Springfield.  The 
wind-gauge  was  the  principal  attraction  of  the  American  weapon. 
It  is  doubtful,  however,  if  the  change  improved  the  scores  of  any 
except  the  Roumanians  who  put  in  two  weeks  of  diligent  practice 
with  the  Springfield  under  American  coaching.  The  Belgians  con- 
fessed the  experiment  a  failure  for  them  though  they  practiced  with 
the  Springfield  for  four  days  before  entering  the  match.  The  Greeks 
used  it  the  same  length  of  time. 

The  Italians  and  Portuguese  were  obliged  to  adopt  the  Springfield 
through  failure  of  their  arms  and  ammunition  to  arrive.  Both  entered 
the  match  under  a  handicap  as  they  had  received  only  a  day's  instruct- 
ion in  the  use  of  the  American  weapon. 

The  Roumanians,  French  and  Greeks  used  the  United  States 
38-calibre  revolver  and  the  Colt  Automatic  45-calibre  pistol,  in  prefer- 
ence to  their  own  weapons  which  were  of  various  types.  The  Bel- 
gians used  a  Colt  .32  in  addition  to  the  two  American  service  sidearms. 
The  Portuguese  used  their  Luger,  calibre  9mm.  and  the  Italians  their 
Gressenti,  calibre  7.9mm.  in  addition  to  the  American  guns.  The 
Canadian  entry  fired  a  long-barrelled  Webley  .45. 

INDIVIDUAL    RIFLE    MATCH 

The  follwing  results  were  announced: 


Ord.of  Serial 

Merit 

No 

Name 

Rank 

Nation 

Score 

1 

416 

Smith,  Stanley. 

1st  Sgt. 

United  States 

275 

2 

408 

Henson,  Lester  V. 

Gy.  Sgt. 

266 

3 

419 

Titus,  Richard  J. 

Cpl. 

263 

4 

415 

Smith,  Robert  W. 

1st  Lt. 

262 

5 

417 

Spooner,  Lloyd  S. 

») 

261 

6 

403 

Crawley,  Theodore  R. 

Sgt. 

259 

7 

406 

Gray,  Leman. 

" 

259 

8 

418 

Stewart,  Edward  B. 

Cpl. 

258 

9 

412 

Meyers,  Walter  A. 

Capt. 

253 

10 

400 

Chenowith,    Leland   A. 

Sgt. 

252 

11 

407 

Grika,  John  T. 

)J 

252 

12 

423 

Williams,  Glen. 

)T 

251 

13 

424 

Windsor,  Ardis  E. 

Cpl. 

248 

14 

421 

Waller,  C.  W.  Jr. 

Major. 

248 

272 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 

» 


1919 


Ord.of 

Serial 

Merit 

No 

15 

420 

16 

422 

17 

402 

18 

411 

19 

168 

20 

61 

21 

414 

22 

413 

23 

404 

24 

162 

25 

60 

26 

410 

27 

401 

28 

56 

29 

165 

30 

164 

31 

409 

32 

171 

33 

72 

34 

405 

35 

150 

36 

161 

37 

163 

38 

154 

39 

52 

40 

66 

41 

357 

42 

67 

43 

157 

44 

63 

45 

352 

46 

62 

47 

70 

48 

156 

49 

259 

50 

153 

51 

200 

52 

366 

53 

210 

54 

59 

55 

166 

56 

55 

57 

365 

58 

57 

59 

155 

60 

318 

Name 

Walker,  Wesley  W. 
Wiecek,  Joseph  Jr. 
Cotton,  Richard  E. 
Lawless,  Joseph  T. 
Percy,  Louis. 
Morris,  William  O. 
Scars,   Robert. 
Peyton,  Leland  K. 
Disbrow,   Harry  M. 
Johnson,   Leon. 
Mclnnes,  Dugald. 
Kearns,  Sylvester. 
Coppedge,  James  F. 
Hutchinson,  Roger  G. 
Mahieu,  Jules. 
L'Hostis,  Jean. 
Hodges,  C.  H. 
Renard,  Leon. 
Vicent,  Joseph  H. 
Doxtater,  Everett. 
Angelini,  Charles. 
Hardy,  Pierre. 
Lajoie,  Jean. 
Bouchenoirre,  Rene. 
Francis,  Edward  D.  T. 
Rae,  William. 
Ghitescu,  N.  Vasile. 
Richardson,  Fred. 
Fray,  Andrae 
Nowman,  Nathaniel 
Baluta,   Jean 
Mortimer,  George. 
Spaulding,  Victor. 
Durand,  Raymond. 
Fabi,   Licurgo. 
Boitout,   Emile. 
Vichos,  Andre  M. 
Vartolomeu,  Simion. 
Moraitinis,  Georges. 
Martin,  Fred  R. 
Meniot,  Oscar. 
Hay,  John. 

Tenescu,  J.  Constantin. 
Johnson,   Frederick  G. 
Dupuis,  Daul. 
Paes,  Alfredo  da  Costa. 


Rank 

Capt. 

Sgt.    1    cl. 

Capt. 

1st  Lieut. 

Demob. 

Major. 

Lt.  Col. 

Cpl. 

Capt. 

Demob. 

Sgt. 

1st   Lt. 

2nd  Lt. 

Major. 

Capt. 

Lt.  (demob.) 

Lt.    Col. 

Capt. 

Lieut. 

Sgt. 

Cmt.  (demob.' 

Demob. 

2nd  Lt. 

2nd  Class 

Lieut. 

Lt.  Col. 

Major. 

2nd  Lt. 

Col.   Sgt. 

Cpl. 

Major. 

Lieut. 

Cpl. 

Tenente. 

Demob. 

Sergt. 

Capt. 

2nd  Lt. 

Capt. 

2nd  Lt. 

Sergt. 

Lieut. 

Capt. 

2nd  Sergt. 


Nation 


1 )         )T 

France 
Canada. 
United  States 


France 
Canada 
United  States 

Canada 
France 

United  States 

France. 

Canada 

United  States 

France 

France 


Canada 

Roumania 

Canada 

France 

Canada 

Roumania 

Canada 

France 

Italy 

France 

Greece 

Roumania 

Greece 

Canada 

France 

Canada 

Roumania 

Canada 

France 

Portugal 


Score 

248 
247 
246 
245 
245 
243 
243 
242 
242 
240 
235 

233 

232 

231 

230 

230 

229 

229 

228 

226 

226 

225 

225 

224 

221 

220 

216 

213 

213 

213 

211 

210 

208 

204 

204 

203 

203 

201 

200 

200 

199 

199 

198 

198 

198 

197 


Rugby.     Top -Scrimmage  at  lineout.     Center  left-Evh,  V.  S.,  running  with  the  ball.     Center 
rit/W -Clock,  U.  S.,  receiving  ball  from  lineout.     Bottom— Ilauser,  U.  S.,  being  tackled  while 

carrying  ball. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


275 


Ord.of 

Serial 

Merit 

No 

61 

64 

62 

151 

63 

201 

64 

203 

65 

329 

66 

152 

67 

160 

68 

69 

69 

169 

70 

172 

71 

65 

72 

3 

73 

260 

74 

208 

75 

207 

76 

58 

77 

5 

78 

158 

79 

265 

80 

269 

81 

270 

82 

170 

83 

173 

84 

159 

85 

4 

86 

255 

87 

272 

88 

14 

89 

202 

90 

355 

91 

18 

92 

361 

93 

350 

94 

351 

95 

273 

96 

6 

97 

1 

98 

268 

99 

314 

100 

362 

101 

7 

102 

303 

103 

266 

104 

209 

105 

274 

106 

324 

Name  Rank 

O'Neill-Daunt,  Reginald     Corp. 

Arguel,   Pierre.  Sergt. 

Vlachakia,  Denis  T.  Lieut. 

Sappas,  Jean  X.  2nd  Lt. 
Pereirs,  Raul  da  Costa.     2nd  Sgt. 

Beaupere,  Maurice  Sergt. 
Garotin,  Alexandre.  " 

Spalding,  Frank.  Lieut. 

Pinot,  Lucien.  Adjutant 

Soccaud,   Jean.  2nd  Lt. 

Payne,  Ethelred  G.  Pvt. 
Cornelis,   Seraphin.  " 

Fabris,   Sante.  Brigadiere 

Kosmas,  George  S.  Private 

Kaparos,   Eme  J.  Sergt. 

Kaufman,  Edwin  J.  Capt. 

Demart,   Emile.  Major 

Fray,  Leon.  Demob. 

Pastorini,  Costantino.  Mag. 

Santena,  Amedeo.  V.  Brig. 

Santena,  Paciflco.  Mares. 

Regnier,  Albert.  Demob. 
Verain,  Bohan  P.  " 

Gentil,  Pierre.  " 

Delmas,  Frangois.  Corp. 

Campus,  Peppy.  Mag. 

Sartorari,  Ferruccio.  Tenente 

Neujeau,  Francois.  Pvt. 
Vrassivanopoulos,  A.  " 

Ciocan,  Gheorghe.  Capor. 
Schaepherders,   Charles.     Corp. 

Mihaesou,  loan.  Lieut. 

Alexe,  V.  Vasilo.  Soldat 

Baciu,  N.  Niculae.  Plut.  Maj. 

Serralunga,  Natele.  Capt.  Mag. 

DuBrucq,    Jules.  Pvt. 

Adriaenssens,  Conrad.  1st  Sgt. 

Righi,  Fulvic.  Capo. 

Martins,  Antoie  da  S.  Lieut. 

Tudor,  G.  H.  Plut. 

Frings,  Jean.  Capt. 

DeCarvalho,  Antonio  J.  1st  Sgt. 

Piersantelli,  Emilio.  Tene.  Col. 

Mafflttas,  Miltiades  D.  Lieut. 

Simonotti,   Achille.  Col. 

Da  Silva,  H.  Guilherme.  2nd    Lt. 


Nation 

Canada 
France 
Greece 

Portugal. 
France 

Canada 
France 

Canada 
Belgium 
Italy 
Greece 

Canada 
Belgium 
France 
Italy 


France 


Belgium. 
Italy 

Belgium 

Greece 

Roumania 

Belgium 

Roumania 

Roumania 

Italy 

Belgium 

Belgium 

Italy 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Belgium 

Portugal 

Italy 

Greece 

Italy 

Portugal. 


Score 

197 

197 

196 

196 

195 

195 

194 

194 

193 

193 

192 

191 

191 

190 

189 

189 

188 

188 

188 

198 

176 

186 

186 

186 

185 

185 

184 

184 

183 

183 

181 

180 

179 

179 

179 

177 

177 

176 

176 

175 

175 

174 

174 

174 

171 

170 


276 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Ord.ot 

Serial 

Merit 

No. 

107 

13 

108 

19 

109 

305 

110 

20 

111 

358 

112 

23 

113 

317 

114 

257 

115 

267 

116 

206 

117 

212 

118 

307 

119 

205 

120 

54 

121 

320 

122 

364 

123 

354 

124 

567 

125 

315 

126 

360 

127 

251 

128 

262 

129 

310 

130 

306 

131 

2 

132 

174 

133 

68 

134 

10 

135 

316 

136 

258 

137 

353 

138 

167 

139 

263 

140 

216 

141 

261 

142 

313 

143 

217 

144 

12 

145 

308 

146 

322 

147 

256 

148 

253 

149 

312 

150 

300 

151 

264 

152 

9 

Name  Rank  Nation  Score 

Nauvelaerts.  Corp.  Belgium  170 

Schmits,  Pierre.  Major.  "  169 

Damiao,  Antonio  F.  Capt.  Portugal  169 

VandenBessche,  Armand  Sergt.  Belgium  169 

Manole,  Constantine.  Capt.  Roumania  169 

Verlinden,  Jules.  Sergt.  Belgium  168 

De  Noronha,  D.  Eugenio  Ensign.  Portugal  168 

DeRisi,  Gabriele.  Capo.  Italy  168 

Picello,  Federico.  Sergt.  "  168 

Adam,  Constantin.  Lieut.  Greece  167 

Roumelliotis,  D.  M.  Pvt.  "  167 

Doras,  Amadeu  S.  1st  Sgt.  Portugal  167 

Cogopoulos,  Constantin.  Lieut.  Greece  166 

Goodhouse,  Fred  J.  C.S.M.  Canada  166 

Rebelo,  Herminio.  Capt.  Portugal  165 

Petrescu,  G.  Constantin.  Lieut.  Roumania  165 

Catana,  Octay.                        "  "  165 

Vlasceanu,  J.  Joan.  Sgt.  "  163 

Mendonca,  Francisco  P.  2nd  Lt-  Portugal  163 

Marinescu,  Marin.  Sous  Lt.  Roumania  162 

Ascani,  Ascanio.  Sot.  Ten.  Italy  162 

Gressi,  Attilio.  Mag.  "  161 

Gomes,  Jose  Oliveira.  Lt.  Col.  Portugal  160 

Dias,   Carlos.  2nd   Sgt.  "  160 

Berckmans,  Charles.  Capt.  Belgium  160 

Ygnard,  Armand.  Sgt.  France  159 

Simmonds,  William  R.  Pvt.  Canada  159 

Masure,  Eduard.  "  Belgium  159 

Montez,  Antonio  D.  2nd  Lt.  Portugal.  158 

Domenis,  Vitterio.  Carab.  Italy.  157 

Bacurel,  Constantin.  Sous  Lt.  Roumania  155 

Pelle,  Henri.  2nd  Lt.  France  152 

Manacci,  Guglielmo.  Mag.  Italy  152 

Sioris,  Platon  A.  War.  Off.  Greece  152 

Ficher,  Norberto.  Tenente  Italy  148 

Machado,  Daniel  Alberto  2nd  Lt.  Portugal  147 

Voltaire,  Achille  C.  Pvt.  Greece  147 

Michause,  Clement.  1st  Sgt.  Belgium  145 

Ferreira,  Antonio  S.  A.  Capt.  Portugal  143 

Dos  Santos,  Antonio.  2nd   Sgt.  "  142 

Dolfmo,  Francesco.  Mare.  Italy  142 

Bettini,    Dario.  Tenente  "  140 

Lopes,  Mario  Augusto.  2nd  Lt.  Portugal  139 

Cannas,  Dario.  2nd  Lt.  "  139 

Musia,  Calisto.  Mag.  Italy  138 

Mandeville,  Hector.  Pvt.  Belgium  138 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


277 


Ord.of 

Serial 

Merit 

No. 

153 

356 

154 

301 

155 

8 

156 

359 

157 

254 

158 

252 

159 

311 

160 

309 

161 

304 

162 

22 

163 

15 

164 

323 

165 

11 

166 

302 

167 

204 

168 

24 

169 

17 

170 

21 

171 

211 

172 

25 

173 

250 

174 

321 

175 

215 

176 

16 

Name 
Dinca,  Stefan,  N. 
De    Carvalho,   Jose   A. 
Gianora,  Georgis. 
Naiorescu,  Dumitru. 
Bucci,  Amelio. 
Balena,   Enrico. 
Jame,  Diocleciano. 
Garcia,  Antonio. 
Catarino,  Antonio. 
VanGoethern. 
Pire,  Germain. 
Dos  Santos,  Antonio. 
Masuy,  Oscar. 
De  Carvalho,  Joaguim. 
Hadzidakis,  George. 
Vercamer,  Georges. 
Roelens,  Hector. 
VandenBossche,  Albinus 
Papageorgieu,  George. 
Van  de  Wale,  Mathieu. 
Arani,  Dario. 
Targento,  Sodaino  F.  G. 
Totomis,  George. 
Pyre,   Jules. 


Rank 
Caporal 
2nd  Sgt. 
1st  Sgt.  Maj. 
Sous  Lt. 
Mag  . 

2nd  Sgt. 
2nd  Sgt. 
2nd  Cpl. 
Pvt. 

Command. 
1st  Cpl. 
Command. 
2nd  Sgt. 
2nd  Lt. 
Pvt. 


Lieut. 

Corp. 

Capo. 

Cadet 

Nav.  Av'tor. 

Adj. 


Nation 

Roumania 

Portugal 

Belgium 

Roumania 

Italy 

Portugal 


Belgium 

Portugal 

Belgium 

Portugal 

Greece. 

Belgium 


Greece 

Belgium 

Italy 

Portugal 

Greece 

Belgium 


Score 

138 

137 

135 

135 

134 

131 

130 

129 

127 

126 

124 

119 

119 

112 

109 

105 

104 

100 

99 

89 

48 

39 

18 

6 


INDIVIDUAL    RIFLE    MATCH WINNERS  BY    NATIONS 

Nation         Serial  No.                 Name  Rank  Score 

United  States.        416          Smith,  Stanley.  1st  Sgt.  275 

France    168          Percy,  Louis.  Demob.  245 

Canada 61          Morris,  William  O.  Major  243 

Roumania....        357          Ghitescu,  N.  Vasile.  "  216 

Italy 259          Fabi,  Licurgo.  Tenente.  204 

Greece 200          Vichos,  Andre  M.  Sergeant.  203 

Portugal 318          Paes,  Alfredo  da  Costa.  2nd  Sergeant.  197 

Belgium 3          Cornells,  Seraphin.  Private.  191 

The  relative  standing  of  the  teams  was  as  follows  : 


Ord.of 
Merit 

1 
2 
3 
4 


Name 

200 

United  States 589 

France   538 

Canada 556 

Roumania   489 


Score 

300 

400 

500 

600 

Total 

541 

467 

543 

511 

2,651 

506 

424 

495 

452 

2,415 

480 

377 

500 

438 

2,351 

427 

355 

473 

419 

2,163 

278 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Ord.ot 
Merit 

5 
6 

7 


Name 

Italy  499 

Belgium 449 

Portugal 480 

Greece    481 


Score 


449 

371 

439 

392 

2,150 

438 

344 

445 

395 

2,071 

446 

318 

429 

350 

2,023 

422 

337 

434 

342 

2,016 

The  relative  standing  of  the  teams  with  the  scores  of  the  individ- 
uals therein  was  as  follows : 


Ord.of 

Serial 

Merit 

No. 

Name 

Rank 

Nation 

Score 

1 

401 

Coppedge,  James  F. 

2nd  Lt. 

United  States 

200 

2 

415 

Smith,  Robert  W. 

1st  Lt. 

11          11 

227 

3 

406 

Gray,  Leman. 

Sgt. 

11          11 

227 

4 

416 

Smith,  Stanley. 

1st  Sgt. 

11          11 

226 

5 

403 

Crawley,  Theo,  B. 

Sgt. 

11          11 

225 

6 

419 

Titus,  Richard  J. 

Cpl. 

11 

222 

7 

408 

Henson,  Lester  V. 

Gy.  Sgt. 

11          11 

221 

8 

404 

Disbrow,  Harry  N. 

Capt. 

11 

219 

9 

412 

Meyers,  Walter  A. 

Capt. 

11          11 

217 

10 

417 

Spooner,  Lloyd  S. 

1st  Lt. 

11          11 

217 

11 

420 

Walker,  Wesley  W. 

Capt. 

11          11 

215 

12 

423 

Williams,  Glen. 

Sgt. 

11          11 

207 

1 

164 

L'Hostis,  Jean. 

Lieut,  dem. 

France 

219 

2 

168 

Percy,  Louis. 

Demob. 

" 

215 

3 

163 

Lajoie,  Jean. 

2nd  LI. 

" 

214 

4 

156 

Durand,  Raymond. 

Cpl. 

" 

208 

5 

162 

Johnson,  Leon. 

Demob. 

" 

207 

6 

155 

Dupuis,  Daul. 

Capt. 

11 

206 

7 

175 

Colas, 

Demob. 

" 

206 

8 

161 

Hardy,  Pierre. 

11 

" 

199 

9 

165 

Mahieu,  Jules. 

Capt. 

)) 

192 

10 

150 

Angelini,  Charles. 

Com't.    dem. 

J» 

191 

11 

171 

Renard,  Leon. 

Capt. 

)) 

183 

12 

157 

Fray,  Andri. 

2nd  Lt. 

li 

175 

1 

62 

Mortimer,  George. 

Blajor 

Canada 

216 

2 

67 

Richardson,  Fred. 

11 

" 

213 

3 

69 

Spalding,  Frank. 

Lieut. 

" 

206 

4 

61 

Morris,  William  O. 

Major 

•: 

205 

5 

7-> 

Vincent,  Joseph  H. 

Lieut. 

" 

202 

6 

60 

Mclnnes,  Dugald. 

Sgt. 

■)■) 

195 

7 

56 

Hutchison,  Roger  G. 

Major. 

'> 

193 

8 

52 

Francis,  Edward  D.  T. 

Lieut. 

3) 

190 

9 

63 

Newman,  Nathaniel. 

Col.  Sgt. 

11 

185 

10 

59 

Martin,  Fred  R. 

Capt. 

)j , 

185 

11 

55 

Hay,  John. 

Sgt. 

1,1. 

184 

12 

57 

Johnson,  Frederick  G. 

Capt. 

11 

177 

PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


279 


Ord.ot 

Serial 

Merit 

No. 

Name 

Ranli 

Nation 

Score 

I 

357 

Ghitescu,  N.  Vasile. 

Major. 

Roumania. 

203 

2 

355 

Ciocan,  Gheorghe. 

Cpl. 

" 

197 

3 

352 

Baluta,  Joan. 

)) 

" 

196 

4 

350 

Alexe,  Vasile. 

Pvt. 

" 

192 

5 

358 

Manole,  Constantin. 

Capt. 

" 

185 

6 

366 

Vartolomeu,  Simion. 

" 

" 

184 

7 

361 

Mihaescu,   loan. 

Lieut. 

" 

182 

8 

353 

Bucurel,  Constantin. 

2nd  Lieut. 

" 

179 

9 

359 

Maiorescu,  Dumitru. 

))           )) 

" 

178 

10 

365 

Tenescu,  J.  Constantin. 

Lieut. 

" 

167 

11 

354 

Catana,  Octav. 

5) 

)) 

159 

12 

364 

Petrescu,  G.  Constantin. 

"      Subsl 

:itulod    " 

12 

367 

Vlasceanu,  J.  Joan. 

Sgt. 

)i 

141 

1 

269 

Santena,  Amedeo. 

Vice-Brig. 

Italy 

209 

2 

270 

Santena,  Pacifico, 

Mares. 

" 

204 

3 

272 

Sartorari,  Ferruccio. 

Tenente. 

" 

194 

4 

251 

Ascani,  Ascanio. 

Sotto   Ten. 

■>■> 

188 

5 

274 

Simonotti,  Achille. 

Col. 

" 

178 

6 

259 

Fabi,  Licurgo. 

Tenente. 

)) 

174 

7 

267 

Picello,  Federico. 

Sergente. 

" 

171 

8 

263 

Mencacci,  Guglielmo. 

Maggiore. 

'* 

170 

9 

266 

Piersantelli,  fimilio. 

Tene  Col. 

" 

167 

10 

260 

Fabris,  Sante. 

Brigad. 

" 

166 

11 

255 

Campus,  Peppy. 

Maggiore. 

" 

166 

12 

268 

Righi,  Fulvio. 

Capit. 

)» 

163 

1 

1 

Adriaenssens,  Conrad. 

1st  Sgt. 

Belgium 

185 

2 

19 

Schmits,  Pierre. 

Major 

" 

182 

3 

4 

Delmas,  Frangois. 

Cpl. 

»» 

181 

4 

7 

Frings,  Jean. 

Captain 

1) 

180 

5 

3 

Cornelis,  Seraphin. 

Private 

») 

177 

6 

5 

Demart,  Emile. 

Major 

" 

175 

7 

14 

Neujeau,  Frangois. 

Private 

" 

174 

8 

11 

Masuy,  Oscar. 

Comd't. 

" 

169 

9 

2 

Berckmans,  Charles. 

Captain 

" 

169 

10 

23 

Verlinden,  Jules. 

Sergeant 

" 

163 

11 

10 

Masure,  Eduard. 

Private. 

" 

159 

12 

20 

VandenBossche,  Arm. 

Sergeant 

1) 

157 

1 

315 

Mendonca,  Francisco. 

2nd  Lieut. 

Portugal 

188 

2 

319 

Pereira,  Raul  da  Cruz. 

2nd  Sgt. 

)i 

184 

3 

316 

Montez,  Antonio  D. 

2nd  Lieut. 

J) 

184 

4 

306 

Dias,  Carlos. 

2nd  Sgt. 

' ' 

184 

5 

310 

Gomes,  Jose  Oliveira. 

Lt.  Col. 

" 

178 

6 

314 

Martins,  Antonio  da  S. 

Lieutenant 

■!■) 

177 

7 

307 

Dores,  Amadeu  Salgado. 

1st  Sgt. 

" 

175 

8 

318 

Paes,  Alfredo  da  C. 

2nd  Sgt. 

>i 

169 

9 

317 

De  Noronha,  D.  Eug. 

Ensign. 

167 

280 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Ord.of  Serial 
Merit      No. 

10  324 

11  305 

12  303 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


207 
203 
210 
202 
206 
208 
200 
205 
201 
212 
209 
217 


Name 

Da  Silva,  H.  Guilherme. 
Damiac,  Antonio  F. 
De  Carvalho,  A.  J. 

Kaparos,  Erne  J. 
Sappas,  Jean  X. 
Moraitinis,  Georges. 
Vrassivanopoulos,  A. 
Adam,  Constantin. 
Kosmas,  Georges  S. 
Vichos,  Andre  M. 
Cogopoulos,  Constantin. 
Vlachakis,  Denis  T. 
Roumelliotis,  D.  M. 
Mantas,  Miltiades  D. 
Voltaire,  Achille  C. 


Rank 

Nation 

2nd  Lieut. 

Portugal 

Captain 

»T 

1st  Sgt. 

)1 

Sergeant 

Greece 

2nd  Lieut. 

" 

2nd  Lieut. 

" 

Private 

" 

Lieutenant 

Ti 

Private 

" 

Sergeant 

»i 

Lieutenant 

)) 

Private 

" 

Lieutenant 

)) 

Private 

i) 

Score 

161 
129 

127 

191 
191 
185 
179 
169 
167 
162 
161 
159 
158 
149 
145 


INDIVIDUAL    PISTOL     MATCH 


Ord.of  Serial 
Merit     No. 


Name  Rank 

1  412  Kelley,  Michael.  M.E.S.G. 

■2  419  Raymond,  D.  R.  Capt. 

3  401  Bird,  Paul.  Corp. 

4  400  Beverley,  J.  R.  1st  Lt. 

5  411  Johnson,  James  F.  "     " 

6  414  LaMotte,  C.  K.  Lt.  Col. 

7  407  Evans,  P.  W.  "     " 

8  409  Griffln,  Lloyd  E.  1st  Lt. 

9  165  Pecchia,  Joseph.  Sergt. 

10  402  Bittel,  Edward.  Lt.  Col. 

11  405  Dell,  James  W.  Col.  Sgt. 

12  155  De  Castelbajac.  Capt. 

13  410  Harant,  L.  J.  2nd  Lt. 

14  404  Crawford,  J.  A.  1st  Lt. 

15  417  Nelson,  Henry  N.  2nd  Lt. 

16  415  Long,  A.  W.  1st  Lt. 

17  420  Scott,  S.  L.  Major 

18  406  Duncan,  Melvin  E.  Sergt. 

19  422  Stauffer,  O.  B.  lst°Lt 

20  424  Snyder,  O.  F.  Lt.  Col. 

21  413  Klem,  Mat.  Col.  Sgt. 

22  306  Martins,  Antonio  da  Sil.     Lieut 

23  418  Purdue,  A.  A.  Private 

24  167  Renard,  Leon.  Captain 

25  416  Miller,  Ernest  C.  Corp. 

26  421  Selbie,  Charles  C.  1st  Lt 


Nation 
United  States 


France 

United  States 
11         11 

France 
United  States 


Portugal 
United  States 
France 
United  States 


Score 

669 

648 

647 

645 

642 

641 

640 

639 

635 

633 

632 

631 

630 

630 

629 

616 

613 

611 

606 

605 

604 

596 

592 

592 

585 

581 


Soccer.      Top  and  center  Ze/i— France  vfrsus  Roumania.     Center  right— Fvaiiei-  versus  Czecho- 
slovakia.   Bottom— A  forward    pass  in  the  air— Prance  versus  Roumania. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


283 


Ord.of  Serial 

Merit 

No. 

27 

423 

28 

263 

29 

403 

30 

172 

31 

408 

32 

162 

33 

158 

34 

58 

35 

157 

36 

159 

37 

161 

38 

163 

39 

7 

40 

160 

41 

260 

42 

265 

43 

166 

44 

3 

45 

164 

46 

156 

47 

351 

48 

352 

49 

10 

50 

262 

51 

201 

52 

311 

53 

151 

54 

355 

55 

353 

56 

264 

57 

;  168 

58 

364 

59 

154 

60 

304 

61 

203 

62 

358 

63 

310 

64 

170 

65 

173 

66 

153 

67 

8 

68 

2 

69 

13 

70 

308 

71 

302 

72 

303 

Name 

Wilder,  Benj.  H. 
Santena,  Pacifioo. 
Claris,  Edward  L. 
Vaudiau,  Pierre. 
Garey,  E.  B. 
Mazuc,  Fernand  A. 
Gandon,  Henri. 
Kaufman,  Edwin  J. 
De  Varine,  Behan  P. 
Girard,    Pierre 
Barbillot, 
Modot,  Joseph. 
Requile,  Mathieu. 
Guizien,  Louis. 
Piersantelli,    Emilio. 
Sarorari,   Ferruccio. 
Perrcau,  Georges. 
Demart,   Emile. 
Moreaux,  Leon. 
De  Cernowitz,  Rem. 
Amuzcescu,   G.   Giu. 
Balanescu,  J.  Constantin 
Janssens,  Charles. 
Santena,  Amedeo. 
Vrassivanopoulos,  A. 
Dos  Santos,  Antonio. 
Bachet,  Georges. 
Iliescu,  Joan. 
Baciu,  N.  Ficulae. 
Sanguini,  Plinio. 
Roux,  Georges. 
Yonoscu,  Virgil. 
Cottrelle,  Robert. 
Gomes,  Jose  O. 
Moraitinis,  Georges. 
Rosea,  Stefan  N. 
Rebelo,  Herminio. 
Bourgeois,  Raphael. 
Vincent,  Louis. 
Chocat. 

Schmits,  Pierre. 
Glaus,  Silvain. 
Thauvin,  Jean. 
Montez,  Antonio  D. 
Dores,  Amadeu  S. 
Ferreiva,  Antonio  S. 


Ranli 

2nd  Lt 
Maresciallo 
Gun    Sgt. 
Captain 
Lt.  Col. 
Demob. 

Captain 

Lieut. 
Com't 
Captain 
Lieut. 

Tene.  Col. 
Tenente 
Sgt. 
Major 

Comm.  dem. 
Captain 
Sergt. 
Sous  Lt. 
Sergt. 
Vice  Brig. 
Pvt. 

2nd  Sgt. 
Mar.  Logis 
Lieut. 
Pluto  Maj. 
Capitano 
2nd  Lt. 
Sous  Lieut. 
2nd  Lt. 
Lt.  Col. 
2nd  Lt. 
Caporal 
Captain 
2nd  Lt. 
Lieut. 
2nd  CI. 
Major 
Capt. 

2nd  Lt. 
1st  Sgt. 
Capt. 


Nation 

Italy 

United  States 

France 

United  States 

France 

France 

Canada 

France 


Belgium 

France 

Italy 

France 

Belgium 

France 
If 

Roumania 
)» 

Belgium 

Italy 

Greece 

Portugal 

France 

Roumania 

») 

Italy 

France 

Roumania 

France 

Portugal 

Greece 

Roumania 

Portugal 

France 


Belgium 

»» 

Portugal 


Score 

578 
575 
573 
573 
572 
570 
568 
566 
565 
544 
543 
542 
539 
538 
535 
533 
528 
525 
524 
518 
507 
505 
497 
495 
494 
493 
490 
489 
489 
488 
488 
486 
484 
483 
479 
475 
474 
471 
465 
462 
460 
460 
460 
457 
453 
450 


284 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Ord.  of  Serial 

Merit 

No. 

73 

171 

74 

250 

75 

152 

76 

251 

77 

250 

78 

174 

79 

4 

80 

307 

81 

267 

82 

253 

83 

301 

84 

309 

85 

350 

86 

361 

87 

259 

88 

169 

89 

360 

90 

300 

91 

150 

92 

354 

93 

266 

94 

1 

95 

9 

96 

252 

97 

366 

98 

12 

99 

363 

100 

5 

101 

261 

102 

305 

103 

258 

104 

359 

105 

202 

106 

11 

107 

200 

108 

367 

Name 

Vache,  Jules. 
Ascani,  Ascanio. 
Besset,  Pierre. 
Borgia,  Carlo. 
Campus,  Peppy. 
Viry,  Eugene. 
Ghoude,  Paul. 
Mendonca,  Francisco. 
Somma,  Umberto. 
Bucci,  Amelio. 
Carvalho,  Antonio  J. 
De  Moronha,  D.  E. 
Adamiu,  lllie. 
Sontica,  G.  Gh. 
Pastorini,  Constan. 
Salain. 

Staniu,  Joan. 
Cannas,  Dario. 
Allain,  Auguste. 
Ghitescu,  H.  Vasile. 
Simanotti,  Achille 
Adriaenssens,  Conrad. 
Van  Otegem,  Georges. 
Bettini,  Mario. 
Bucurel,  Constantin. 
Berlcmans,   Charles. 
Sava,  Joan  N. 
Masuy,  Oscar. 
Ruffo,  Giuseppe. 
Gouveia,  Gustav  A. 
Righi,  Fulvio. 
Stanoscu,  Virgil. 
Mantas,  Miltiades. 
Piro,  Jules 
Vichos,  Andre 
Marinescu,  Marin. 


Rank 
Capt. 

Sott.  Ten. 
2nd  Lt. 
Tene.  Col. 
Maresciallo. 
Lieut. 
Lieut. 
2nd  Lt. 
Colonello 
Maresciallo 

1st  Sgt. 
Ensign. 

Sous  Lt. 
Sergt. 

Maggiore 
Cpl. 

Sous  Lieut. 
2nd  Lt. 

1st  CI. 

Major 

Colonello 

1st  Sgt. 

Lieut. 
Tenente 

Sous  Lieut. 

Capt. 

Caporal 

Comm. 

Tene.  Col. 

Lieut. 

Capt. 

Sous  Lt. 

2nd  Lt. 

Adj. 

Sgt. 

Sous  Lieut. 


INDIVIDUAL  PISTOL    MATCH WINNERS 

United  States.  412  Kelley,  Michael. 

France 165  Pecchia,  Joseph. 

Portugal 306  Martins,  Antonio  da  Silva  . 

Italy 263  Santena,  Pacifico. 

Canada 58  Kaufman,  Edwin  J. 

Belgium 7  Requile,  Mathieu. 

Roumania....  351  Amuzcescu,  G.  Giu. 

Greece 201  Vrassivanopoulos,  A. 


Nation 
France 
Italy 
France 
Italy 

France 
Belgium 
Portugal 
Italy 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Italy 

France 

Roumania 

Portugal 

France 

Roumania 

Italy 

Belgium 

Italy 

Roumania 

Belgium 

Roumania 

Belgium 

Italy 

Portugal 

Italy 

Roumania 

Greece 

Belgium 

Greece 

Roumania 

BY    NATIONS 

M.E.S.G. 

Sergeant. 

Lieut. 

Maresciallo. 

Captain. 

Lieut. 

Sergeant. 

Private. 


Score 

445 

441 

439 

437 

434 

432 

427 

424 

423 

415 

412 

407 

404 

402 

388 

386 

380 

371 

350 

349 

344 

344 

337 

334 

324 

321 

315 

313 

308 

303 

297 

292 

281 

261 

249 

191 


669 
635 
596 
575 
566 
539 
507 
494 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 
The  relative  standing  of  the  teams  was  as  follows  : 


285 


Order  of  Merit 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Score 


Name 


United  States. 

France 

Italy 

Portugal 

Belgium 

Roumania  .  .  . 


25  yds 

50  yds 

Total 

2,266 

1,814 

4,080 

2,113 

1,715 

3,828 

1^969 

1,400 

3,369 

1,951 

1,329 

3,280 

1,900 

1,304 

3,204 

1,798 

1,116 

2,913 

The  relative  standing  of  the  teams  with  the  scores  of  the  indi- 
viduals therein  was  as  follows  : 


Ord.of  Serial 

Merit 

No. 

Name 

Rank 

Nation            Score 

1 

419 

Raymond,  D.  R. 

Capt. 

United  States      427 

2 

412 

Kelley,  Michael. 

M.E.S.G. 

»» 

421 

3 

407 

Evans,  P.  W. 

Lt.  Col. 

" 

413 

4 

411 

Johnson,  James  F. 

1st  Lt. 

" 

413 

5 

401 

Bird,  Paul. 

Cpl. 

" 

412 

6 

409 

Grifiin,  Lloyd  E. 

1st  Lt. 

" 

411 

7 

405 

Dell,  James  W. 

Col.  Sgt. 

" 

409 

8 

400 

Beverley,  J.  R. 

1st  Lt. 

" 

400 

9 

402 

Bittel,  Edward. 

Lt.  Col. 

" 

389 

10 

414 

LaMotte,  C.  K. 

Lt.  Col. 

" 

385 

1 

155 

De  Castelbajac. 

Capt. 

France 

413 

2 

158 

Gandon,  Henri. 

Demob. 

" 

412 

3 

172 

Vaudiau,  Pierre. 

Capt. 

" 

393 

4 

161 

Barbillat. 

Com't. 

" 

393 

5 

167 

Renard,  Leon. 

Capt. 

" 

391 

6 

165 

Pecchia,  Joseph. 

Sgt. 

" 

387 

7 

160 

Guizien,  Louis. 

Lieut. 

" 

380 

8 

162 

Mazuc,  Fernand  A. 

Demob. 

" 

372 

9 

164 

Moreaux,  Leon. 

Com't  demob. 

" 

354 

10 

157 

DeVarine,  Bohan  P. 

Capt. 

" 

333 

1 

265 

Sarorari,  Ferruccio. 

Tenente 

Italy 

384 

2 

260 

Piersantelli,  Emilio. 

Tene.  Col. 

365 

3 

264 

Sanguini,  Plinio. 

Capitano 

354 

4 

262 

Santena,  Amedeo. 

Vice-Brig. 

353 

5 

250 

Ascani,  Ascanio. 

Sott.  Ten. 

349 

6 

267 

Somma,  Umberto. 

Colonello. 

330 

7 

251 

Borgia,  Carlo. 

Tene.  Col. 

329 

8 

263 

Santena,  Pacifico. 

Maresciallo. 

329 

9 

266 

Simanotti,  Achille. 

Colonello. 

311 

10 

261 

Ruffo,  Giuseppe. 

Tene.  Col. 

" 

265 

I 

306 

Martins,  Antonio  da  Sil. 

Lieut. 

Portugal 

390 

2 

308 

Montez,  Antonio  Duarte 

2nd  Lieut. 

)) 

367 

286 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Ord.of  Serial 

Merit 

No. 

3 

304 

4 

301 

5 

303 

6 

302 

7 

307 

8 

300 

9 

309 

10 

310 

1 

7 

2 

3 

3 

2 

4 

13 

5 

1 

6 

10 

7 

5 

8 

8 

9 

12 

10 

4 

1 

353 

2 

352 

3 

355 

4 

364 

5 

354 

6 

358 

7 

351 

8 

361 

9 

350 

10 

363 

Name                         Rank  Nation  Score 

Gomes,  Jose  Oliveira.         Lt.  Col.  Portugal                341 

Carvalho,  Anton.  Joaq.     1st  Sgt.  "                       341 

Ferreiva,  Ant.  Soaros  A.     Capt.  "                       336 

Dores,  Amadeu  Salgado.     1st  Sgt.  "  323 
Mendonca,     Francisco 

Paulo  dos  Santos.  2d  Lieut.  "  319 

Cannas,  Dario.  2d  Lieut.  "  309 

DeNeronna,  D.  Eugenio.  Ensign.  "  291 

Rebelo,  Hirminio.  Capt.  "  263 

Requile,  Mathieu.  Lieut.  Belgium  371 

Demart,  Emile.  Major  "  370 

Cloos,  Silvain.  Capt.  "  364 

Thauvin,  Jean.          •  Capt.  "  328 

Adriaenssens,  Conrad.  1st  Sgt.  "  311 

Jassens,  Charles.  Sgt.  "  310 

Massui,  Oscar.  Com't.  "  304 

Schmits,  Pierre.  Major.  "  302 

Berkmans,  Charles.  Capt.  "  275 

Ghoude,  Paul.  Lieut.'  "  269 

Baciu,  N.  Niculae.  Plut.  Maj.        Roumania  363 

Balanescu,  J.  Constant.  Sous  Lt.  "  336 

Iliescu,  Jean.  Lieut.  "  332 

Yonoscu,  Virgil.  Sous  Lieut.  "  331 

Ghitescu  N.  Vasile.  Major.  "  302 

Rosea,  Stefan  N.  Caporal  "  296 

Amuzescu,  G.  Giu.  Sgt.  "  275 

Sontica,  G.  Gh.  Sgt.  "  252 

Adamiu,  Illie.  Sous  Lt.  "  223 

Sava,  Joan  N.  Caporal  "  203 


SWIMMING 


HE  Inter-Allied  Swimming  championships  did  not  have  all 
the  world's  greatest  swimmers  as  competitors,  but  among 
theses  participating  were  enough  men  of  wide  international 
reputation  to  make  the  series  stand  out  as  one  of  the 
greatest  championships  in  natation  that  was  ever  held. 

Nine  countries  were  represented  by  the  aggregation  of  swimmers 
gathered  to  compete  for  the  honors  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  Cham- 
pionships— a  greater  number  of  nations  than  took  part  in  the  natation 
events  of  the  last  Olympic  Games.  Furthermore,  the  contestants  of 
the  Allied  Armies  were  more  truly  representative  of  nations  and  races 
than  were  the  contestants  at  the  last  Olympiad.  True,  Austria  and 
Germany  were  strong  competitors  in  the  Olympiad  mentioned  and, 
for  obvious  reasons,  were  not  represented  in  the  events  of  22  June  to 
1  July  in  the  Inter-Allied  Swimming  Championships  at  Lake  St.  James, 
Bois  de  Boulogne,  Paris.  But  other  nations,  not  in  the  hsts  of  the 
Stockholm  meet,  much  more  than  satisfactorily  filled  their  places 
at  Lake  St.  James. 

The  countries  which  sent  in  entries  for  the  events  were  France,  Bel- 
gium, Italy,  Portugal,  Roumania,  Serbia,  Canada,  Australia,  and  the 
United  States. 

Most  of  the  best  swimmers  of  these  countries  were  entered  as  com- 
petitors, though  in  a  few  cases  certain  countries  did  not  have  indivi- 
dual champions  in  all  the  events,  the  war  having  played  havoc  in  the 
ranks  of  swimmers  as  among  the  exponents  of  other  sports. 

The  fresh,  clear  waters  of  the  beautiful  Mare  St.  James  in  the  world 
famous  Bois  de  Boulogne,  furnished  probably  the  most  picturesque 
setting  ever  given  to  a  great  swimming  meet.  The  natural  beauty 
of  the  lake  was  enhanced  by  the  artistic  decorations  of  the  course 
with  festoons  of  the  flags  of  all  nations  while  surrounding  the  entire 
cove  were  boxes  built  for  spectators,  these  also  being  handsomely 
decorated.  The  course  itself  was  of  the  standard  100-metre  length 
used  in  all  international  contests  of  such  magnitude.  Permanent 
starting  and  turning  platforms  were  built  at  each  end  of  the  course  by 
the  American  engineers  who  had  also  accurately  surveyed  and  attested 


See  pages  401  409  417  425  for  swimming  pictures. 


288  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

to  the  course  itself.  The  width  of  each  platform  was  25  meters.  The 
full  100  metres  at  each  side  of  the  course  was  outlined  with  ropes,  a 
float  bearing  the  flag  of  one  of  the  competing  nations  being  placed 
every  twenty  meters  to  define  the  course  still  more  clearly. 

The  names  of  such  men  as  Norman  Ross,  Biddle  and  Gardner, 
United  States,  Bacigalupo  and  Massa,  Italy,  Longworth,  Hardwick 
and  Solomons,  Australia,  Sommer,  Lehu  and  Rigal,  France,  and 
Boin,  Belgium,  stand  for  swimming  ability  and  reputation  throughout 
the  world.  These  men  were  the  stars  of  the  meet.  Many  of  the 
European  competitors  had  previously  contested  and  won  Olympic 
championships  at  Stockholm  in  1912. 

Without  question  the  greatest  individual  star  of  the  meet  was 
Lieutenant  Norman  Ross  of  the  United  States  Air  Service.  Ross 
was  entered  in  the  100-meter  free  style,  100-meter  back  stroke,  400- 
meter  free  style,  800-meter  free  style  and  1500-meter  free  style  and, 
by  winning  every  one  of  these  races  in  which  he  started,  set  a  mark 
hi  international  swimming  that  has  never  before  been  attained.  Besides 
winning  these  final  races,  he  also  had  to  swim  in  heats  and  in  some 
instances  in  semifinals  before  he  defeated  the  picked  natators  of 
the  world.  He  was  also  the  star  player  of  the  United  States  water- 
polo  team  which  was  defeated  by  France  four  goals  to  three,  Ross 
netting  two  of  the  United  States  goals.  Besides  all  this  he  swam 
the  final  two  hundred  meters  in  the  relay  race. 

No  other  swimmer  was  able  to  cope  with  the  skill,  speed  and 
endurance  of  Ross.  The  hardest  race  of  the  American  champion 
was  the  final  one  in  the  100-meter  free  style  when  Solomons  of  Aus- 
tralia swam  into  second  place  three  seconds  behind  him.  The  Aus- 
tralian team,  which  took  second  place  in  the  score  column  with 
14  points  to  21  scored  by  the  United  States,  was  a  remarkably 
well  balanced  aggregation.  The  Australians,  Longworth,  Hardwick, 
and  Solomons,  backed  up  by  Stedman,  Dexter,  Springfield  and 
others,  showed  striking  consistency  in  taking  the  second  and  third  places. 

In  the  heats  and  semifinals  of  practically  all  events  the  French, 
Italians  and  Belgians  swam  well  and  qualified  some  of  their  men  to 
go  into  the  finals.  But  in  the  last  test  the  swimmers  of  the  United 
States  and  Australia  proved  too  strong  for  the  entries  of  their  Allies, 
France  alone,  in  the  person  of  Somer,  being  the  only  other  country 
to  register  a  first  place  in  any  of  the  races.  This  victory  was  in  the 
200-meter  breast  stroke,  in  which  Hallard,  also  of  France,  took  third 
place.     Bacigalupo  swam  into  a  meritorious  third  place   in  the  1500- 


Top— Italian  soccer  team.    Bottom— Czecho-Slovakian  soccer  team,  wimier  of  championship. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  291 

meter  free  style  by  defeating  Springfield  and  Morris,  both  of  Australia, 
in  one  of  the  most  exciting  races  for  a  place  held  during  the  meet. 

Belgium,  France,  Portugal,  and  the  United  States  were  entered 
in  the  water  polo  championship,  the  men  from  Belgium  eventually 
proving  themselves  the  champions  at  this  game.  Water  Polo  is  one 
of  the  great  aquatic  sports  of  Europe  and  the  French  and  Belgian 
teams  both  appeared  to  advantage  in  the  games  they  played.  In 
the  first  contest  the  United  States  met  France  and  an  exciting  struggle 
resulted  in  the  victory  of  the  French  whose  team  work  proved  too  heavy 
a  handicap  for  the  Americans.  By  a  series  of  clever  passes  and  other 
evidences  of  thorough  team  coordination  the  French,  through  Rigal 
and  Lehu,  scored  four  goals,  the  former  netting  three.  Of  the  three 
goals  scored  by  the  United  States  two  were  made  by  Ross  and  one 
by  Rogers. 

The  second  game  of  the  series  was  to  have  been  played  between 
Portugal  and  Belgium,  but  through  an  accident  to  one  of  its  players 
Portugal  was  unable  to  go  into  the  game,  thus  forfeiting  to  Belgium. 
This  brought  Belgium  and  France  together  for  the  final  contest  to 
decide  the  championship.  The  game  was  played  on  1  July.  At 
half  time  Belgium  had  scored  one  goal  through  Fleuriex  and  France 
had  been  unable  to  score.  In  the  second  period  the  contest  was 
just  as  close.  Towards  the  end  the  Belgian  teamwork  was  at  its  best 
when  Gludts  and  Steffens  both  secured  goals  making  the  final  score, 
Belgium  three,  France  nothing. 

The  results  of  the  entire  program  follow: 
100-Meter  Free  Style,  27  June: 

First  Heat — Won  by  N.  Ross,  United  States;  Stedman,  Australia, 
second;  F.  Frassinett,  Italy,  third;  J.  Gludts,  Belgium,  fourth. 
Time,  64  1-5  sec. 

Second  Heat — Won  by  L.  Solomons,  Australia;  M.  Massa,  Italy, 
second;  G.  Pouille,  France,  third.  Time,  70  1-5  sec. 

Third  Heat — Won  by  J.  Hincks,  United  States;  J.  Dexter,  Aus- 
tralia, second;  M.  Pernod,  France,  third.  Time,  67  2-5  sec. 

Fourth  Heat— Won  by  S.  Biddle,  United  States;  J.  Wuyts,  Bel- 
gium, second;  G.  Kustermann,  third.  Time,  72  sec. 
100-Meter  Free  Style,  28  June: 

First  Heat — Won  by  N.  Ross,  United  States;  Solomons,  Australia, 
second;  M.  Massa,  Italy,  third.  Time,  1  m.  8  1-5  sec. 

Second  Heat — Won  by  J.  Hincks,    United  States;  Stedman,  Aus- 
tralia, second;  J.  Dexter,  AustraHa,  third.  Time,  1  m.  10  2-5  sec. 


292  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

100-Meter  Free  Style,  Finals,  30  June: 

Won  by  N.   Ross,   United  States;  Solomons,  Australia,  second; 
Stedman,  Australia,  third.  Time,  64  3-5  sec. 
400-Meter  Free  Style,  Trials,  26  June: 

First  Heat— Won  by  N.  Ross,  United  States;  Hardwick,  Australia, 

second;  Frassinett,  Italy,  third.  Time,  6  m.  11  sec. 
Second    Heat— Won    by    Longworth,    Australia;    Biddle,    United 

States,  second;  Belleza,  Italy,  third.  Time,  6  m.  41  sec. 
Third  Heat— Won  by  Stedman,  Australia;  Massa,  Italy,  second; 
Manly,   United  States,  third;   Mayand,   France,   fourth.   Time 
6  m.  7  1-5  sec. 
400-Meter  Free  Style,  Finals,  28  June: 

Won  by  N.  Ross,  United  States;  Longworth,  AustraHa,  second; 
Stedman,  Australia,  third.  Time,  5  m.  40  2-5  sec. 
800-Meter  Free  Style,  Trials,  26  June: 

First  Heat — Won  by  Bacigalupo,  Italy;  Morris,  Australia,  second; 

Lang,  United  States,  third.  Time,  13  m.  51  1-5  sec. 
Second  Heat — Won  by  Ross,  United  States,  Hardwick,  Austraha, 
second;  Costa,  Italy,  third;  Nivet,  France,  fourth.  Time,  13  m. 
10  4-5  sec. 
Third    Heat — Won    by    Longworth,    Australia;    Douglas,    United 
States,  second;  Duvanel,  France,  third.  Time,  14  m.  7  1-7  sec. 
800-Meter  Free  Style,  Finals,  1  July: 

Won  by  Ross,  United  States;  Longworth,  Australia,  second;  Hard- 
wick, Australia,  third.  Time,  12  m.  34  sec. 
100-Mefer  Back  Stroke,  Trials,  26  June: 

First  Heat — Won  by  Ross,  United  States;  Lehu,  France,  second; 

Derwin,  Belgium,  third.  Time,  1  m.  32  2-5  sec. 
Second   Heat — Won  by  Biddle,   United  States,   Gardner,   United 
States,  second;  Dujardin,  France,  third.  Time  1  m.  36  1-5  sec. 
100-Mefer  Back  Stroke,  Finals,  28  June: 

Won  by  Ross,  United  States;  Gardner,  United  States,  second;  Lehu, 

France,  third.  Time,  1  m.  31  2-5  sec. 
200-Meter  Breast  Stroke,  Trials,  27  June: 

First  Heat — Won  by  Biersack,   United  States;   Hallard,   France, 

second;  Everaerts,  Belgium,  third.  Time,  3  m.  26  4-5  sec. 
Second    Heat — Won    by    Sommer,    France;    Delahaye,    Belgium, 

second;  Hewell,  third.  Time,  3  m.  26  2-5  sec. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  293 

Third  Heat— Won  by  Neeck,  Belgium;  Hermant,  France,  second; 
Monahan,  United  States,  third.  Time,  3  m.  28  3-5  sec. 
200-Me/er  Breast  Stroke,  Finals,  30  June: 

Won  by  Sommer,  France;  Biersack,  United  States,  second;  Hallard, 
France,  third.  Time,  3  m.  24  2-5  sec. 
I,b00-Meter  Free  Style,  Trials,  27  June: 

First  Heat— Won  by  Bacigalupo,  Italy;  Springfield,  Australia, 
second;  Chretien,  France,  third;  Long,  United  States,  fourth. 
Time,  26  m.  2  2-5  sec. 
Second  Heat— Won  by  Ross,  United  States;  Hardwick,  Australia, 
second;  Morris,  Australia,  third;  Costa,  Italy,  fourth.  Time, 
24  m.  30  1-5  sec. 
1,500-Mefer  Free  Style,  Finals,  30  June: 

Won  by  Ross,  United  States;  Hardwick,  Australia,  second;  Baci- 
galupo,   Italy,    third,    Springfield,    Australia,    fourth;    Morris, 
Australia,  fifth.  Time,  24  m.  22  2-5  sec. 
800-Meter  Relay,  1  July: 

Won  by  Australia — Hardwick,  Steadman,  Longworth,  Dexter. 
Second,  United  States — Ross,  Hincks,  Biddle,  Gardner. 
Third,  Italy — ^Bacigalupo,  Costa,  Massa,  Frassinetti. 
Time,  10  m.  11  1-5  sec. 
Water-Polo,  26  June: 

France,  4  goals. — ^United  States,     3  goals. 

France — Decium,  Pernet,  Rigal,  Dujardin,  Vanlaer,  Jourarit,  Lehu. 
U.  S. — Rogers,  Manly,  Gardner,  Douglas,  McDonald,  Scarry,  Ross. 
Goals — France,  Lehu  1,  Rigal  3;  U.  S.,  Ross  2,  Rogers  1. 
Water  Polo,  28  June: 

Belgium. — ^Portugal  withdrew. 
Water  Polo,  1  July: 

Belgium,  3 — ^France,  0 

France — Dujardin,  Perned,  Decein,  Rigal,  Lehu,  Meister,  Jonault. 
Belgium — Durand,  Bein,  Steffens,  Deman,  Cludts,  Fleuriex,  Derwin. 
Goals — ^France,  0;  Belgium,  Fleuriex  1,  Cludts  1,  Steffens  1. 
Lt.  Rogers,  U.S.A.,  referee. 
Final  Score: 

The  final  official  score  made  by  the  contesting  countries  follows: 
United  States,  21 
Australia,  14 

France,  5 

Italy,  2 


TENNIS 


EATURED  by  brilliant  and  hard-fought  matches  in  every 
event,  the  Inter-Allied  Tennis  competition,  contested  by 
the  court  stars  of  seven  nations  and  completed  before 
the  actual  Games  themselves,  proved  a  triumph  for  France 
and  Australia.  With  the  three  Antipodean  players,  Pat  O'Hara-Wood, 
G.  L.  Patterson  and  Lycett  at  top  speed,  the  Australians  threatened 
to  make  a  clean  sweep  on  the  courts.  That  complete  victory  was 
denied  them,  however,  when  Andre  H.  Gobert,  France's  leading  player, 


Gobert 

of  Prance, 

winner  of 

Tennis 

Singles 

championship. 


O'Hara-Wood 
of  Australia, 
runner  up  in 
Tennis 
Singles 
championship. 


defeated  O'Hara-Wood  forthe  individual  championship.  Australia  had 
to  be  content  with  the  doubles  title,  team  championship,  and  runner-up 
honors  in  the  individual  match.  America's  best  bid  was  in  the  doubles 
in  which  Watson  Washburn  and  Dean  Mathey,  two  old  intercollegiate 
and  "  Big  Ten  "  stars  lasted  through  the  finals. 

Gobert  and  the  three  Australians  stand  out  in  a  field  of  fast  players; 
Gobert,  former  doubles  champion  of  England,  has  been  one  of  France's 
leading  players  since  1911.  Blessed  with  great  height  and  an  immense 
reach,  his  ubiquitous  racquet  is  equally  disconcerting  on  either  the 

See  pages  133  441  for  tennis  pictures. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    PARIS  295 

back  or  upcourt.  His  play  in  the  individual  and  team  championships 
in  singles  was  unconquerable. 

Pat  O'Hara-Wood,  Victoria  champion  in  singles,  who,  paired  with 
his  brother  Arthur,  killed  during  the  war,  had  also  been  Victoria  cham- 
pion in  doubles,  possesses  a  speedy  forehand  drive  down  the  line 
which  is  disconcertingly  accurate  and  is  his  most  brilliant  shot.  His 
defeat  of  Patterson,  in  a  long,  five-set  match,  proved  his  mettle. 
Lycett,  teamed  with  O'Hara-Wood,  lived  up  to  his  reputation 
as  one  of  the  most  dangerous  doubles  players  in  Australia.  G.  L.  Pat- 
terson, who  contributed  materially  to  the  victory  in  the  team  event, 
is  recalled  as  the  19-year-old  stripling  who  just  before  the  war  was 
runner-up  to  Arthur  O'Hara-Wood  in  the  Australian  championship. 
Possessor  of  a  tremendous  service  and  smash  and  a  heavily  topped 
drive  on  both  forehand  and  backhand  which  he  hits  with  the  same 
face  of  the  racquet,  his  one  fault  is  a  bit  of  unsteadiness  off  the  ground. 
The  other  Australian  entry  was  Ronald  V.  Thomas,  South  Australian 
champion,  who  plays  a  sound  all-round  game. 

The  singles  and  doubles  were  played  on  the  courts  of  the  Racing 
Club  of  France,  ideally  situated  in  the  beautiful  Bois  de  Boulogne. 
The  team  event  was  staged  at  the  Stade  Frangais,  in  the  Bois  de 
Boulogne.     Excellent  weather  prevailed  throughout  the  week  of  play. 

Australia,  France,  America,  Canada,  Roumania,  Czecho-Slovakia, 
Serbia  and  Belgium  sent  representatives. 

The  American  entries  were  Captain  Watson  Washburn,  Lieutenant 
Dean  Mathey,  Lieutenant  Harry  C.  Breck,  Mr.  Arthur  Sweetser  and 
Captain  Neil  C.  Stevens.  Washburn  and  Mathey  were  known  to  all 
American  tennis  enthusiasts  as  members  of  the  "Big  Ten"  before 
they  came  across.  Sweetser,  a  demobilized  ofTicer,  was  at  one  time 
captain  of  the  Harvard  tennis  team.  Breck,  a  typically  violent  Cali- 
fornia player  from  Leland  Stanford  University,  some  years  ago  played 
Billie  Johnston  five  sets  for  a  sectional  championship.  The  New 
Jersey  championship  was  once  won  by  Stevens.  All  of  these  five 
players  won  the  right  to  represent  the  United  States  by  eliminating 
other  Americans. 

Samazeuilh,  of  Bordeaux,  the  best  tennis  player  in  the  south  of 
France,  is  short  and  stocky.  His  play  resulted  in  a  dogged  backcourt 
game  that  twice  overcame  the  hard-hitting  but  erratic  Roumanian, 
Mishu. 

Brugnon,  one  of  the  most  promising  French  players,  who  defeated 
Washburn  in  the  French  indoor  and  Mathey  in  the  outdoor  cham- 


296  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

pionship,  has  no  peculiar  strokes,  a  well-rounded  game  with  an 
American  service  being  his  mainstay. 

The  French  champion,  Decugis,  had  not  shown  to  advantage 
during  the  season.  He  has  been  one  of  the  leading  players  of  the 
Continent  for  the  past  fifteen  years  but  seems  to  have  difficulty  in 
coming  back.     He  was  teamed  with  Gobert  in  doubles. 

Temperament  was  one  of  the  chief  characteristics  of  the  Rouma- 
nians. The  team  consisted  of  Nicholas  Mishu,  Horace  Eremie,  Rosetti- 
Balanescu,  Mihail  Stern  and  Serge  Lecca.  Mishu,  the  Roumanian 
champion,  has  a  wide  assortment  of  strokes  and  jokes  often  spoken 
of.  In  the  tournament,  although  he  lost  matches  to  Samazeuilh  and 
Gobert,  his  good-natured  rivalry  and  serious  actions  made  him  a  winner 
with  the  spectators. 

Captain  Horace  Eremie,  one  of  Roumania's  two  delegates  to  the 
Inter-Allied  Games,  also  represented  his  country  in  the  courts.  Though 
woefully  short  of  practice  he  endeared  himself  to  all  by  his  enthusiasm 
and  sportsmanship. 

Stern,  who  arrived  with  Lecca  from  Bucharest  only  the  day  before 
the  tournament  began,  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  tennis  in  Roumania 
and  held  the  championship  there  from  1907  to  1912  inclusive.  Owing 
to  lack  of  practice  he  could  not  do  himself  justice.  His  speech  at  the 
tennis  dinner  given  to  the  players  quite  brought  down  the  house. 
It's  text  was:   "Poland  regretted;   Greece  wrote;   Roumania  came  !" 

Of  the  Czecho-Slovaks,  the  Kozeluh  Brothers  and  Burianek  were 
professionals.  The  former  showed  a  very  sound  backcourt  game, 
something  on  the  style  of  Froitzheim. 

Josef  Kozeluh  was  runner-up  in  a  professional  tournament  in  Ger- 
many before  the  war.  Not  having  had  much  experience  in  match 
play  both  brothers  were  inclined  to  weaken  in  the  pinches. 

Ladislav  Zemla  won  third  prize  in  doubles  in  the  Olympic  Games 
in  Athens  in  1906,  played  in  the  Olympic  Games  Tournament  in  London 
in  1908,  and  won  fourth  prize  in  singles  in  Stockholm  in  1912.  At 
the  outbreak  of  tho  war  he  was  an  officer  in  the  Austrian  Army,  but 
deserted  to  the  Russians,  like  400,000  of  his  countrymen,  and  fought 
as  an  officer  in  the  Russian-Czeck  Legion  until  the  Russian  collapse. 
After  this  he  enlisted  as  a  private  for  service  in  France  with  the  Czech 
Legion,  coming  to  France  by  way  of  Archangel.  He  earned  another 
commission  in  France.     The  fifth  Czecho-Slovakian  entry  was  Zeman. 

Only  one  entry,  Lt.  Col.  H.  G.  Mayes,  represented  Canada,  and 
he  defaulted  after  winning  his  first  match  because  of  orders  calling 


Top— French  soccer  team,  runners-up.     Boitom— Roumanian  soccer  team. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  299 

him  from  Paris.     Colonel  Mayes  represented  Canada  in  the  Davis 
Cup  preliminaries  at  Lake  Forest  in  1914  against  Brookes  and  Wilding. 

The  Serbians  had  Zatka  Zagar,  Nedric  Mirlta,  Julie  Brucker,  and 
Boto  Popovitch  as  representatives.  Many  of  their  matches  were 
defaulted  by  them,  so  little  can  be  judged  of  their  playing. 

Belgium  was  not  entered  in  the  individual  championship,  but 
Washer  and  Lammens  took  part  in  the  team  tournament.  Washer, 
the  Belgian  titleholder,  played  a  steady  back-court  game,  seldom 
taking  the  net.     Lammens  was  his  partner  in  doubles. 

Play  in  the  individual  singles  began  at  the  Racing  Club  on  26  May 
with  thirty  entries.  The  club,  one  of  the  most  famous  in  France, 
possesses  splendid  courts.  These  and  the  stands  were  decorated 
with  flags  and  bunting  of  the  Allied  nations.  In  spite  of  transporta- 
tion difficulties  occasioned  by  the  subway  strike,  big  crowds  were 
always  on  hand. 

The  championship  was  conducted  as  an  ordinary  tournament  except 
that  no  nation  could  enter  more  than  five  singles  players  and  two 
doubles  pairs.     Matches  were  won  by  the  best  three  out  of  five  sets. 

Officials  were  chosen  from  contestants  in  the  A.E.F.  tournament 
held  in  Paris  in  May.  Allied  players  also  served  as  referees  and  linemen. 
Officials  proved  satisfactory  and  there  were  no  disputed  decisions. 

Among  the  distinguished  guests  and  spectators  at  various  times 
throughout  the  play  were  General  Pershing  and  the  members  of  his 
staff,  Mr.  Bonar  Law,  Mr.  Balfour  and  several  officers  of  the  French 
and  Roumanian  services. 

Gobert  won  the  individual  championship  of  the  Allied  nations  by 
disposing  in  turn  of  such  experts  as  K.  Kozeluh,  Washburn  and  O'Hara- 
Wood.  Although  having  a  reputation  for  erratic  and  inconsistent 
play,  he  belied  this  and  none  of  his  victories  were  for  long  in  doubt. 
His  terrific  first  serve  scored  many  aces  and  his  beautiful  side  drives 
won  point  after  point  as  well  as  lowering  his  opponent's  morale.  Some 
of  his  returns  were  made  after  the  opposing  player  had  already  counted 
the  point  as  won. 

O'Hara-Wood  fought  his  way  to  the  finals  over  Sweetser,  Patterson 
and  Samazeuilh  only  to  fall  an  easy  victim  to  the  champion.  His 
play  was  consistent  until  this  last  match  in  which  he  displayed  his 
poorest  tennis.  In  his  five-set  match  with  his  team-mate,  Patterson, 
the  spectators  were  treated  to  an  exhibition  of  clever  service,  driving 
and  lobbing  from  start  to  finish.  The  victory  was  in  doubt  until 
the  final  point,  for  both  players  are  extremely  versatile. 


300  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

In  the  doubles,  O'Hara-Wood  and  Lycett  won  from  Washburn 
and  Mathey  in  the  final  of  four  sets.  This  team  worked  perfectly 
together  and,  outside  of  their  thrilling  love-set  match  with  the  Kozeluh 
brothers,  they  had  clear  sailing.  Washburn  and  Mathey  gained  a 
noteworthy  victory  over  the  other  Australian  team,  Patterson- 
Thomas,  in  the  semifinals.  The  result  of  this  match  kept  the  large 
crowd  of  enthusiastic  rooters  until  after  hours.  The  fifth  set  was 
won  at  12-10. 

The  following  are  the    results  of  the    Individual   championship 
played  at  the  Racing  Club  de  France,  26  May-1  June,  1919: 
Singles: 

Preliminary  round — 

Gobert,  France,  defeated  Stern,  Roumania,  6-2,  6-1,  6-1. 
K.    Kozeluh,   Czecho-Slovakia,    defeated   Mirlta,    Serbia,   6-0, 

6-0,   6-0. 
Rosetti-Balanescu,  Roumania,  defeated  Manset,  France,  6-1, 

6-4,  6-0. 
Washburn,  America,   defeated  Zeman,   Czecho-Slovakia,  6-4, 

7-5,  6-4. 
Brugnon,  France,  defeated  Zagar,  Serbia,  by  default. 
Breck,  America,  defeated  Burianek,  Czecho-Slovakia,  6-2,  7-5, 

5-7,  5-7,  6-3. 
Lycett,  Australia,  defeated  J.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  7-5, 

1-6,  3-6,  11-9,  6-3. 
Patterson,   Australia,    defeated   Sweetser,   America,   6-2,   7-5, 

2-6,  7-5. 
Zemla,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Decugis,  France,  6-2,  6-4, 
4-6,  6-4. 

O'Hara  Wood,  Australia,  defeated  Stevens,  America,  2-6,  6-4, 

6-3,  6-1. 
Mathey,  America,  defeated  Brucker,  Serbia,  by  default. 
Mishu,  Roumania,  defeated  Thomas,  Australia,  6-3,  7-5,  6-8, 

6-1. 

Samazeuilh,  France,  defeated  Lecca,  Roumania,  6-2,  6-0,  6-1. 
First  round — 

Gobert,  France,  defeated  Eremie,  Roumania,  6-0,  6-2,  6-1. 
K.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Rosetti-Balanescu,  Rou- 
mania, 6-0,  7-5,  6-1. 
Washburn,  America,  defeated  Brugnon,  France,  6-3,  6-2,  6-4. 
Breck,  America,  defeated  Lycett,  Australia,  6-1 , 6-3, 8-10, 3-6, 6-3. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  301 

Patterson,   Australia,   defeated   Zemla,   Czecho-Slovakia    6-1 
6-4,  6-2. 

O'Hara-Wood,  Australia,  defeated  Mathey,  America,  6-3,  6-4 
6-3. 

Samazeuilh,  France,  defeated  Mishu,  Roumania,  5-7,  6-4,  7-5 
1-6,  6-4. 

Mayes,  Canada,  defeated  Popovitch,  Serbia,  6-0,  6-0,  6-0. 
Second  round — 

Gobert,  France,  defeated  K.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  6-2, 

7-5,  8-6. 
Washburn,  America,  defeated  Breck,  America,   1-6,  6-1,  6-4, 

6-2. 
O'Hara-Wood,  Australia,  defeated  Patterson,    Australia,  6-4, 

7-9,  6-2,  2-6,  7-5. 
Samazeuilh,  France,  defeated  Mayes,  Canada,  by  default. 
Semi-final  round — 

Gobert,  France,  defeated  Washburn,  America,  6-2,  6-3,  4-6, 

6-2. 
O'Hara-Wood,    Australia,   defeated  Samazeuilh,   France,  6-4, 

6-2,  8-6. 
Finals — • 

Gobert,  France,   defeated  O'Hara  Wood,  Australia,  6-2,  6-2, 

6-1. 

Doubles: 

Preliminary  round — 

Washburn-Mathey,       America,     defeated      Brugnon-Manset, 
France,  6-0,  7-5,  3-6,  6-2. 

Zemla-Burianek,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Mirlta-Popovitch, 
Serbia,  by  default. 

O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,     Australia,    defeated  Kozeluh-Kozeluh, 
Czecho-Slovakia,  5-7,  6-3,  3-6,  6-4,  6-2. 
First  round — 

Thomas-Patterson,     Australia,     defeated     Stern-Lecca,     Rou- 
mania, 6-1,  6-1,  6-1. 

Washburn-Mathey,  America,   defeated   Zemla-Burianek,   Cze- 
cho-Slovakia, 1-6,  6-3,  6-8,  6-4,  6-2. 

O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,  Australia,  defeated  Mishu-Eremie,  Rou- 
mania, 6-4,  6-1,  6-3. 

Gobert-Decugis,    France,    defeated  Breck-Sweetser,    America, 
3-6,  6-3,  6-2,  6-3. 


302  THE  INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Semi-fmal  round— 

Washburn-Mathey,  America,  defeated  Thomas-Patterson,  Aus- 
tralia, 3-6,  6-4,  4-6,  6-1,  12-10. 
O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,     Australia,     defeated     Gobert-Decugis, 
France,  6-4,  6-3,  6-3. 

Finals^- 

O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,  Australia,  defeated  Washburn-Mathey, 
America,  6-1,  4-6,  6-1,  6-3. 

The   team    championship    event  succeeded  the  individual  event. 

The  Stade  Francais  club  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  France. 
Its  spacious  grounds  for  tennis,  cricket,  soccer,  Rugby  and  track 
afford  a  most  excellent  place  for  followers  of  these  sports.  The  courts 
are  twelve  in  number  with  one  well  situated  for  grandstand  play. 
This  latter  court  is  of  red  clay.  The  stands  rise  up  on  all  four  sides. 
The  club  house  is  larger  than  the  one  at  the  Racing  Club,  with  spa- 
cious dressing  rooms. 

In  this  tournament  there  were  also  seven  nations  represented. 
Canada  dropped  out  and  Belgium  placed  entries.  The  play  started 
2  June  and  ended  8  June.  Each  nation  entered  two  singles  players 
and  one  double  pair.  The  matches  were  played  according  to  the 
Davis  Cup  scheme;  that  is,  each  singles  player  played  the  opposing 
two  singles  players  and  there  was  one  doubles  contest.  In  each 
match  between  nations  there  were,  therefore,  four  singles  matches 
and  one  doubles  unless  one  nation  could  win  the  necessary  three  out 
of  five  in  the  first  three  or  four  contests.  The  nations  were  drawn 
against  each  other  just  as  the  players  in  a  tournament. 

Austraha  proved  to  have  the  best  balanced  team  and  won  by 
defeating  Serbia,  France  and  America.  O'Hara-Wood  and  Patterson 
were  responsible  for  the  singles  victories  and  the  former,  teamed 
with  Lycett,  defeated  all  opponents  in  doubles. 

America  was  represented  by  Washburn  and  Mathey,  France  by 
Gobert,  Samazeuilh  and  Decugis,  Roumania  by  Mishu  and  Eremie, 
Belgium  by  Washer  and  Lammens,  and  Czecho-Slovakia  by  K.  Koze- 
luh,  J.  Kozeluh,  Zemla  and  Burianek. 

The  Serbians  defaulted  all  matches,  although  entered,  in  order 
to  fill  an  earlier  engagement  to  give  a  demonstration  of  the  Sokol 
system  of  gymnastics  at  Nancy. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  303 

The  following  are  the  results  of  team  championship  tournament. 
Doubles: 

Preliminary   round — 

France   defeated   Roumania   by  4   matches   to   0 — 

Samazeuilh,  France,  defeated  Eremie,  Roumania,  6-0,  6-0,  6-3. 
Gobert,  France,  defeated  Mishu,  Roumania,  6-4,  6-4,  6-4. 
Samazeuilh,  France,  defeated  Mishu,   Roumania,  3-6,7-5,-6-1, 

6-2. 
Gobert-Decugis,   France,   defeated   Mishu-Eremie,   Roumania, 

3-6,  7-5,  6-4,  6-4. 
Gobert  and  Eremie  did  not  play  their  singles  match. 
Australia  defeated  Serbia  by  default. 
Czecho-Slovakia  defeated  Belgium  by  4  matches  to  1 — 

K.    Kozeluh,    Czecho-Slovakia,    defeated   Lammens,   Belgium, 

6-2,  6-2,  6-0. 
J.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Washer,  Belgium,  6-8, 

6-3,  4-6,  6-4,  6-2. 
K.    Kozeluh,    Czecho-Slovakia,    defeated    Washer,    Belgium, 

12-10,  6-3,  6-1. 
J.    Kozeluh,    Czecho-Slovakia,    defeated    Lammens,   Belgium, 

6-2,  4-6,  6-4,  6-2. 
Washer-Lammens,  Belgium,  defeated  Zemla-Burianek,  Czecho- 
slovakia, 6-2,  6-4,  2-6,  7-5. 
First  round — 
Australia  defeated  France  by  3  matches  to  2 — 

Gobert,  France,  defeated   O'Hara-Wood,    AustraHa,  6-4,  6-3, 

6-2. 
Patterson,  Australia,   defeated  Samazeuilh,   France,  2-6,  6-3, 

6-4,  5-7,  6-2. 
Gobert,  France,  defeated  Patterson,  Australia,  6-4,  1-6,  5-7, 

7-5,  6-4. 
O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,     Australia,     defeated     Gobert-Decugis, 

France,  2-6,  2-6,  6-3,  10-8,  6-4. 
America  defeated  Czecho-Slovakia  by  4  matches  to  1 — 

Washburn,   America,   defeated   K.   Kozeluh,   Czecho-Slovakia, 

4-6,  11-9,  6-3,  6-3. 
Mathey,  America,  defeated  J.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  6-3, 

6-2,  6-2. 
Washburn,   America,   defeated   J.    Kozeluh,   Czecho-Slovakia, 

4-6,  8-6,  6-3,  6-3. 


304 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


K.  Kozeluh,  Czecho-Slovakia,  defeated  Mathey,  America,  6-2, 
6-4,  6-2. 

Washburn-Mathey,  America,  defeated  Kozeluh-Kozeluh,  Cze- 
cho-Slovakia, 6-4,  6-3,  6-2. 

Finals — 
Australia  defeated  America  by  3  matches  to  0 — 

Patterson,  Australia,  defeated  Washburn,  America,  6-1,  4-6, 

6-1,  4-6,  7-5. 
O'Hara-Wood,  Australia,  defeated  Mathey,  America,  0-6,  8-6, 

6-0,  6-4. 
O'Hara-Wood-Lycett,  Australia,  defeated  Washburn-Mathey, 
America,  6-4,  6-3,  6-2. 


Golf.     Top— French  team.     Bottom  Ze/(~Laflttp,  Prance.     Bottom  center- 
Bottom  riijht — J.  Bomboudiac,  France. 


-K.  Golias,  France. 


TRACK  AFIELD 


FINAL    TEAM    STANDING 

United  States 92 

France 12 

New  Zealand 6 

Australia 5 

Canada  4 

Greece 1 


MERiCA's  overwhelming  victory  in  the  Inter-Allied  Track  and 
Field  meet  was  not  altogether  unexpected.  Past  Olympic 
Games  had  prepared  other  competing  nations  for  the  supe- 
riority of  United  States  track  and  field  athletes .  So  complete 
was  the  victory,  however,  that  from  the  spectators'  viewpoint,  thrilling 
finishes  and  exciting  competitions  were  tempered  by  the  ease  with 
which  the  blue-breeched  athletes  bested  their  less  experienced 
opponents. 

The  results  of  the  Inter-Allied  meet  were  never  in  doubt.  Years 
ago  when  our  forefathers  established  and  developed  the  athletic 
education  of  the  American  youth,  the  training  season  began  which 
has  shown  its  fruits  in  many  international  athletic  triumphs  as  well 
as  in  the  strength  and  morale  of  the  nation.  When  Charles  W.  Pad- 
dock and  Edward  Teschner  drew  out  ahead  of  the  field  of  sprinters 
and  breasted  the  yarn  across  the  finish  of  the  100  and  200-meter 
dashes,  when  Earl  Eby  and  Phil  Spink  pulled  away  from  the  400-meter 
champions  of  other  nations,  who  apparently  were  more  powerfully 
built,  when  Clyde  Stout  raced  into  victory  in  the  1,500-meter  run- 
then  could  America  fully  appreciate  its  public  playgrounds,  its  mass 
athletics  and  its  high  school  and  collegiate  athletic  programs.  For 
each  winner  had  passed  through  every  stage  from  boyhood  tests  of 
skill  to  the  finals  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games. 

The  grace  and  ease  with  which  Robert  Simpson  and  Fred  Kelly 
of  the  United  States  team  flew  over  the  high  hurdles  won  the  admira- 
tion of  a  multitude  of  French  enthusiasts.  Again  in  the  low  hurdles 
Simpson  excelled,  while  his  teammates,  William  F.  Sylvester  and 
Meredith  House,  ran  close  behind  in  a  race  that  missed  the  world's 
record  by  a  fifth  of  a  second. 


See  page  449  for  track  and  field  pictures. 


308  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  field  events  showed  even  more  plainly  the  superior  training 
of  Yankee  athletes.  With  comparatively  little  effort,  and  that  same 
nonchalant  ease  of  motion,  the  lithe-limbed  Americans  made  a  clean 
sweep  of  nearly  every  field  event.  Far  beyond  the  small  national 
flags  which  marked  the  distances  of  other  jumpers  or  weight  throwers, 
the  star-spangled  pennants  invariably  waved.  As  the  meet  pro- 
gressed the  spectators  were  asking,  not  "Who  won?"  but  "Did  he 
break  a  world's  record?" 

On  the  smoothly  rolled  field  at  Pershing  Stadium,  the  American 
athletes  stood  out  above  the  rest  as  they  went  through  their  paces. 
In  their  neat,  white  shirts,  red-bordered  and  bearing  a  large  red 
U.S.,  and  their  navy-blue,  satin  track  trousers,  cut  short  enough 
to  give  thigh  muscles  full  play,  they  presented  a  picture  that  will 
live  long  in  the  memories  of  the  thousands  of  doughboys  who  learned 
a  new  appreciation  of  track  and  field  athletics  during  those  two 
weeks  of  games. 

In  the  hand-grenade  throw,  a  new  event  on  athletic  programs, 
three  Yankee  soldiers  took  the  honors  among  competitors  of  eight 
other  nations,  the  winner  being  an  Army  Chaplain,  F.  C.  Thompson, 
a  veteran  all-round  athlete,  who  holds  the  present  world's  record. 

The  discus  throw  is  of  Grecian  origin,  but  one  would  not  have 
suspected  it  after  watching  Charles  Higgins,  Richard  L.  Byrd,  cap- 
tain of  the  American  team,  and  James  Duncan,  the  world's  record- 
holder,  win  the  first  three  places.  Again  in  the  pole  vault  three 
United  States  athletes  soared  above  the  rest  and  again  their  graceful 
style  cheered  the  American  watchers,  proud  not  only  of  their  favorites 
but  of  the  national  system  that  develops  such  performers.  H.  W. 
Floyd  cleared  the  bar  at  12  feet  even,  an  impressive  height  to  foreign 
spectators,  but  an  average  mark  in  American  competition. 

Three  American  relay  teams  captured  first  place  in  the  800-meter, 
1,600-meter  and  medley  relays.  Directly  after  the  800-meter  relay 
finals  it  was  announced  that  the  mark  of  1  minute  30  4-5  seconds, 
established  by  the  American  quartette  of  sprinters,  had  clipped 
five  and  a  fifth  seconds  from  the  world's  record  made  at  the  Olympic 
Games  in  1912,  but  it  was  discovered  later  that  even  this  new  mark 
had  been  eclipsed  a  month  before  at  the  Pennsylvania  Relay  Car- 
nival in  the  United  States. 

Five  years  of  suffering  and  privation  have  not  prevented  the 
development  of  a  new  and  larger  interest  in  athletics  in  France.  The 
Inter-Allied  Games,  coming  as  they  did  during  the  days  of  the  sign- 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  309 

ing  of  the  peace,  marked  the  turning  point.  Encouraged  by  their 
showing  of  placing  second,  learning  much  of  American  methods  and 
forms  by  training  with  United  States  athletes  and  under  a  Y.M.C.A. 
trainer  for  weeks  before  the  Games,  and  urged  on  by  hitherto 
unequalled  local  press  publicity,  the  track  and  field  athletes  of 
France  are  ushering  in  the  dawn  of  a  new  era  in  the  local  sporting 
world.  The  spirit  of  participation  in  physical  games  has  even  reached 
the  youngsters  on  the  streets  who  watch  with  wonder  crowds  of  sol- 
diers playing  baseball  and  later  make  earnest  efforts  to  learn  the  game 
themselves. 

France's  total  of  12  points  in  the  Inter-Allied  Games  does  not 
correctly  tell  the  tale  of  the  showing  made  by  the  Tricolor  athletes. 
Had  the  American  team  withdrawn  before  the  meet,  the  propor- 
tionate score  would  have  been  nearly  the  same  with  France  occupying 
the  top  position  in  the  point  column.  In  nearly  every  event, 
especially  the  jumps  and  weights,  athletes  of  France  were  just  nosed 
out  of  the  scoring  by  the  more  experienced  Americans. 

To  Jean  Vermeulen  of  France  belongs  the  honor  of  winning  two 
Inter- Allied  distance  titles.  Wounded  in  battle,  one  arm  hangs 
limp  at  his  side,  but  in  spite  of  this  physical  disadvantage  the  hero 
of  many  European  races  outclassed  the  field  and  sprinted  in  many 
yards  ahead  in  the  Marathon  and  Gross-Country  races. 

George  Andre,  a  veteran  of  two  Olympic  Games  and  holder  of 
many  French  records,  went  through  the  paces  of  the  Pentathlon,  but 
was  forced  to  bow  to  younger  blood.  His  career  as  a  track  and  field 
athlete,  which  has  probably  terminated  in  the  historic  Inter-Allied 
Games,  is  an  inspiration  to  the  younger  athletes  of  France. 

The  Frenchman's  pleasure  at  winning  cannot  be  disguised  by  the 
mask  of  indifference  worn  by  the  American  winner  or  loser.  He  does 
not  attempt  to  conceal  his  emotions  and  after  a  winning  race  he 
grins  proudly  and  searches  the  cheering  faces  in  the  audience  for 
friends  to  whom  he  happily  waves. 

Australia  and  New  Zealand,  .Anglo-Saxon  brothers  of  Americans, 
were  not  represented  by  large  teams  at  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  Per- 
haps the  score  would  have  been  very  different  if  more  of  their  cham- 
pions had  taken  the  long  trip  to  compete  in  the  Games.  Those 
athletes  who  wore  the  black  shirt  and  white  sprig  of  New  Zealand, 
and  the  sky-blue  suits  with  golden  emblem  of  Australia,  demon- 
strated that  they  had  been  well  coached  in  the  fine  points  of  the  game 
by  their  showing  alongside  the  Americans.     Mason,  of  New  Zealand, 


310  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

in  his  victory  over  Earl  Eby  of  the  United  States,  proved  his  quality 
as  a  champion  in  the  800-meter  run.  Lindsay  of  the  same  country 
showed  well  in  the  sprint  events,  placing  third  in  the  finals  of  the 
200-meter  dash.  The  Australian  1,600-meter  and  medley  teams 
gave  the  American  quartette  a  fast  brush  and  finished  as  runners-up 
in  both  races  only  a  few  feet  behind. 

Canada's  athletes,  too,  were  similar  to  the  Americans  m  form 
and  style  of  competition.  The  closeness  of  the  two  countries  has 
developed  many  international  sporting  competitions  which  have 
greatly  unified  their  athletic  systems.  The  few  Canadians  entered 
made  a  fine  showing. 

Roumania  and  Greece  entered  in  every  event.  Persistent  and 
dogged,  their  efforts  were  frequently  noticed  by  the  audience,  and 
the  stocky,  short  athletes  stuck  to  the  finish  in  every  race  however 
far  they  had  been  outdistanced.  The  swarthy-complexioned,  dark- 
haired  men  from  southeastern  Europe  proved  they  were  sportsmen 
through  and  through. 

Italy's  track  and  field  athletics  are  undergoing  the  same  change 
that  is  evident  in  France.  Although  they  did  not  break  into  the 
point  column  the  Italians  were  very  observing  of  the  performances 
of  the  winners  and  the  large  number  who  participated  in  the  Inter- 
AUied  Games  surely  took  back  to  their  country  a  better  knowledge 
of  the  training  systems  that  pave  the  way  for  victory. 

The  trial  heats  in  the  100-meter  gave  promise  of  the  beautiful 
race  which  the  final  developed.  In  every  heat  the  French  record 
of  11  seconds  was  equalled  and  as  runners  seldom  extend  themselves 
in  trials,  better  time  was  in  prospect  for  the  finish.  The  first  semi- 
final quafified  Teschner,  U.S.,  Lindsay  N.Z.,  Butler,  U.S.,  and  Seurin, 
France.  The  second  admitted  Paddock,  U.S.,  Howard,  Canada, 
Caste,  France,  and  Croci,  Italy. 

The  start  in  the  final  was  almost  perfect  and  brought  the  specta- 
tors to  their  feet  in  cheers.  Flashing  down  the  straightaway  to  the 
75-meter  mark,  the  sprinters  were  almost  neck  and  neck;  but  at  this 
point  Charles  W.  Paddock,  the  brilliant  American  dash  man,  drew 
away  and  raced  to  the  tape  in  splendid  form,  making  the  century 
in  10  4-5  seconds.  He  clipped  a  fifth  of  a  second  off  the  French  mark 
and  came  within  a  fifth  of  the  world's  record.  Paddock  barely  beat 
out  his  teammate,  Eddie  Teschner,  while  Howard  of  Canada  took 
third  place.  Lindsay,  the  lank  New  Zealander  who  had  twice  run 
the  course  in  11  flat,  winning  both  his  trial  heat  and  his  semifinal 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  311 

and  who  was  picked  as  a  favorite  against  Paddock,  finished  last,  a 
few  inches  behind  Caste  of  France. 

The  furlong  brought  fresh  honors  to  Paddock  who  not  only  won 
the  event  but  equalled  the  world's  record  when  he  sprinted  the  200- 
meter  distance  in  21  3-5  seconds.  Teschner  again  finished  second 
and  this  time  Lindsay  registered  for  New  Zealand  by  taking  third  place. 

The  trial  heats  were  run  in  slow  time  that  hardly  presaged  Pad- 
dock's final  successful  burst  of  speed.  The  American  star  finished 
his  first  heat  in  22  4-5,  the  best  time  made  in  any  of  the  five 
preliminaries,  but  in  his  semifinal  he  was  outdistanced  by  the  Cana- 
dian, Haliburton,  who  ran  the  200  meters  this  time  in  a  fifth  of 
a  second  less  time.  Teschner,  the  A.E.F.  champion,  had  done  his 
trial  heat  in  23  flat,  but  in  the  semifinal  finished  second  to  Howard, 
Canada.  Lindsay  again  starred  in  the  preliminaries.  He  won  both 
his  trial  heat  and  his  semifinal.  Yet  in  the  final.  Paddock  literally 
breezed  home  a  yard  in  front  of  Teschner  who  in  turn  had  an  easy 
place.  Third  honors  were  in  doubt  until  within  five  yards  of  the 
tape  when  Lindsay  prevented  a  clean  sweep  for  America  by  forging 
ahead  of  Haddock. 

By  all  odds  one  of  the  prettiest  track  contests  of  the  Games,  figured 
from  preliminary  to  final,  was  presented  by  the  400-metcr  dash. 
Good  quartermilers  seemed  to  abound. 

Three  American  runners  finished  first  in  three  of  the  five  trial 
heats,  but  the  day's  honors  went  to  a  Frenchman,  Devaux,  who  made 
the  best  time  and  registered  a  clean  fifteen-yard  win.  His  teammate, 
Delvart,  would  have  won  his  heat  from  Hume  of  Australia,  but  mis- 
judged his  distance  and  pulled  up  ten  yards  from  the  finish,  barely 
recognizing  his  mistake  in  time  to  qualify  in  third  place. _ 

Earl  Eby,  the  splendid  American  middle-distance  man  who  finally 
won  the  event,  ran  a  carefully  judged  first  heat  in  slow  time,  but  in 
his  semifinal  extended  himself  a  bit  more  and  ran  the  quarter  in 
51  flat  with  ten  yards  of  day-Hght  showing  between  his  heels  and  those 
of  the  New  Zealander,  Wilton.  Spink,  U.S.,  again  won  his  heat  while 
Delvart  this  time  took  his,  dropping  Gray  of  America. 

Eby  was  forced  to  fast  time  to  win  the  final  by  his  teammate, 
Spink,  who  furnished  a  surprise  in  his  showing.  One  hundred  meters 
from  the  finish  Eby  left  the  field  behind  and  ended  in  50  flat,  but 
Spink  was  at  his  heels  to  the  close  and  but  three  yards  behind  him. 
Spink's  placing  dropped  Wilton  of  New  Zealand  to  third  place  and 
kept  the  dashing  Delvart  out  of  the  scoring. 


312  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  little  blonde  champion,  Eby,  however,  met  his  first  European 
defeat  and  his  match  in  the  800-meter  run  in  which  Mason  of  New 
Zealand  supplied  a  brilHantly  run  and  judged  victory.  While  Mason's 
win  over  the  national  600-yard  champion  was  quite  unexpected,  sur- 
prising the  spectators  who  were  looking  to  see  Eby  repeat  his  quarter 
mile  triumph,  there  was  no  reason  to  discount  the  possibilities  of  the 
Antipodean  as  a  victor.  He  had  already  outdistanced  Eby  in  the 
preliminary  heat  (the  latter  finished  third,  with  Bergemeier  of  Aus- 
tralia second)  and  although  neither  had  extended  himself.  Mason's 
time  of  2  minutes  even  was  good. 

In  the  final.  Mason  took  an  excellently  calculated  chance  and 
practically  ran  a  lead  race  all  the  way.  Eby  had  to  begin  his  final 
spurt  from  sixth  place  in  the  field,  and  did  succeed  in  passing  all  but 
the  New  Zealander.  Eby,  like  most  of  the  spectators,  probably 
figured  that  Mason  had  set  too  strenuous  a  pace  to  have  a  spurt  left 
in  him,  but  the  Colonial  surprised  him.  His  magnificent  flying 
finish  brought  him  home  a  yard  ahead  of  Eby  in  1:55  2-5,  breaking 
the  French  record.  The  sturdy  Antipodean  had  outguessed  and 
outrun  Eby.  Phil  Spink  ran  third,  a  good  nine  yards  behind  his 
teammate. 

The  preliminaries  in  the  1,500-meter  run  were  not  of  exceptional 
interest  except  that  Stout's  time  of  4:16  gave  the  correct  forecast 
of  the  American's  eventual  victory.  For  the  final,  three  Americans, 
Stout,  Shields  and  Schardt,  three  Frenchmen,  Arnaud,  Delvart  and 
Lacary,  two  Austrahans,  Chalmers  and  Manley,  and  La  Pierre,  Canada, 
and  Mason,  New  Zealand,  qualified. 

The  final,  however,  was  prettily  contested.  Stout's  beautiful 
spnnt  in  the  last  two  hundred  yards  wrested  first  honors  from  Arnaud 
of  France  who  had  set  a  terrific  pace.  The  Canadian,  La  Pierre, 
sprang  a  surprise  on  Shields  who  was  contentedly  trotting  in,  appar- 
ently sure  of  third  place.  La  Pierre  sprinted  desperately  and  beat 
the  American  with  his  last  ounce  of  speed.  Mason,  the  brilliant 
New  Zealander,  had  to  give  up  at  the  last  turn,  utterly  exhausted. 
Stout  finished  ten  yards  in  front  of  Arnaud,  his  time  being  4  minutes, 
5  3-5  seconds. 

Lovers  of  one  of  the  prettiest  forms  of  track  competition,  the  short 
dashes  over  the  barriers,  had  two  splendid  events  at  the  Games,  both 
won  by  the  record  performer.  Bob  Simpson  of  Missouri. 

In  the  110-meter  high  hurdles  event,  it  was  Simpson  and  Kelly 
all  the  way,  neither  a  stranger  by  any  manner  of  means  to  men  who 


Golf.     Top— American  team.    BotUym  left—PenTl  O.B.SLTt,V.  H.     Bottom  center— B.GommicT, 
France.    Bottom  right— F.  A.  Morse,  T\  S. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  315 

know  the  ways  of  the  sticks.  The  preliminaries  were  run  off  in  a  cold, 
drizzling  rain,  but  in  spite  of  that,  Simpson,  closely  pushed  by  Ken- 
dell  of  New  Zealand,  tied  the  French  record  for  the  event,  14  4-5 
seconds.  Fred  Kelly,  the  Californian,  ran  a  slower  heat  but  beat  out 
Best  of  Australia  by  ten  yards,  while  Waldo  Ames,  American,  lost  to 
Wilson  of  New  Zealand  in  a  nose  flnish  at  the  tape. 

The  final  was  a  prettily  fought  race  between  the  two  Americans, 
Simpson  this  time  clipping  three-fifths  of  a  second  off  the  French 
record  in  15  1-5,  with  Kelly  on  his  shoe  strings.  It  was  a  blanket 
finish,  Wilson,  the  clever  New  Zealander,  taking  third. 

The  200-meter  low-hurdles  event  was  a  clean  sweep  for  the  United 
States.  In  the  trial  heats,  Sylvester,  Simpson  and  House  each  won 
his  race,  Meredith  House  setting  a  new  French  record  of  26  flat.  He 
did  it  running  easily.  There  was  nothing  to  it  but  America  in  the 
final,  Simpson,  Sylvester  and  House  finishing  in  the  order  named. 
Simpson  lowered  House's  French  mark  to  24  4-5  seconds,  only  a 
fifth  short  of  a  world's  record  which  he  might  have  broken  but  for 
an  error  in  the  placing  of  the  third  barrier.  This  was  two  meters 
short  of  its  proper  location  on  the  track  and  all  ,tliree  hurdlers  missed 
their  step  on  it.     Sylvester  is  also  a  Missourian. 

The  American  entries  won  all  three  relay  events  without  much 
difficulty.  By  far  the  most  spectacular  was  the  shortest,  the  800- 
meter  event,  in  which  the  two  brilliant  running  teams.  United  States 
and  Canada,  twice  took  a  shot  at  the  old-world  mark.  Both  of  these 
teams  ran  the  800  meters  in  1  minute,  33  1-5  seconds  in  the  trial 
heats. 

In  the  first,  Paddock,  the  international  sprint  champion,  started 
off  for  America  and  gave  Haddock  a  five  yard  lead.  Hume  of  Aus- 
tralia picked  up  even  with  the  latter  on  the  third  lap,  but  Torkelson 
took  the  baton  to  Eddie  Teschner,  the  last  American  runner,  with 
three  yards  to  spare.  Teschner  was  closely  pushed  by  the  last  Aus- 
trahan  and  only  two  yards  separated  them  at  the  finish. 

The  Canadian  heat,  run  in  the  same  time,  was  never  in  doubt 
as  the  maple-leaf  runners  secured  a  long  lead  over  France  in  the  first 
lap  and  never  lost  it.  On  the  last  lap  Seurin  of  France  picked  up 
ten  yards  on  Johnson  of  Canada  in  a  desperate  sprint  but  was  still 
five  yards  behind  him  at  the  finish. 

Unaware  at  the  time  that  a  new  record  had  just  been  set  at  the 
Penn  Relays,  race  officials  were  confident  that  the  time  clipped  2  4-5 
seconds  from  the  world's  record.     It  was  lowered  still  further  m  the 


316  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

finals  which  the  American  team  raced  in  1  minute,  30  4-5  seconds, 
after  a  thrilling  contest  with  the  Canadians,  barely  nosing  them  out 
by  three  yards.  Although  not  a  new  record,  the  time  was  a  notable 
achievement  when  it  is  remembered  that  the  old  Stockholm  figure  of 
1:36  was  set  by  such  a  great  quartette  as  Shepherd,  Reidpath,  Mere- 
dith and  Lindberg. 

In  the  final  Paddock  ran  first  for  America  and  again  touched 
off  Haddock  with  a  five  yard  lead.  Fred  Zoellin,  formerly  of  the 
Chicago  A.A.,  who  carried  the  baton  in  the  second  lap  for  Canada, 
made  up  two  yards,  but  Torkelson,  another  Chicago  A.A.  man,  got 
a  perfect  exchange  and  kept  his  four-yard  lead.  Teschner  ran  the 
last  relay  against  the  Canadian,  Haliburton,  and  the  latter's  most 
desperate  efforts  could  not  gain  on  him. 

Not  run  in  as  fast  comparative  time,  the  1,600-meter  relay  pre- 
sented a  splendid  competition  in  which  America  only  succeeded  in 
winning  in  the  final  lap.  Four  nations  withdrew  their  teams  before 
the  race,  making  preliminaries  unnecessary,  and  Australia  and  France, 
the  only  other  entries,  finished  in  that  order.  The  time  was  3 
minutes,  38  4-5  seconds. 

Tom  Campbell  of  the  University  of  Chicago,  who  ran  first,  picked 
up  a  ten  yard  lead,  but  the  next  two  "Aussies"  evened  it  up  so  that 
Teschner  was  touched  off  five  yards  behind  Fraser.  He  lay  back 
until  within  100  meters  of  the  tape  when,  being  a  dash  man  and  not 
a  quartermiler,  he  opened  up  with  the  same  brand  of  speed  that 
brought  him  the  A.E.F.  sprint  championship  and  flashed  across 
the  tape  in  front  of  the  Australian.  The  winning  team  was  composed 
of  Tom  Campbell,  V.  H.  Campbell,  Mehan  and  Teschner. 

The  third  relay  title  won  by  the  United  States  team  was  captured 
by  the  quartette  which  ran  the  medley — Carl  Haas,  William  Gray, 
Tom  Campbell  and  M.L.  Shields.  Touched  off  for  his  1,600  meters 
a  yard  ahead  of  Manley  of  Australia,  Shields  carried  the  bamboo 
across  the  tape  ten  yards  ahead  of  the  Australian.  The  United  States 
team  was  first,  Australia  second  and  France  third. 

Few  achievements  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  proved  as  popular 
as  the  double  victory  of  the  crippled  French  war  hero,  Jean  Vermeulen, 
in  the  cross-country  run  and  the  modified  Marathon.  The  former 
did  not  count  as  a  program  event  but  the  latter  netted  a  title  for  France. 
Notwithstanding  his  crippled  arm,  Vermeulen,  grizzled  veteran  of 
many  a  long-distance  grind'  found  no  difficulty  in  besting  the  pick 
of  the  rival  teams  in  the  Marathon.     He  was  pitted  against  many  of 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  317 

the  best  distance  runners  in  the  game.  Fred  Faller,  United  States, 
ran  a  plucky  race  and  finished  a  good  second  but  thirty  yards  behind 
the  flying  heels  of  the  broadly  grinning  Vermeulen.  Clyde  Stout, 
the  Inter-Allied  1,500-meter  champion,  finished  in  fourth  place,  run- 
ning strongly.  Masset  of  Canada  was  fifth  and  Giannakapolis  of 
America  sixth.  Third  place  went  to  France's  other  contender,  Heuet. 
The  modified  Marathon  was  run  in  55  minutes,  11  4-5  seconds. 

Robert  L.  Le  Gendre,  United  States,  won  the  Pentathlon,  his 
teammate,  Vidal,  placing  second,  and  Andr6,  the  veteran  French 
athlete,  third.  To  clearly  demonstrate  his  individual  superiority  over 
the  field,  Le  Gendre  won  two  first  places  in  the  five  listed  events  and 
took  second  place  in  the  other  three.  His  firsts  were  in  the  200-meter 
sprint  and  the  broad  jump.  Le  Gendre,  a  Georgetown  University 
star  in  America,  holds  the  Pentathlon  title  for  the  Penn  Relays.  His 
victory  in  the  five-event  match  was  over  a  very  small  field  of  nine 
representing  five  nations. 

The  three  programmed  weight  events  resulted  in  a  remarkable 
clean  sweep  for  the  United  States  athletes  of  all  but  one  third  place, 
although  the  javelin  throw  was  a  new  event  to  the  American  entries. 
The  long  distance  weight  heaving  of  the  Americans  stood  out  so 
easily  over  the  others  as  to  deprive  the  events  of  real  competitive 
interest. 

George  Bronder  of  Cornell,  the  American  recordholder,  tossed 
the  spear  183  feet,  3  inches  for  the  international  javelin  title,  Liver- 
sedge  of  the  University  of  California  being  but  a  little  over  five  feet 
behind  him.  Greece  won  third  place  in  this  event,  Lt.  E.  Zirganos 
displacing  Wagoner.  J.  T.  Butler,  Louisiana  College,  was  disquali- 
fied by  failure  to  enter  the  event  properly.  But  for  this  the  United 
States  team  would  have  won  every  place  in  all  the  weights. 

The  shot-put  results  were  certain  from  the  start,  three  Ameri- 
cans and  one  Frenchman  qualifying  for  the  finals,  and  in  the  latter 
finishing  in  the  same  order  as  in  the  trials.  E.  R.  Caughey,  Stanford 
University,  won  the  event  with  a  heave  of  45  feet,  2  1-4  inches  for 
the  16-pound  ball.  Second  place  went  to  Harry  Liversedge  of  the 
University  of  California,  and  third  to  Wallace  C.  Maxfield  formerly 
of  Lafayette  College. 

The  discus  is  probably  the  prettiest  of  the  weight  events  still 
retained  for  athletic  competition.  While  the  United  States  again 
took  all  three  places,  the  finals  sprung  a  slight  surprise.  Higgins  of 
Chicago,  who  had  been  consistently  distanced  by  Richard  L.  Byrd 


318  THE    JNTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

of  Illinois,  Captain  of  the  American  team,  placed  first  with  a  splendid 
throw  of  134  feet,  1  inch,  Byrd  being  second.  Johnny  Duncan,  the 
world's  recordholder  who  had  risen  from  a  sick  bed  to  qualify,  won  the 
third  place  for  America.  The  practice  of  using  the  flags  of  the  com- 
peting nations  to  mark  the  distances  achieved  proved  popular. 

Although  the  hammer  throw  was  not  on  the  program,  Pat  Ryan 
and  William  McCormick  of  the  United  States  gave  an  exhibition,  the 
former  falling  short  of  his  own  world's  record  in  the  event. 

The  running  broad  jump  event  proved  an  ail-American  affair. 
Butler,  the  big  negro  from  Dubuque  College,  Iowa,  was  the 
star  performer  and  placed  first  with  a  jump  of  24  feet,  9  3-4  inches- 
less  than  3  inches  from  the  world's  record.  Harry  Worthington, 
A.E.F.  champion,  took  second  a  few  inches  behind,  and  Leo  Johnson, 
also  of  America,  finished  third.  In  the  trials  the  three  winners 
placed  in  the  same  order  that  they  showed  in  the  finals,  and  Keddell 
of  New  Zealand,  made  a  good  fourth,  which  was  the  best  he  could  do 
against  the  above  field  on  the  last  lap  for  the  record. 

William  H.  Taylor,  formerly  of  the  Illinois  A.C.,  outjumped  his 
rivals  in  the  standing  broad  jump,  chalking  up  a  mark  of  11  feet, 
1  inch,  while  James  Humphries  of  Texas,  finished  a  good  second, 
and  Moreau  of  France  took  third  place  in  the  event  for  the  Tricolor. 
In  the  trials,  the  above  order  was  slightly  different,  Taylor  and  Hum- 
phries being  reversed  in  place,  Moreau  holding  third,  and  Proux, 
another  French  athlete,  being  the  fourth  man  to  qualify  for  the  finals. 

Honors  in  the  running  high  jump  went  to  the  United  States. 
Larson  of  the  American  team  easily  winning  at  6  feet,  7-8  inch. 
His  teammates,  Templeton  and  Rice,  tied  for  second  place  with 
Labat  of  France.  All  the  winners  in  the  final,  together  with  Lowden 
and  Mathey,  France,  and  Ghiringhelh,  Italy,  had  previously  quali- 
fied in  the  trials  by  clearing  the  bar  at  5  feet  6  1-4  inches. 

America  made  another  clean  sweep  in  the  hop,  step  and  jump 
event,  Prem  placing  first  with  46  feet,  5  1-2  inches.  Bender  second 
with  44  feet,  8  inches,  and  Madden  third  with  44  feet,  5   1-2  inches. 

Contrary  to  the  showing  made  in  the  trails,  the  American  team 
had  an  easy  time  taking  all  three  places  in  the  pole  vault  finals. 
F.  W.  Floyd's  splendid  season  was  brought  to  a  fine  close  when  he 
soared  over  the  bar  at  12  feet  even.  L.  S.  Ervin,  Drake  University, 
took  second  honors,  and  Harwood  secured  third  place  for  the  U.S. 
All  three  French  contestants  were  eliminated  at  the  ll-feet-4-inches 
mark,  which  proved  a  big  surprise  in  the  case  of  Francquemelle  whose 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  319 

wonderful  form  during  the  trials  had  made  him  a  favorite  for  the 
title.  Gajan  and  Girard  of  France  also  qualified  by  clearing  the 
lO-feet-4-inches  mark  in  the  trials  but  they  failed  to  show  enough 
to  place  in  the  finals. 

Of  the  unprogrammed  events,  the,  10,000-meter  cross-country 
run  over  the  natural  obstacles  and  barriers  in  and  around  Joinville- 
le-Pont,  finished  in  the  Stadium,  was  the  most  interesting.  It  was 
this  event  which  was  won  by  Jean  Vermeulen,  France,  with  Broos, 
Belgium,  second,  and  Heuet,  France,  third.  The  time  was  31  minutes, 
38  4-5  seconds. 

.  Seven  nations  competed  in  the  spectacular  hand-grenade  event, 
in  which  Chaplain  F.  C.  Thompson  of  the  United  States  Army  set  a 
new  world's  record  of  245  feet,  11  inches.  S.H.Thompson  andWyca- 
vage,  both  American,  took  the  other  two  places.  There  were  24  entries. 

There  were  two  special  events  for  competitors  from  the  Armies 
of  Occupation.  A  jump  of  6.60  meters  gave  Madden  of  America 
first  place  in  the  running  broad  jump.  Nespoh,  Italy,  was  second, 
and  Coulon,  France,  third. 

In  the  800-meter  relay  race  Italy  protested  the  initial  victory  of 
France,  but  in  the  runoff  the  French  team  finished  first  again, 
America  retaining  third  place. 

Coming,  as  it  did,  coincidentally  with  peace  after  five  years  of 
world  conflict,  the  Inter-Allied  meet  united  the  friendly  bonds  of 
the  Allies  and  gave  a  new  birth  to  the  temporarily  forgotten  track 
and  field  athletics.  Living  together,  training  together  and  playing 
together  for  weeks  before  the  Games  at  Pershing  Stadium,  the  athletes 
of  the  different  nations  developed  a  sympathetic  understanding, 
exchanged  knowledge  of  the  game  and  laid  the  foundations  of  a  closer 
friendship  cemented  by  the  common  cause  which  had  brought  them 
together. 

The  complete  summaries  of  the  Track  and  Field  events  of  the 
Inter-AUied  Games  follow: 
lOO-rriBter  Dash: 

Preliminaries — 

1st  heat— Teschner,  U.S.;  Seurin,  France;Valianato,  Roumania, 

Time— 0:11. 
2nd  heat— Lindsay,  New  Zealand;  Haliburton,  Canada;  Garter, 

Australia.     Time — 0:11. 
3rd  heat— Butler  U.  S.;  Hume,  Australia;    Zoellin,    Canada. 

Time— 0:11. 


320  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

4th  heat—  Howard,  Canada;  Caste,  France;  Grigeresco,  Rou- 

mania.     Time  0:11   1-5. 
5th  heat— Paddock,    U.    S.;   Crocci,    Italy;    Tirard,    France. 

Time— 0:11. 
Semi-finals — 

1st  heat— Teschner,  U.  S.;  Lindsay,   New    Zealand;    Butler, 

U.  S.;  Seurin,  France.     Time — 0:11. 
2nd  heat— Paddock,  U.  S.;  Howard,    Canada;   Caste,  France; 

Crocci,    Italy.     Time — 0:11. 
Finals — 

Charles  W.  Paddock,  U.  S.;  Edward  A.  Teschner,  U.  S.;  J.  A. 

Howard,  Canada.     Time— 0:10  4-5. 

200-Meter  Dash: 
Preliminaries — 

1st  heat — ^Lindsay,   New  Zealand;   Carter,   Australia;  Crocci, 

Italy.     Time— 0:23  1-5. 
2nd  heat — Paddock,    U.   S.;    Harrowing,    Canada;    Gauthier, 

France.     Time— 0:22  4-5. 
3rd    heat — Haliburton,    .Canada;    Hume,    Australia;    Seurin, 

France.     Time— 0:23  1-5. 
4th  heat — Teschner,  U.  S.;  Tirard,    France;    Petrovici,    Rou- 

mania.     Time — 23. 
5th  heat — Howard,  Canada;  Haddock,  U.  S.;  Carroll,  Austra- 
lia.    Time— 23  1-3. 
Semi-finals — 

1st  heat — Howard,  Canada;  Teschner,  U.  S.;  Carter,  Australia. 

Time    22  3-5. 
2nd  heat — Lindsay,    New  Zealand;    Haddock,    U.  S.;  Seuriii, 

France.     Time— 22  2-5. 
3rd  heat — Haliburton,  Canada;   Paddock,   U.  S.;  Carroll,  Aus-^ 
tralia.     Time  22  3-5. 
Finals — 

Charles  W.  Paddock,  U.  S.;  Edward  A.  Teschner,  U.  S.;  John 
Lindsay,  New  Zealand.     Time — 21  3-5. 
400-Meier  Run. 
Preliminaries — ■ 

Istheat— Eby,  U.  S.;  Bernardoni,  Italy;  Glodariu,  Roumania; 

Time— 0:53  3-5. 
2nd  heat — Devaux,    France;    Bergemeier,  Australia;    Wilton, 
New  Zealand.     Time— 0:53  4-5. 


Rowing.     Top-Portuguese  eight.     Cmter-Belgian  eight.     Bo/toni-Czecho-Slovakian  eight. 

21 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  323 

Srd  heat — Candelori,  Italy;  Hume,  Australia;  Delvart,  France. 

Time— 0:53  1-5. 
4th  heat— Spink,   U.  S.;   Dumont,   France;    Tittle,    Canada. 

Time— 0:53  1-5. 
5th  heat — Gray,   U.    S.;  Johnson,  Australia;  Smet,  Belgium. 
Time — 0:54. 
Semi-finals — 

1st  heat — Eby,  U.  S.;  Wilton,  New  Zealand;  Hume,  Australia. 

Time— 0:51. 
2nd  heat — Delvart,    France;    Gray,   U.    S.;  Candelori,   Italy. 

Time— 0:51  4-5. 
3rd  heat — Spink,   U.  S.;  Devaux,  France;  Johnson,  Australia. 
Time  0:52  4-5. 
Finals — 

Earl  A.  Eby,  U.  S.;  Philip  M.  Spink,  U.  S.;  James  H.  R.  Wilton, 
New  Zealand.     Time— 0:50. 
800-Meter  Run: 
Preliminaries — 

1st  heat — Mason,    New  Zealand;  Bergemeier,  Australia;  Eby, 

U.   S.     Time— 2:00.. 
2nd  heat — -Eraser,  Australia;  Heilbuth,  France;   Spink,   U.  S. 

Time— 2:01. 
3rd  heat — Scudder,   U.  S.;  Chalmers,  Australia;  Delarge,  Bel- 
gium.    Time— 2:03  4-5. 
Finals — 

Daniel  L.  Mason,  New  Zealand;  Earl  A.  Eby,  U.  S.;  Phihp 
M.  Spink,  U.  S.     Time— 1:55  2-5. 
1500-Me;er  Run: 
Preliminaries — 

1st   heat — Mason,    New   Zealand;    Shields,    U.    S.;    Arnaud, 
France;  Manley,  Australia;  La  Pierre,  Canada.  Time— 4:18. 
2nd  heat — Stout,  U.  S.;  Delvart,  France;  Chalmers,  Australia, 
Lacary,  France;  Schardt,  U.  S.     Time— 4:16. 
Finals — 

Clyde  J.  Stout,  U.  S.;  Henri  Arnaud,  France;  H.  E.  La  Pierre, 
Canada.     Time— 4:05  3-5. 

Modified  Marathon: 
Finals- 
Jean  Vermeulen,  France;  .Fred, Faller,  U.  S.;  Danton  Heuet, 
France.     Time — 55:11  4-5. 


324  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

llO-Meter  High  Hurdles: 
Preliminaries — 

1st  heat— Simpson,  U.  S.;  Kendell,  New  Zealand;     Time— 0:16 

4-5. 
2nd  heat— Kelly,  U.  S.;  Best,  Australia.     Time— 0:16  4-5. 
3rd  heat — Wilson,  New  Zealand;   Ames,  U.    S.     Time— 0:16. 
Finals — 

Robert  L.  Simpson,  U.  S.;  Fred  W.  Kelly,  U.  S.;  Harold  E.Wil- 
son, New  Zealand.     Time— 0:15  1-5. 
200-Meier  Low  Hurdles: 
Preliminaries — 

1st  heat — Sylvester,   U.  S.;  Poulenard,  France;  Spenrer,  Aus- 
tralia.    Time— 0:25  4-5. 
2nd  heat — Simpson,   U,  S.;  Buchon,  France;  Best,  Australia. 

Time— 0:26  4-5. 
3rd   heat — House,    U.    S.;    Andre,    France;    Smet,   Belgium. 
Time--0:25. 
Finals — 

Robert  I.  Simpson,  U.  S.;  William  F.  Sylvester,  U.  S.;  Mere- 
dith House,  U.  S.     Time— 0:24  4-5. 
Running  High  Jump: 
Trials — 

Labat,   Lowden,   Mathey,   France;    Rice,  Larson,  Templeton, 
U.S.,  and  Ghiringhelli,  Italy,  qualified  by  clearing  the  bar 
at  5  feet,  6  1-4  inches. 
Finals — 

Clinton  Larson,  U.  S.;  tie  for  second  between    Andre  Labat, 
France,  Carl  V.  Rice,  U.  S.  and    Robert  L.    Templeton, 
U.  S.    Height  —  6  feet,  7-8  inch. 
Running  Broad  Jump. 
Trials — 

Butler,  U.  S.  23  ft.  2  in.;  Worthington,  U.  S.   22  ft.  9  in.; 
Johnson,  U.  S.;  Kendell,  New  Zealand. 
Finals- 
Solomon  Butler,   U.  S.;   Harry  T.  Worthington,   U.  S.;  Leo 
T.  Johnson,  U.  S.     Distance— 24  ft,  9  3-16  inches. 
Standing  Broad  Jump: 
Trials- 
Humphries,  U.  S.  10  ft.  6  in.;  Taylor,  U.  S.;  Moreau,  France; 
Proux,  France. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  325 

Finals — 

William  H.  Taylor,  U.  S.;  James  V.  Humphries,  U.  S.;  Emile 
Moreau,  France.     Height  —  11  ft,  1  in. 
Hop,  Step  and  Jump:  , 

Finals — 

Herbert  Prem,  U.  S.;  Charles  A.  Bender,  U.  S.;  John  E.  Madden, 
U.  S.;  Distance  —  46  ft,  2  1-8  in. 

Pole  Vault: 
Trials- 
Floyd,   Ervin,    Harwood,    U.   S.;   Francquemelle,    Gajan   and 
Girard,  France,  qualified  by  clearing  the  bar  at  10  ft,  4  in. 
Finals — 

Florin  W.  Floyd,  U.  S.;  Louis  Ervin,  U.  S.;  Robert  Harwood, 
U.  S.;  Height—  12  ft. 
Javelin   Throw: 
Finals — 

George  Bronder,  U.  S.;  Harry  Liversedge,  U.  S.;  Eustathios 
Zirganos,  Greece.     Distance  —  183  ft,  3  in. 
Discus  Throw: 
Trials — 

Byrd,  U.  S.  131  ft.  2  in.;  Higgins,  U.  S.;  Duncan,  U.  S.;  Gui- 
seppe,  Italy. 
Finals — 

Charles  Higgins,  U.  S.;  Richard  L.  Byrd,  U.  S.;  James  Duncan. 
U.  S.     Distance—  134  ft,  1  in. 
16-pound  Shot  Put: 
Trials — 

Caughey,   U.   S.;  Liversedge,   U.  S.;  Maxfleld,   U.  S.;  Paoli, 
France.     Distance  —  13.35  meters. 
Finals — 

Edward  R.  Caughey,  U.  S.;  H.  Liversedge,  U.  S.;  Wallace 
C.  Maxfield,  U.  S.     Distance  —  45  ft,  2  1-4  in. 
800-Meter  Relay: 
Preliminaries — 

1st  heat— United  States,  Australia,  Italy.     Time— 1:33  1-5. 
2nd  heat— Canada,  France,  Belgium.     Time— 1:33  1-5. 
Finals — 

United  States,  G.  W.  Paddock,^  Marshall  Haddock,  Jr.,  E.  A., 
Torkelson,  Edward  A.  Teschner;  Canada,  J.  A.  Howard,  F.J. 


326 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Zoellin,  R.  Haliburton,  0.  P.  Johnson;  Australia,  E.  Carter, 

J.  L.  Hume,  W.  Johnson,  H.B.Carroll.     Time— 1 : 30 4-5. 
1600-Meter  Relay: 
Finals — 

United   States,    Tom   Campbell,    Edward    J.    Meehan,    Earle 

H.  Campbell,  Edward  A.  Teschner;  Australia,   Charles  E. 

Bergemeier,  William  Johnson,  Leslie  J.  Hume,  Thomas  Eraser; 

France,  Andre  Devaux,  Henri  Delvart,  Raoul  Dumont,  Rene 

Laubertrand.  Time— 3:28  4-5. 
Medley  Relay: 

United  States,  Carl  F.  Haas,  William  C.  Gray,  F.  F.  Campbell, 

M.  L.  Shields;  Australia,  Leslie  J.  Hume,  E.  Carter,  C.  E. 

Bergemeier,  Clifford  Manley;  France,  J.  R.  Seurin,  Poulenard, 

Dandelot,  Lacary. 
Pentathlon: 


No. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


Name 

and 

Country 

Le  Gendre,  Amer 
Vidal,  America. . . 
Andre,  Prance . . . 
Blades,  Canada  . . 

Salvi,  Italy 

Norman,  America 

Costa, Italy  

Gaillard,  France. . 


Time  or  Distance 


200  M 
Dash 

22.4 

24.4 

23 

23.6 

24 

24.6 

25.2 

25.4 


Kun. 
Broad 
Jump 
6.575 
6.41 
5.842 
5.918 
6.095 
5.41 
5.272 
5.587 


16-lb 

Shot 

Put 

11.335 

10.825 

11.618 

10.669 

10.5 

10.971 

9.25 

9.485 


Discus 


34.2 
35  83 
29  5 
28.03 
27.42 
32.253 
27^62 
29.05 


Score  by  Points      Total 


1500 
Meter 

Run 
5.10,6 
4.45 
5.10,8 
4.44,4 
4.51 
5.10 
5.25 


ZOOM   Runn. 

Dash  Braad 
Jump 

120  119 
70  112 

105  90 
90  93 
80  100 
65     72 

,  52  67 
48     79 


16-lb. 

Shot 

Put 

77 

67 

82 

63 

60 

69 

48 

50 


Discos. 


81 
92 
58 
50 
47 
71 
48 
55 


1500 
Meter 
Rio 
64 
90 
64 
91 
84 
65 
50 
0 


461 
431 
399 
387 
371 
342 
265 
232 


EVENTS    NOT    COUNTING    FOR    POINTS ^ALL    FINALS 


Hand-Grenade  Throw: 

F.  C.  Thomson,  U.  S.;  S.  H.  Thompson,  U.  S.;  D.  C.  Wycavage, 
U.  S.     Distance— 245  feet,  11  inches. 
Cross-Country  Run: 

Jean   Vermeulen,    France;   Auguste   Broos,    Belgium;  Gaston 
Heuet,  France.     Time — 31:38  4-5. 
800-MeZer  Relay  (Armies  of  Occupation): 

France,  Italy,  United  States, 
Running  Rroad  Jump  (Armies  of  Occupation): 

John  E.  Madden,  U.  S.;  Nespoli,  Italy;  Coulon,  France.     Dis- 
tance 21  feet,  8  inches. 


HAND-GRENADE    THROWING 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  American  method  of  throwing  a 
baseball  was  opposed  by  instructors  in  hand-grenade  throwing,  this 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  327 

style  won  over  all  others  in  the  Hand-grenade  Throwing  contests 
at  the  the  Inter-Allied  Games.  The  Americans  took  the  first  three 
places  in  the  event,  Greece  taking  fourth.  An  Army  chaplain  made 
the  best  throw  in  the  finals.    The  records  for  the  first  four  places  were: 

Chaplain  F.  C.  Thompson  (U.S.) 74.929  metres 

S.  H.  Thompson  (U.S.) 73.135       " 

Sgt.  D.  C.  Wycavage  (U.S.)  70.40        " 

Zirganos  (Greece) 69.31         " 

This  was  the  first  appearance  of  grenade  throwing  in  a  great  athletic 
meet  although  grenades  have  been  used  in  warfare  for  centuries.  It 
is  recorded  that  the  pirates  of  the  Mediterranean  threw  bottles  filled 
with  powder  when  they  pillaged  the  villages  along  the  shores.  Gre- 
nades, deriving  their  name  because  of  their  shape  from  the  French 
word  for  pomegranate,  came  into  common  use  about  1660  and  thence- 
forward nearly  every  war  saw  some  improvements  in  their  fabrica- 
tion or  the  methods  of  using,  them.  First  the  French  and  then  the 
English,  1670  and  1680,  introduced  elite  companies  of  grenadiers  into 
their  regiments,  the  special  duty  of  these  organizations  being  to  cre- 
ate breaches  in  an  enemy's  defensive  works  by  the  use  of  grenades 
and  axes.  At  the  time  of  the  Napoleonic  wars  the  use  of  grenades 
had  so  increased  that  many  independent  battahons  and  in  the 
French  service  even  brigades  and  divisions  of  grenadiers  were  formed. 
Later  in  the  19th  century  grenades  became  obsolete  but  they  were 
revived  with  modern  high  explosives  during  the  siege  of  Port  Arthur 
in  1904,  and  soon  after  the  beginning  of  the  Great  War  in  1914,  owing 
to  the  development  of  position  warfare,  their  advantages  as  offensive 
and  defensive  weapons  quickly  became  apparent  and  grenade  throwing 
was  introduced  universally  in  all  armies. 

The  over  arm  motion,  with  the  elbow  almost  rigid,  was  adopted 
by  the  Americans  from  the  English.  But  when  the  American  soldier 
was  away  from  his  instructors  he  invariably  threw  the  hand  grenade 
baseball  fashion — the  method  of  throwing  that  he  had  learned  from 
childhood  in  America  and  probably  the  most  efficient  of  all  methods 
for  hurling  objects  of  any  kind. 

One  of  the  chief  objections  of  the  first  instructors  to  the  American 
baseball  throw  was  that  the  grenade  is  heavier  than  a  baseball  and 
that  therefore  the  arm  could  not  stand  the  strain  of  the  whip-hke 
throw.  The  Americans  overcame  this  by  practising  with  lighter 
objects  — usually  baseballs — and  threw  the  grenade  only  thirty- five  to 
fifty  yards  when  they  did  throw  it  in  practice. 


328  THE      INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

The  finals  at  Pershing  Stadium,  held  25  June,  did  not  produce 
the  best  throw  that  had  been  made.  In  an  elimination  contest  in  the 
Third  American  Army,  Sergeant  C.  D.  Radabaugh  of  the  5th  Marines 
had  made  a  throw  of  259  feet,  while  in  the  eliminations  for  the  selec- 
tion of  the  American  contestants  Chaplain  Thompson  threw  the 
grenade  251  feet. 

The  rules  which  governed  the  event  were  very  liberal,  allowing,  any 
style  of  throw  to  be  used.  The  French  F-1  Defensive  Grenade  was 
adopted  as  the  official  grenade. 

Experts  who  have  studied  the  development  of  grenade  throwing 
claim  that  future  competitions  will  bring  out  men  who  will  far  exceed 
the  records  already  made.  Some  claim  that  a  throw  of  90  metres  is 
not  at  all  improbable  in  the  near  future. 

In  the  throwing  Zirganos  of  Greece  demonstrated  the  form  that  is 
probably  most  approved  by  those  who  have  specialized  in  grenade 
throwing.  He  put  his  body  behind  the  throw.  Seriaud  of  France, 
and  Tsevoukas  of  Greece  also  used  distinctly  the  body  throw.  In 
other  words  the  baseball  throw  won  in  the  first  competition  over  the 
body  throw,  but  supporters  of  the  body  throw  still  contend  that 
further  development  will  result  in  the  body  throw  winning  with  its 
advantage  of  avoiding  strain,  thus  enabling  the  throwers  of  the  future 
to  practice  more  than  those  who  use  the  baseball  style  of  throw. 

The  judges  and  officials  of  the  javelin  throw  conducted  the  grenade 
throwing  contests. 

The  following  were  the  records  made  by  all  the  entries  in  the  event : 

Australia FHck 59.95     metres 

C.  W.  Drysdale. .  .     56.23 

Belgium Schaekers 61 .62 

Verpoorter 60.54  " 

Wynaud 59.48 

Canada Clarke 55.71 

Johnson 57.33 

France Bourgeois 67.02  " 

Miramont 54.71 

Seriaud 67.32 

Italy Dreste 51 .68 

Pasquale 66.39 

Greece Tsevoukas 67.41 

Papaioannou  .  .  .  .     64.91  " 

Zirganos 69.31 

United  States  ..  .  F.C.Thompson.  74.929 
S.  H.  Thompson  .  73.135 
Wycavage 70.40  " 


Rowing.     Top— Canadian  eight.     Center  Zc/i— Italian  eight.     Center  riff/ii— Australian  eight. 

Bottom — New  Zealand  eight. 


TUG  OF  WAR 


HE  United  States  Tug-of-war  team  won  the  Inter-Allied 
championship  by  a  clean  sweep  of  victories.  Matched 
against  the  heavy  Belgian  eight  in  the  finals,  the  Yankee 
giants  made  short  work  of  the  first  bout,  pulling  the  red- 
black-and-yellow  athletes  to  and  over  the  line  in  fourteen  seconds. 
Not  by  clever  trick  work  was  their  victory  accomplished,  but  by  the 
puUing  of  a  strong  team  of  well-trained,  powerful  soldiers,  who 
could  have  dragged  over  the  20-mule  borax  team  had  it  been  entered 
in  the  Inter-Allied  Games. 

The  first  match  pitted  the  doughboys  against  the  French  team. 
In  less  than  a  minute  in  each  pull  they  hauled  the  Tricolor  eight  off 
its  feet  and  qualified  to  meet  the  ItaUans  who  had  won  their  way  to 
the  semifinals  by  beating  the  Canadians  in  two  out  of  three. 

The  feature  of  the  Tug-of-war  matches  was  the  Canadians'  pecuhar 
style  of  shifting  the  rope  from  a  front  position  to  a  firm  grip  over 
their  shoulders  and  back  without  losing  ground  during  the  operation. 
Their  trick  proved  successful  but  it  did  not  conform  to  the  rules  and 
the  Maple  Leaf  athletes  were  disqualified. 

By  beating  Australia  the  Belgian  team  survived  the  preliminaries 
and  qualified  to  meet  the  Americans  in  the  final  contest.  They  were 
no  match  for  the  United  States  Army  men  whose  powerful,  steady 
heaves  earned  them  the  Inter-Allied  championship  in  less  than  a 
minute. 

The  composition  of  the  winning  team  and  the  runner-up  follows: 

United  States:  Johnson,  Johnston,  Fay,  Posey,  Mathesson,  Rouse, 
Shaw,  McFarren,  Cobb,  Moser,  Fields. 

Belgium:  Gill,  Bultuyck,  Den  Tweck,  Van  Eecke,  Vandeille. 
Nichalaos,  Servaes,  Vandenborn,  Casiers,  Lambrecht,  Reymen. 


See  page  457  for  tug-of-war  pictures. 


XMMMMMMJ/OimmmmSlMlimiMMiMilMMIMi 


MASS  GAMES 


NE  of  the  repeatedly  announced  purposes  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Games  was  to  revive  athletics  with  their  beneficial 
results  in  all  the  Allied  countries.  With  this  in  mind  the 
Games  Committee  arranged  a  series  of  demonstrations 
under  the  direction  of  Dr.  H.  F.  Kullenberg  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  The 
games  were  those  used  in  the  American  Army,  almost  all  of  thein 
being  of  the  nonequipment  variety.  The  advantage  these  mass 
games  have  over  more  highly  specialized  athletics  is  in  the  fact 
that  every  man  takes  part. 

The  demonstrations  were  given  in  the  Stadium  and  were  distri- 
buted throughout  the  two  weeks  of  competitions.  On  Sunday, 
29  June,  a  large  crowd  of  French  civilians  watched  the  play  with 
interest.  It  was  probably  the  first  time  the  French  had  been  given 
an  insight  into  the  secret  of  America's  wide  range  of  athletics.  They 
saw  men  in  great  numbers  playing  games,  not  specialized,  but  games 
that  required  energy,  alertness,  and  coordination.  Other  countries 
also  had  men  at  the  Stadium  especially  studying  this  plan  to  bring 
physical  recreation  to  all  the  people  rather  than  to  a  few  specialists. 

The  games  demonstrated  were  chosen  to  illustrate  specific  theories. 
For  instance,  every  game  used  was  one  that  could  be  introduced 
among  employees  of  industrial  plants,  into  boys'  camps,  high  schools, 
colleges  and  rural  districts,  without  any  outlay  for  equipment  or 
training  methods.  Throughout  all  of  the  mass  games  the  play  spirit 
predominated.  This  made  the  games  more  valuable  than  other 
forms  of  physical  training,  as,  for  example,  the  setting-up  drills  so 
tedious  to  the  average  man. 

The  games  included  dual  competition  such  as  Horseback  Wrest- 
ling, Rooster  Fighting  and  Hand  Wrestling.  The  purpose  of  such 
games  is  to  develop  confidence  in  hand-to-hand  encounter  aside 
from  the  other  physical  benefits. 

Ring  games,  Three  Deep  and  Three  Link,  develop  quickness  of  decis- 
ion, agihty  and  the  ability  to  think  on  the  go.  And  there  were  games 
that  were  played  just  for  the  fun.  They  were  strictly  recreative  and 
mcluded  Swat  Tag,  Spin  the  Kaiser,  and  others.     Relay  races— Leap- 

See  page  465  for  mass  games  picture. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  333 

Frog,  Horseback,  Hat,  and  Chariot — ^were  introduced  to  develop 
speed,  agility  and  quickness  of  foot. 

The  games  were  demonstrated  by  companies  of  the  111th  Pioneer 
Infantry  and  Second  Battalion  of  the  7th  Engineers,  5th  Division.  The 
men  had  not  been  especially  trained  in  the  games,  but  in  the  big  arena 
their  play  periods  ran  off  with  the  smoothness  of  a  well-organized 
gymnasium  class.  They  were  divided  into  platoons  and  the  different 
groups,  in  different  parts  of  the  arena,  played  the  same  games  simul- 
taneously. 

The  programs  carried  in  the  mass  demonstrations  follow: 

29^June,  1919,  2:30  p.m. 

A.  Demonstrating  nonequipment  activities. 

I.  Relay    Races a.     Paul  Revere. 

b.     Horseback. 

n.     Ring  Games a.    Broncho  Tag. 

b.     Three  Links. 

III.  Dual  Competition a.     Dog  and  Snake. 

b.  Horseback  Wrestling. 

c.  Rooster  Fight. 

IV.  Special a.     Spin  the  Kaiser. 

b.     Blind  Man's  Swat. 

V.     Relay  Races a.     Skin  the  Snake. 

b.  Hat. 

c.  Chariot. 

B.  Four    Games    of    Playground  Ball. 

30  June,  1919,  4:10  p.  m. 

A.     Nonequipment. 

I.     Relay  Race a.  Leap  Frog. 

b.  Paul  Revere. 

c.  Equipment. 

II.  Ring  Games a.     Three  Links  Tag. 

b.     Broncho  Tag. 

III.  Dual  Competitions...         a.     Horseback  Wrestling. 

b.     Rooster  Fight. 

IV.  Special a-     Swat  Tag 

b.  Skm  the  Snake. 

c.  Blind  Man's  Swat. 

[V.     Relay  Races a-     Centipede. 

b.  Hat. 

c.  Chariot. 


334  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

B.     Simple  Equipment. 

I.     Team  Games a.     Two  games  of  Playground 

Ball. 

b.     Three  games  of  Volleyball. 

1  July,  1919,  2:00  p.m. 

I.     Relay  Races a.  Tunnel  with  Medicine  Ball. 

b.  Mine  Sweeper. 

II.     Dual    Competition. . .         a.  Horseback  Wrestling. 

b.  Rooster  Fight. 

III.  Special a.  Tug  of  War. 

b.     Swat  Tag. 

IV.  Relay  Races a.     Centipede. 

b.  Three-legged. 

c.  Spiral. 


CHAPTER  XVII 

CLOSING     CEREMONIES 


y^^Z*,^v/'■T,•i 


OMiNG  between  the  two  greatest  fetes  celebrated  by  liberty- 
loving  people — American  Independence  Day  and  French 
Bastille  Day — the  closing  exercises  of  the  Inter-Allied 
Games,  on  Sunday,  6  July,  caught  Paris  in  its  happiest 
mood.  Peace  had  but  recently  been  signed,  and  the  world  was  just 
beginning  to  grasp  the  fact.  The  city  was  taking  on  the  beautiful 
dress  it  was  to  wear  on  the  Fourteenth  of  July.  In  fact,  the  people 
who  had  begun  the  Fete  of  Peace  with  the  signing  of  the  treaty  accepted 
the  closing  exercises  as  a  part  of  the  grand  fortnight  just  as  they 
accepted  the  Fourth  of  July. 

It  seemed  as  though  all  Paris  and  the  Armies  of  the  Allies  tried 
to  get  into  the  Stadium,  for  the  people  were  all  in  truly  holiday  mood. 

The  two  outstanding  features  of  the  last  afternoon  were  the  pre- 
sentation of  the  prizes  to  the  winners  of  the  Games  by  General  Pershing 
and  the  hoisting  of  the  Tricolor  over  the  Stadium. 

With  the  30,000  spectators  standing  at  attention  and  salute,  and 
some  of  the  finest  soldiers  America  has  ever  produced  at  "present 
arms"  in  the  big  arena  while  the  bands  played  The  Star  Spangled 
Banner  followed  by  the  Marseillaise,  the  flags  of  the  Allies  were  slowly 
lowered.  At  the  last  notes  of  the  music,  Colonel  See,  chief  French 
representative  on  the  Advisory  Committee,  a  distinguished  figure  in 
blue  wearing  numerous  medals,  stood  directly  in  front  of  the  reviewing 
stand  where  General  Pershing  and  other  officers  were  at  salute,  and 
hauled  the  flag  of  France  to  the  mast  head  in  front  of  the  Tribune 
d'Honneur.    The  games  were  over  and  the  Stadium  belonged  to  France. 

Except  for  this  touch  of  military  formality — one  of  the  prettiest 
of  all  the  two  weeks'  ceremonies— the  closing  day  program  was  marked 
by  its  simplicity.  A  band  in  front  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur  played 
popular  and  military  music  between  the  different  parts  of  the  program. 

The  baseball  game  between  the  United  States  and  Canada  to  decide 
the  championship  resulted  in  the  defeat  of  the  wearers  of  the  Maple 
Leaf.  In  order  to  clear  the  arena  the  Canadians  agreed  to  stop  at  the 
end  of  the  seventh  inning  with  a  one-sided  score  of  12  to  1  against 
them.  A  boxing  bout  that  was  a  slashing  affair  between  Pettibridge 
of  Australia  and  Spalla  of  Italy  resulted  in  the  Italian  winning  the 
Hght  heavyweight  title.  These  two  events  constituted  the  only 
competitions  of  the  day. 


336  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

As  the  Games  ended,  selected  troops  from  the  Army  of  Occupation 
entered,  led  by  their  band,  and  took  a  line  formation  in  the  field. 
Behind  them  came  the  athletes — winners  of  the  different  events.  The 
hundreds  of  muscular  competitors  in  track  and  field  garb,  as  well 
as  the  sprinkling  of  officers  in  uniform  who  had  won  in  the  military 
events,  presented  a  striking  picture. 

General  Pershing,  assisted  by  M.  Henry  Pate  and  a  number  of 
French  and  American  officers,  mounted  the  reviewing  stand  which 
had  been  erected  in  front  of  the  center  of  the  Tribune  d'Honneur. 
Each  athlete  crossed  the  stand  and  received  his  prize,  or  prizes,  at  the 
hands  of  the  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces. 

Many  of  the  winners  were  given  ovations.  General  Pershing  showed 
himself  well  posted  on  the  situation  and  had  a  word  for  each  man.  To 
those  who  had  particularly  distinguished  themselves  he  often  talked 
earnestly  and  with  enthusiasm.  He  shook  each  man  by  the  hand. 
There  was  little  of  the  military  spirit  about  this  part  of  the  program. 
The  winners  of  the  military  events,  of  course,  saluted,  and  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief returned  the  courtesy.  Occasionally  a  man  in  track 
or  football  uniform  saluted,  but  most  of  them  received  the  congratu- 
lations of  General  Pershing  and  his  handshake  with  a  happy  smile. 

To  the  Czecho-Slovaks,  who  by  winning  the  championship  in  soccer 
had  brought  the  first  athletic  honors  to  their  new  country.  General 
Pershing  talked  long  and  earnestly.  The  huge  trophy,  the  magnifi- 
cent cock  of  Verdun,  was  one  of  the  finest  of  all.  The  team  was 
accorded  a  great  reception  by  the  crowd.  Ross,  of  America,  who 
won  the  swimming  meet  practically  alone  received  an  ovation  when 
he  took  his  armful  of  prizes  from  General  Pershing.  The  big  crowd 
gave  a  rousing  cheer  to  Jean  Vermeulen,  the  battered,  high-spirited 
veteran  of  the  war,  whose  pluck  won  for  France  the  cross-country 
and  modified  Marathon  runs.  The  smile  of  Sol.  Butler,  the  American 
negro  sprinter,  was  contagious.  The  crowd  cheered  him,  The  Rou- 
manians, who  had  proved  themselves  such  thorough  sportsmen,:  even 
when  losing,  never  failed  to  receive  applause. 

A  happy  arrangement  of  the  program  gave  the  number  of  each 
man  and  his  name.  A  big  placard  on  the  chest  of  every  one  of  the 
winners  bore  his  number.  Reference  to  the  program,  well  arranged 
and  grouped,  enabled  the  spectators  to  know  instantly  who  was  receiv- 
ing his  prize. 

The  Stadium  had  already  been  officially  presented  to  the  French 
on  the  Opening  Day.  The  lowering  of  the  Allied  flags  merely  marked 
in  a  ceremonial  sense,  the  conclusion  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games. 


PANORAMIC    VIEW    OF 


;    STADIUM     ON     CLOSING     DAY 


f     CLOSING    DAY 


Rowing.     Top  left — New  Zealand  four.     Top  right — Canadian  four.     Center  left — Belgian  four. 
Center    right — Italian    four.     Bottom    left — Alf    Pelton,    Australian    single    sculler.     Bottom 

right — Portuguese  four. 


APPENDICES 


1.  Adress  by  Colonel  Wait  G.  Johnson 

2.  General  Regulations  Governing  the  Competitions 

3.  Officials 

4.  Roster  of  Contestants 

5.  List  of  Winners,  Iiiter-Allied  Games. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  341 

ADDRESS  BY  COLONEL  WAIT  C.  JOHNSON 

General  Staff,  Chairman  of  the  Games  Committee,  Inter-Allied  Games, 
53,  Avenue  Montaigne,  Paris  May  24,  1919. 

The  officers  and  men  of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  being 
keenly  appreciative  of  the  splendid  relations  which  exist  amongst 
those  of  us  who  have  borne  arms  in  a  great  and  common  cause  and 
which  have  so  happily  developed  into  feelings  of  mutual  respect  and 
admiration,  are  most  anxious  to  preserve  and  strengthen  this  rela- 
tionship. With  this  idea  in  view,  our  Commander-in-Chief  has  invited 
the  officers  and  men  of  our  Allies  to  participate  in  an  Inter-Allied 
Athletic  meet  in  order  to  promote  this  spirit  of  comradeship  and  to 
cement  in  friendly  competition  on  the  field  of  sport  the  ties  which 
had  been  formed  on  the  battlefield.  The  Inter- Allied  Athletic  meet, 
or  more  properly  called  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  will  take  place  from 
June  22  to  July  4,  1919,  inclusive,  at  Pershing  Stadium,  near  Paris. 

For  the  conduct  of  these  and  for  full  responsibility  for  them  our 
Commander-in-Chief  has  appointed  a  Games  Committee  consisting 
of  Lieut.  Col.  T.  G.  Lonergan,  General  Staff,  Lieut.  Col.  D.  M.  Goodrich, 
General  Staff,  Mr.  E.  S.  Brown  and  Mr.  W.  A.  Reynolds,  Athletic 
Directors  of  the  Y.M.C.A.,  and  myself.  I  have  the  honor  to  represent 
the  Games  Committee  as  its  Chairman.  As  above  stated,  the  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces  has  charged 
this  Committee  with  full  responsibility  for  the  Games  and  all  matters 
relating  thereto. 

At  the  direction  of  General  Pershing,  each  of  the  nations  par- 
ticipating in  the  Games  has  been  asked  to  appoint  two  representatives 
to  act  as  members  of  an  Advisory  Committee. 

As  Chairman  of  the  Games  Committee,  I  take  great  pleasure 
in  welcoming  you  at  this  opening  meeting  of  the  Advisory  Com- 
mittee of  which  you  are  members.  In  accordance  with  the  desires 
of  my  Commander-in-Chief  and  on  behalf  of  the  Games  Committee, 
I  ask  of  you  your  hearty  cooperation.  The  Games  Committee  will 
no  doubt  frequently,  from  time  to  time,  call  upon  you  for  advice 
and  assistance.  Realizing  the  pitfalls  which  have  heretofore  always 
lain  in  the  path  of  international  athletic  competitions,  we  feel  sure 
that  with  your  cooperation  and  assistance  many  of  these  difficul- 
ties will  be  obviated.  We  shall  be  grateful  to  receive  your  sug- 
gestions as  to  reception,  entertainment  and  attendance  of  your  mill- 


342  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    I9I9 

tary  and  government  officials,  with  recommendations  as  to  the 
ceremonies  attending  such  meeting.  We  have  in  the  past  received 
your  suggestions  as  to  added  events.  Where  suggestions  have  come 
relative  to  rules  and  competitions  from  various  sources,  we  have  tried 
to  coordinate  them  to  the  fullest  degree,  meeting  the  desires  of  all 
concerned.  Your  reponse  to  our  future  requests  for  advice  or  assist- 
ance will  be  deeply  appreciated,  not  only  by  the  Committee  itself 
but  by  our  Commander-in-Chief,  and  the  forces  which  he  repre- 
sents, and  will  materially  aid  in  the  success  of  this  friendly  competi- 
tion among  the  AUied  Nations  at  Pershing  Stadium. 

The  organization  of  our  Games  Committee,  as  indicated  in  the  charts 
furnished  you  all,  has  three  general  sections  for  the  conduct  of  the 
Games,  and  all  matters  connected  therewith.  The  Liaison  Section, 
with  which  you  gentlemen  as  members  of  the  Advisory  Committee  will 
come  most  closely  in  contact,  has  been  organized  as  the  medium 
through  which  your  written  suggestions  are  to  come,  also  to  assist 
and  aid  you  and  your  competing  athletes  in  all  ways  possible.  We 
trust  that  you  will   command   its  services. 

In  this  connection,  I  feel  it  proper  to  tell  you  of  the  arrange- 
ments that  have  been  made  for  camps  and  accommodations,  both  prior 
to  and  during  the  continuance  of  the  games. 

/.     Rifle  and  Pistol  Compeiilion  to  he  held  at  Le  Mans  Rifle  Range: 

1.  The  U.S.  Army  Springfield  rifle  and  Army  automatic  pistol 
will  be  supplied  upon  request  to  any  of  the  competing  nations  who 
may  desire  to  employ  these  arms  in  the  rifle  and  pistol  competition 
respectively.  The  necessary  ammunition  for  these  weapons  will  be 
furnished. 

2.  Teams  that  are  to  enter  the  rifle  and  pistol  competition  will 
be  received  at  Le  Mans  at  any  time  on  or  after  June  1,  1919.  Tele- 
graphic notice  should  be  sent  to  the  Commanding  Officer,  Competitors 
Camp,  Rifle  and  Pistol  Range,  Le  Mans,  twenty-four  hours  in  advance 
of  the  date  and  time  of  arrival  of  a  team. 

3.  The  following  accommodations  are  available  for  the  competing 
teams   if  they   desire   to   avail   themselves   of   them: 

(a)  All  range  facilities  will  be  supplied. 

(b)  Quarters  for  all  teams.  Each  team  captain  will  be  furnished 
with  a  small  Adrian  hut  for  his  own  quarters.  For  the  team  there 
are  available  pyramidal  tents  framed  and  floored — one  tent  for  each 
two  or  three  competitors. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  343 

(c)  Gots  and  blankets  are  available  for  issue  to  team  compe- 
titors. 

(d)  Bath  houses  have  been  installed  for  the  use  of  teams. 

(e)  Cooking  and  messing  shelters  are  provided  as  well  as  the 
necessary  mess  equipment,  such  as  stoves,  dishes,  etc.,  necessary 
in  the  preparation  of  the  food. 

(f)  If  desired,  rations  may  be  obtained  from  the  American  Com- 
missary at  the  same  rate  established  for  the  American  troops. 

(g)  Arrangements  will  be  made  to  obtain  additional  suppHes 
as  teams  may  desire  from  surrounding  towns. 

(h)  For  the  entertainment  of  competitors  moving  picture  shows 
will  be  staged  nightly.  Twice  a  week  there  will  be  other  forms  of 
entertainment. 

(i)  For  athletic  entertainment  tennis  courts  with  the  necessary 
equipment  are  being  installed  and  an  effort  is  being  made  to  lay  out 
a  short  golf  course. 

4.  The  camp  has  been  built  less  than  five  hundred  meters  from 
the  firing  range.  Accommodations  are  available  for  any  number  of 
men  on  a  competing  team  to  include  one  hundred. 

All  the  necessary  camp  equipment  will  be  supplied  by  the  Quarter- 
master Department,  United  States  Army. 

//.     Arrangement  at  Colombes  Stadium: 

To  accommodate  athletic  teams  arriving  prior  to  the  days  imme- 
diately preceding  the  opening  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games,  a  camp 
for  various  teams  has  been  provided  at  Colombes  Stadium.  At  this 
camp  there  will  be  available  for  the  competing  teams,  if  they  desire 
to   avail   themselves    of   them  : 

1.  Track  and  field  for  training  purposes,  including  all  necessary 
paraphernalia. 

2.  Quarters  for  all  teams.  These  quarters  will  consist  of  tents 
furnished  with  cots,  mattresses,  blankets,  etc.,  which  will  be  available 
for  individual  competitors. 

3.  Bath  houses,  including  rubbing  tables,  have  been  installed. 

4.  Cooking  and  messing  shelters  are  provided,  as  well  as  the 
necessary  mess  equipment,  such  as  stoves,  dishes,  etc.,  necessary  in 
the  preparation  of  food. 

5.  If  desired,  rations  may  be  obtained  through  the  American 
Commissary  at  the  same  rate  established  for  American  troops. 

6.  In  addition,  arrangements  will  be  made  for  necessary  transpor- 


344  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

tation  to  enable  competing  teams  to  obtain  additional  supplies  in 

Paris  or  other  towns. 

7.  This  camp  at  Colombes  Stadium  will  be  available  for  com- 
peting teams  any  time  subsequent  to  the  second  day  of  June. 

8.  The  preliminary  camp  is  built  at  Colombes  with  a  view  to 
giving  competing  nations  a  satisfactory  location  for  practice  other 
than  the  final  field  at  Pershing  Stadium,  which  will  not  be  used  by 
any  nation  prior  to  the  days  of  the  Games.  In  order  that  adequate 
accommodation  may  be  suppHed  on  time,  it  is  requested  that  ample 
notice  be  given  of  the  time  of  arrival  and  the  number  of  men  from  each 
competing  nation. 

III.  Camp  al  Pershing  Stadium: 

For  the  accommodation  of  competing  teams  during  the  days  of  the 
Games,  a  camp  is  being  estabhshed  at  Joinville,  immediately  access- 
ible to  the  Pershing  Stadium,  upon  which  the  Games  will  be  held. 
This  camp  will  be  ready  to  receive  its  occupants  just  prior  to  the 
opening  of  the  Games.  The  arrangements  will  be  similar  to  those 
heretofore  described  for  the  field  at  Colombes. 

IV.  Accommodations  of  the  teams,  including  both  men  and  horses  which 

will  compete  in  the  mounted  events: 

Arrangements  including  billets  for  the  teams  and  stables  for  the 
horses  are  being  perfected  at  Fort  Champigny-sur-Marne,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Joinville-le-Pont,  about  5  kilometers  from  the  Stadium. 
Accommodations  will  be  available  here  the  first  week  of  June,  and  the 
same  arrangements  relative  to  forage  for  animals  as  heretofore  out- 
lined and  for  rations  for  men  will  be  made. 

In  closing  let  me  say  that  we  trust  you  will  find  the  work  in  con- 
nection with  this  carnival  as  interesting  as  we  have  found  it.  I  am 
very  glad  that  we  are  gathered  together,  and  assure  you  of  how  deeply 
we  shall  appreciate  your  cooperation,  advice  and  assistance.  And 
those  of  us  who  have  been  charged  by  our  Commander-in-Chief  with 
the  conduct  of  these  Games  shall  feel  that  we  have  failed  and  the 
great  purpose  of  the  Games  lost  sight  of  if,  through  their  medium, 
the  feehng  of  good  comradeship  and  friendship  engendered  on  the  field 
of  battle  is  not  cemented  more  closely  and  made  more  lasting  through 
the  medium  of  these  friendly  sports. 

WAIT  C.  JOHNSON 
Colonel,  General  Staff, 
Chairman. 


m-H.C.   Hadfleld,    New   Zealand,  single    sculling    champion.      Bottom    u^Ai-The  French 

champion  tour. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  847 

GENERAL    REGULATIONS    GOVERNING 
THE    COMPETITIONS 

Games  Committee. — -The  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American 
Expeditionary  Forces  has  appointed  a  Games  Committee  consisting 
of  three  ofTicers  of  the  United  States  Army  and  two  militarized  civil- 
ians, and  has  charged  this  Committee  with  full  responsibihty  for  the 
Games  and  all  matters  relating  thereto. 

Advisory  Committee. — At  the  direction  of  the  Commander-in-Chief 
of  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces,  each  of  the  nations  partici- 
pating in  the  Games  has  been  asked  to  appoint  two  representatives 
to  act  as  members  of  an  Advisory  Committee,  to  cooperate  with, 
advise,  and  assist  the  Games  Committee. 

Finances. — The  American  Expeditionary  Forces  have  assumed 
the  responsibility  for  all  expenses  in  connection  with  the  Games 
except  those  involved  in  the  actual  training,  equipping,  transporting, 
and  maintaining  of  the  representatives  of  the  competing  nations. 

Competitors,  Etigibitity. — Each  nation  participating  may  enter 
any  officer,  noncommissioned  officer,  or  private  soldier,  who  has  at 
any  time  between  August  4,  1914,  and  November  11,  1918,  been  a 
member  of  the  military  forces  of  that  nation. 

Anyone  eligible  under  the  foregoing,  who  has  been  a  member 
of  the  military  forces  of  more  than  one  nation  formally  participating 
in  the  Games,  may  elect  the  nation  for  which  he  desires  to  compete. 

Entries. — Entries  shall  be  limited  to  three  for  individual  events, 
and  one  for  team  events,  for  each  nation,  except  where  otherwise 
hereinafter  specifically  provided. 

All  relay  races  shall  be  regarded  as  team  events. 

Entries  shall  be  made  to  the  Games  Committee  by  the  properly 
accredited  individual  or  Committee  for  the  nation  concerned,  on  a 
special  entry  form  to  be  issued  by  the  Games  Committee.  A  separate 
form  shall  be  filled  in  for  each  individual  or  team  entered.  Entries 
will  close  June  14,  1919. 

Entries  by  cable  will  not  be  accepted,  save  in  exceptional  cases, 
the  actual  entries  to  follow  as  provided  above. 

Entrance  Fee. — There  shall  be  no  entrance  fee  for  any  event. 

Decisions,  Protests. — Decisions  of  judges  as  to  matters  of  fact 
shall  be  final. 

Protests  against  decisions  of  judges  on  other  points  will  be  enter- 
tained if  made  in  writing  within  one  hour  after  decision  is  announced, 
with  reasons  stated.  All  protests  and  all  questions  arising  from 
interpretation  and  application  of  the  rules  will  be  referred  to  the 
Games  Committee  for  final  decision.  In  all  such  decisions  the  English 
text  will  be  used  as  official.  Objections  on  the  part  of  one  nation  to 
the   eligibility   of   any   contestant  representing   a   competing  nation 


348  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

must  be  made  in  writing  by  one  of  the  representatives  of  the  protesting 
nation  on  the  Advisory  Committee,  and  filed  with  the  Games  Com- 
mittee within  twelve  hours  after  the  close  of  the  event. 

Sports. — The  Inter-Allied  Games  shall  consist  of  separate  cham- 
pionship contests  in  the  following  sports.  Additional  sports  may  be 
suggested  by  any  nation  formally  participating.  Such  suggestions 
must  be  in  the  hands  of  the  Games  Committee  not  later  than  May  1, 
1919.  Prompt  notice  of  additions  as  well  as  copies  of  the  playing 
rules  will  be  sent  all  nations  participating. 
Events:    1.  Baseball. 

2.  Basketball. 

3.  Boxing. 

Bantamweight 118  lbs.  and  under. 

Featherweight. .  .    .  125  lbs.  and  under. 

Lightweight 135  lbs.  and  under. 

Welterweight 145  lbs.  and  under. 

Middleweight 160  lbs.  and  under. 

Light  heavyweight.  175  lbs.  and  under. 

Heavyweight over  175  lbs. 

4.  Cricket. 

5.  Cross-Country   Race. — 10,000   meters  —  individual    com- 

petition. 

6.  Fencing. — Foils,  individual  and  team  competition. 

7.  Fencing. — ^Sabers,  individual  and  team  competition. 

8.  Fencing. — Epee,  individual  and  team  competition. 

9.  Football. — Soccer. 

10.  Football. — American,  Intercollegiate. 

11.  Foof 6a/;.— Rugby. 

12.  Golf. — Individual    and   team    competition. 

13.  Hand-Grenade  Throwing. 

14.  Horse-Riding  Competition. 

15.  Rowing. — Single  Sculls. 

16.  Rowing. — 4-oared  Shells. 

17.  Rowing. — 8-oared  Shells. 

18.  Shooting.-— Array  Rifle. — Team  competition. 

19.  Shooting.— Army  Rifle.— Individual  competition. 

20.  Shooting.— Revolver     or     Automatic     Pistol. — Service 

Weapons. — Team  competition. 

21 .  Shooting. — Revolver  or  Automatic  Pistol. — Service  Wea- 

pons.— Individual  competition. 

22.  Swimming. 

a.  100  meters,  free  style. 

b.  100  meters,  back  stroke. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  349 

c.  200  meters,  breast  stroke. 

d.  400  meters,  free  style. 

e.  800  meters,  free  style. 
/.  1,500  meters,  free  style. 

g.  800  meters,  relay  free  style,  4  men  (4x200). 

23.  Tennis. — Singles  and  Doubles. 

24.  Track  and  Field  Sports. 

a.  100-meter  dash. 

b.  200-meter  dash. 

c.  400-meter  run. 

d.  800-meter  run. 

e.  1500-meter  run. 

/.  Modified  Marathon — 16,000  meters. 
g.  110-meter  High  Hurdles. 
h.  200-meter  Low  Hurdles. 
i.  Running  High  Jump. 
/.  Running  Broad  Jump. 
k.  Standing  Broad  Jump. 
/.  Running  Hop,  Step,  and  Jump. 
m.  Pole  Vault. 

n.  Throwing  the  Javelin,  best  hand. 
0.  Throwing  the  Discus,  best  hand, 
p.  Putting  the  16-lb.  shot,  best  hand. 
q.  Pentathlon. 

200-meter  Dash. 

Running  Broad  Jump. 

Shot  Put,  16  lbs.,  best  hand. 

Throwing  Discus,  best  hand. 

1500-meter  run. 
r.  Relay  Race,  800  meters,  4  men  (4x200). 
s.  Relay  Race,  1,600  meters,  4  men  (4x400). 
t.  Medley  Relay  Race,  4  men. 

First  man  runs  200  meters. 

Second  man  runs  400  meters. 

Third  man  runs  800  meters. 

Fourth  man  runs  1600  meters, 

25.  Tug-of-War. — 9-men  team. 

26.  Water  Polo. 

27.  Wrestling. — Catch-as-catch-can  and  Greco-Roman. 

Bantamweight 118  lbs.  and  under. 

Featherweight 125  lbs.  and  under. 

Lightweight 135  lbs.  and  under. 


350  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Welterweight.  .  .  .  145  lbs.  and  under. 

Middleweight.  .  160  lbs.  and  under. 

Light  heavyweight .  175  lbs.  and  under. 

Heavyweight,  over .  175  lbs. 

Two  Special  Events. — An  800-meter  Relay  race  (4  men,  each 
200  meters)  and  Running  Broad  Jump — not  part  of  Track  and  Field — 
open  to  Armies  of  Occupation  only. 

Competitions  will  be  conducted  in  all  of  the  above  sports  attract- 
ing entries  from  two  or  more  nations.  If  entry  is  received  from 
only  one  nation,  such  event  shall  be  regarded  as  an  exhibition  event 
only,  and  may  be  demonstrated  at  the  option  of  the  nation  con- 
cerned. 

METHODS   OF   CONDUCTING   TOURNAMENTS 

In  all  round-robin  and  elimination  tournaments,  where  more 
than  two  teams  are  entered,  one  match  shall  determine  the  winner. 

1.  Baseball. — With  only  two  competing  teams,  the  champion- 
ship shall  be  awarded  to  the  team  first  winning  three  games.  With 
three  or  more  teams,  a  round-robin  tournament  shall  be  conducted. 

2.  Basketball. — Same  as  Baseball. 

3.  Boxing. — Entries  in  all  Boxing  and  Wrestling  events  shall 
be  limited  to  one  entry  by  each  competing  nation  for  each  weight. 
The  winner  in  each  class  shall  score  two  points  and  the  runner-up  shall 
score  one  point,  the  championship  going  to  the  nation  which  scores 
the  greatest  number  of  points. 

4.  Cricket. — With  only  two  competing  teams,  the  championship 
shall  be  awarded  to  the  team  first  winning  two  games.  With  three 
or  more  teams,  an  elimination  tournament  shall  be  conducted. 

5.  Cross-Country  Race. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded 
to  the  nation  whose  representative  finishes  in  first  place.  Second  and 
third  places  will  be  recorded. 

6.  Fencing — Foils — Individual  and  team. — Two  championships 
will  be  declared,  one  for  individual  and  one  for  team  ;  the  individual 
championship  will  be  awarded  the  nation  winning  the  individual 
tournament;  the  team  championship  will  be  awarded  to  the  nation 
wmnmg  the  team  tournament.  Second  place  will  be  recorded  in  each 
event. 

7.  Fencing—Sabers— Individual  and  team—Same  as  Foils. 

8.  Fencing — Epee — Individual  and  teamS&me  as  Foils. 

iu  \  Footbalt— Soccer.— {1)  With  only  two  competing  teams, 
the  championship  shall  be  awarded  to  the  team  first  winning  two 
games.  With  three  or  more  teams,  an  elimination  tournament  shall 
be  conducted.  (2)  In  case  of  a  tie  game,  two  extra  periods  of 
htteen  minutes  each  shall  be  played  and  if  at  the  end  of  that  time 
the  score  is  still  tied,  the  referee  shall  declare  "No  game,"  in  which 
case  he  shall  order  the  game  to  be  played  over  at  a  time  decided 
upon  by  the  Games  Committee. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


351 


10.  Football — American  inlercollegiate.— Same  as  (1)  under  Soccer. 

11.  Football — Rugby. — Same  as  (1)  under  Soccer. 

12.  Golf. — The  championship  will  be  awarded  to  the  nation 
winning  the  team  tournament.     Second  place  will  be  recorded. 

13.  Hand -Grenade  throwing. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded 
to  the  nation  whose  representative  wins  first  place.  Second  and 
third  places  shall  be  recorded. 

14.  Horse-Riding  competition. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded 
to  the  nation  winning  the  greatest  number  of  points  in  the  three  events. 

15.  Rowing — Singles  Sculls. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded 
to  the  nation  whose  representative  finishes  in  first  place.  Second 
and  third  places  will  be  recorded. 

16.  Rowing — Four-oared  Shells. — Same  as  Singles  Sculls. 

17.  Rowing — Eight-oared  Shells. — Same  as  Singles  Sculls. 

18.  Shooting — Army  Rifle — Team  competition. — The  championship 
shall   be  awarded  to  the  nation  making  the  highest  score. 

19.  Shooting — Army  Rifle — Individual  competition. — Same  as 
Army  Rifle  team  competition. 

20.  Shooting — Revolver  or  Automatic  Pistol — Service  weapons — 
Team  competition. — Same  as  Army  Rifle  team  competition. 

21.  Shooting — Revolver  or  Automatic  Pistol — Service  weapons — 
Individual  competition. — Same  as  Army  Rifle  team  competition. 

22.  Swimming. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded  to  the  nation 
scoring  the  greatest  number  of  points  in  the  various  events. 

23.  Tennis. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded  to  the  nation 
winning  the  elimination  tournament,  which  shall  be  conducted  as 
follows:  Drawing  will  be  by  lot.  In  each  tie,  the  contest  shall  consist 
of  four  singles  and  one  doubles,  best  three  of  five  advantage  sets.  Each 
singles  player  will  meet  each  of  the  opposing  singles  players. 

24.  Tracli  and  Field. — The  championship  shall  be  awarded  to 
the  team  scoring  the  greatest  number  of  points  in  the  various  events. 

25.  Tug-of-War. — With  only  two  competing  teams,  the  cham- 
pionship shall  be  awarded  to  the  team  first  winning  two  pulls.  With 
three  or  more  teams,  an  elimination  tournament  shall  be  conducted, 
each  match  of  which  shall  consist  of  best  two  of  three  pulls. 

26.  Water  Polo. — With  only  two  competing  teams,  the  champion- 
ship shall  be  awarded  to  the  team  first  winning  two  games.  With 
three  or  more  teams,  an  elimination  tournament  shall  be  conducted. 

27.  Wrestling — Catch-as-catch-can    and     Greco-Roman. — Same    as 

No.  3. 

SCORING   SYSTEMS 

Track  and  Field — Horse-Riding  Competitions— Swimming. 

First  place 3  points. 

Second  place 2  pomts. 

Third  place 1  pomt. 


352  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Boxing  and  Wrestling. — First  place,  each  weight 2  points. 

Second  place,  each  weight  ....     1  point. 

In  any  event  that  attracts  but  two  entries,  first  place  only  shall 
count.  In  any  event  that  attracts  but  three  entries,  first  and  second 
places  only  shall  count. 

CHAMPIONSHIPS 

The  winning  nation  in  each  of  the  above  numbered  branches  of 
sport  shall  be  recognized  as  champion  in  that  particular  branch  of  sport. 

PLAYING    RULES 

1.  Baseball. 

American  National  Baseball  Commission  rules  shall  govern. 

2.  Basketball. 

Joint  rules  adopted  by  American  National  College  Athletic  Asso- 
ciation, Y.M.C.A.,  and  Amateur  Athletic  Union  of  the  U.  S.  shall 
govern. 

3.  Boxing. 

American  Expeditionary  Forces  rules  shall  govern. 

RULE    I EQUIPMENT 

1.  Ring  dimensions. — The  boxing  ring  shall  be  not  less  than 
16  feet  nor  more  than  18  feet  square. 

2.  Extension  of  ring. — The  floor  of  the  ring  shall  extend  beyond 
the  lower  ropes  for  a  distance  of  not  less  than  2  feet. 

3.  Posts. — There  shall  be  at  least  four  posts,  properly  padded. 

4.  Ropes. — The  ring  shall  be  enclosed  by  at  least  three  rope 
rails  with  cloth  wrappings. 

5.  Padding. — The  ring  floor,  if  of  wood  or  other  hard  substance, 
shall  be  padded  at  least  1  inch  thick  with  corrugated  paper,  matting, 
felt,  or  other  soft  material. 

Note. — A  very  good  padding  for  an  outdoor  ring  is  dampened 
sawdust  covered  with  tight  canvas. 

RULE    II RING 

1.  Ring  during  progress  of  match. — During  the  rounds  the  ring 
shall  be  cleared  of  all  chairs,  buckets,  etc. 

2.  Clear  ring. — No  person  other  than  the  contestants  and  the 
referee  shall,  during  the  progress  of  the  rounds,  enter  or  be  in  the  ring. 

RULE    III BOXING    GLOVES 

1.  Gloves. — ^Five  ounce  gloves  will  be  used. 

2.  Bandages. — Soft  surgical  bandages  will  be  permitted.  The 
referee  will  inspect  all  bandages  and  gloves  in  the  ring. 

RULE  IV NUMBER  AND  TIME  LIMIT  OF  BOUTS  AND  ROUNDS 

All  bouts  shall  consist  of  ten  (10)  two  (2)  minute  rounds  with 
one  (1)  minute  intermissions. 


Shooting.     Camp  streets  at  the  Le  Mans  range.     Top-French.    6'««(er-Bolgian.    Bottom^ 

American. 

23 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  355 

RULE  V OFFICIALS  AND  DUTIES   OF   OFFICIALS 

1.  Officials. — The  officials  shall  be  a  referee,  two  judges,  one 
official  timekeeper  and  one  to  be  appointed  by  each  contestant,  one 
medical  officer,  and  one  clerk. 

2.  Duties  of  referee — Decision  of  judges  final. — The  referee  shall 
have  general  supervision  over  the  match  or  contest,  and  shall  take 
his  position  within  the  ring.  The  primary  duty  of  the  referee  shall 
be  the  strict  enforcement  of  the  rules  of  boxing  and  of  fair  play.  The 
referee  shall,  at  the  conclusion  of  the  bout,  abide  by  the  decision  of 
the  judges  in  every  case,  if  both  agree;  if  not,  he  will  decide  the  bout 
himself,  or  order  one,  or  if  necessary  more  extra  rounds  to  decide  the 
contest. 

3.  The  referee — 

a.  Shall  have  the  power  to  stop  a  bout  at  any  stage  and  make 

a  decision  if  he  considers  it  too  onesided. 

b.  Shall  not  touch  contesting  boxers  except  : 

1.  On   failure   of   one   or   both   contestants   to   obey 

"break"  command. 

2.  To  assist  injured  contestant. 

4.  Introduction  handshaking. — The  referee  shall  insist  on  all 
boxers  shaking  hands  at  the  commencement  of  the  first  and  last  round. 
No  other  demonstration  shall  be  allowed. 

Note. — The  referee  may  be  assisted  by  an  announcer  whose 
duty  shall  be  to  announce  the  names  of  all  contestants  and  act  as  a 
go-between  between  the  referee  and  judges. 

5.  Position  of  judges. — The  two  judges  shall  be  stationed  at 
opposite  sides  of  the  ring,  preferably  on  a  level  with  the  boxers. 

6.  Duty  of  fudges. — It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  judges  to  watch 
every  phase  of  the  bout  and  to  make  a  decision  upon  its  completion. 

7.  Timekeepers. — All  timekeepers  will  have  watches.  The  ofTi- 
cial  timekeeper  will  have  at  his  disposal  a  gong  with  which  he  will 

ndicate  the  beginning  and  end  of  each  round. 

8.  Duties  of  medical  officer. — The  medical  officer  shall  be  in 
attendance  at  all  times. 

9.  Duties  of  clerk. — The  clerk  will  keep  a  record  of  all  contestants 
and  all  decisions. 

RULE- VI DRAWING 

1.  Drawing. — The  drawings  shall  be  governed  by  the  Bagnall- 
Wilde  system. 

RULE    VII^ — SECONDS 

1.  Seconds. — Each  contestant  shall  be  assisted  by  two  (2)  seconds. 

2.  Warning  to  seconds.— The  seconds  must  not  speak,  signal, 
or  in  any  way  coach  their  principals  during  the  progress  of  a  round, 
nor  may  they  claim  time,  or  indicate  in  any  way  decisions  for  them. 

3.  Any  violation  of  the  above  provisions  may  render  a  principal 
liable  to  disqualification  by  the  reiferee.   .     ■,     :  : 


356  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

4.  Limitation  of  seconds. — The  seconds  must  remain  seated 
during  the  contests,  and  shall  not  enter  the  ring  until  the  timer  indi- 
cates the  termination  of  a  round.  They  shall  leave  the  ring  five 
seconds  before  the  beginning  of  a  round. 

RULE    VIH^WEIGHTS 

1.  Contestants  will  weigh  in  on  the  day  of  their  first  bout  at 
9:00  a.m.  for  afternoon  bouts,  or  3:00  p.m.  for  evening  bouts.  The 
weight  registered  at  the  original  weighing-in  will  be  the  competitor's 
ofTicial  weight  for  the  entire  meet. 

2.  Competitions  in  all  championships  will  be  held  in  the  follow- 
ing weights  and  classes  : 

Bantamweight 118  lbs. 

Featherweight 125 

Lightweight 135 

Welterweight 145 

Middleweight 160 

Light  Heavyweight 175 

Heavyweight,  all  over  .  .  .  175 

RULE    IX FOULS 

1.  Disqualification  will  follow  the  commission  of  any  of  the  fol- 
lowing fouls  after  two  previous  warnings  by  the  referee  : 

a.  Holding  an   opponent   or   deliberately  maintaining    a    clinch. 

b.  Holding  an  opponent  with  one  hand  and  hitting  with  the 
other  hand. 

c.  Hitting  with  inside  or  butt  of  the  hand,  the  wrist,  or  the  elbow. 

d.  Wrestling  or  roughing. 

e.  Hitting  or  "flicking"  with  the  open  glove. 

2.  Immediate  disqualification  will  follow  the  commission  of  any 
of  the  following  fouls  : 

a.  Hitting  below  the  belt. 

b.  Hitting  an  opponent  who  is  down  or  who  is  getting  up  after 
being  down. 

c.  Butting  with  the  head  or  using  the  knee. 

d.  Going  down  without  being  hit.  A  contestant  may  go  down 
through  accident  or  weakness,  but  must  rise  instantly  unless  sent 
down  by  a  blow,  in  which  case  he  may  remain  down  until  the  count 
of  "nine"  without  being  disqualified. 

e.  Striking  deliberately  at  that  part  of  the  body  over  the  kidneys 
during  a  clinch. 

/.   The  use  of  abusive  or  insulting  language. 
g.    Using  the  pivot  blow. 

3.  If  a  foul  (See  Rule  IX  2  a.)  is  claimed  by  one  of  the  contest- 
ants he  will  be  examined  by  the  medical  officer  and  the  referee 
will  make  his  decision  from  the  result  of  this  examination. 

RULE  X — "down" 
1.    A  contestants  shall  be  deemed  "down"  when  : 
a.   Any  part  of  his  body  other  than  his  feet  is  on  the  ring  floor. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  357 

b.  He  is  hanging  helplessly  over  the  ropes. 

c.  Rising  from  "down"  position. 

Note.— A  boxer  hanging  on  the  ropes  is  not  officially  "down" 
until  so  pronounced  by  the  referee,  who  can  either  stop  the  bout  or 
count  the  boxer  out  on  ropes  or  floor. 

2.  Rule  for  contestant  when  opponent  is  down.— When  a  contestant 
is  "down"  his  opponent  shall  retire  to  a  neutral  corner  and  shall  not 
resume  boxing  until  his  opponent  is  up. 

RULE    XI ^FINISH 

1.  Bout  over  when. — The  round  and  bout  shall  be  terminated 
when  "down"  contestant  fails  to  resume  boxing  at  the  expiration 
of  10  seconds,  and  referee  announces  decision. 

2.  Ten  seconds  indicated  by  referee. — -The  10  seconds  shall  be 
counted  aloud,  and  the  expiration  of  each  second  shall  be  definitely 
indicated  by  the  referee. 

RULE    XII 

1.  Other  questions  arising. — In  the  event  of  any  question  arising 
not  provided  for  in  these  rules  the  referee  shall  have  full  power  to  decide 
such  questions,  and  his  decision  shall  be  final. 

4.  Cricket. 

Standard  rules  of  England  as  drawn  up  by  the  Marylebone  Cricket 
Club  shall  govern. 

5.  Cross-Gountry  Race. 

(10,000  meters — Individual  competition.) 
The  race  shall  be  over  country  of  varying  character  on  a  course 
unknown  to  the  competitors,  to  be  designated  by  the  Games  Com- 
mittee.    The  start  and  finish  will  be  in  the  Stadium.     The  first  500 
meters  and  the  last  1 ,000  meters  shall  be  run  on  the  track. 

6,  7,  8.     Fencing. 

(Foils,  Broadswords,  Duelling  swords.) 

general  rules 
The    1913    Rules   of   the   Federation   Nationale   d'Escrime   shall 
govern. 

TEAM     COMPETITION 

Team  competition  will  be  composed  of  three  events,  namely  foils, 
broadswords,  and  duelling  swords. 

(6)  Foils.  —  No  nation  shall  enter  more  than  6  men  in  the  foils  event. 
The  opponent  making  the  first  three  touches  during  a  bout  shall  be 
declared  the  winner.  If  at  the  end  of  5  minutes  neither  opponent 
has  scored  a  touch,  the  bout  will  be  halted  for  one  mmute.  The  bout 
will  then  be  resumed.  If  at  the  end  of  another  5  minutes  neither 
opponent  has  scored  a  touch  the  bout  will  be  halted  for  one  minute, 
at  the  end  of  which  it  will  again  be  resumed.  If  at  the  end  of  an 
additional  5  minutes  neither  opponent  has  scored,  each  opponent, 
will  then  be  awarded  a  touch  and  the  bout  ended.     If,  however,  one 


358  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

or  more  touches  have  been  scored  during  the  entire  15  minutes  of 
fencing,  the  decision  shall  be  awarded  to  the  opponent  who  has  scored 
the  greatest  number. 

(7)  Broadswords.  —  No  nation  shall  enter  more  than  6  men  in  the 
broadswords  event.  The  same  rules  that  govern  the  foil  bouts  will 
govern  broadswords,  except  that  the  last  period  of  the  bout,  in  case 
no  touches  have  been  made  by  either  opponent,  will  be  15  minutes 
instead  of  5. 

{8)  Duelling  Swords. —  No  nation  shall  enter  more  than  8  men  in  the 
duelling  swords  event.  The  opponent  making  the  first  touch  will  be 
awarded  the  bout.  The  periods  of  time  will  be  divided  as  those  in 
broadsword,  namely  :  5  minutes,  1  minute  rest;  second,  5  minutes, 
1  minute  rest,  and  third,  15  minutes,  at  the  end  of  which  an  award 
of  1  point  will  be  made  to  each  opponent  in  case  no  touch  has  been 
scored  by  either. 

INDIVIDUAL  COMPETITION 

In  the  individual  competition  no  nation  shall  enter  more  than 
5  men  for  foils  event,  5  men  for  broadswords  event,  and  8  men  for 
duelling  swords  event.  For  each  event  the  contestants  will  be  grouped 
into  poules  of  8  men.  Each  poule  will  be  composed,  as  far  as  practic- 
able, of  men  representing  the  different  nations.  The  number  of 
poules  and  the  number  of  individuals  contesting  will  be  reduced  by 
ehmination  until  finally  only  one  individual  for  each  event  remains 
undefeated.  This  individual  will  be  awarded  the  competition  in  his 
weapon. 

9.  Football — Soccer. 

Enghsh  Football  Association  Rules  shall  govern. 

10.  Football — American    Intercollegiate. 
American  Intercollegiate  Rules  shall  govern. 

11.  Football — Rugby. 

The  Enghsh  Rugby  Union  Rules  shall  govern. 

12.  Golf. 

The  rules  of  the  Royal  and  Ancient  Golf  Club  of  St.  Andrews  shall 
govern. 

13.  Hand-Grenade  Throwing. 

1.  The  grenade  shall  be  the  French  F-1  Defensive  Grenade; 
length  over  all  115  mm.,  greatest  diameter  59  mm.,  total  weight 
600  gr.  loaded. 

2.  The  throwing  shall  take  place  from  behind  a  scratch  line. 
The  thrower  may  place  his  foot,  or  feet,  upon  the  line,  but  if  he  steps 
over  the  line  with  either  foot  before  the  grenade  first  strikes  the  ground 
the  throw  is  invahd. 

3.  The  competitors  may  throw  in  any  way  they  wish,  with  either 
hand,  and  with  or  without  a  run. 

4.  The  throw  shall  be  measured  along  a  line  perpendicular  to 
the  scratch  line,  or  the  scratch  Hne  extended,  from  the  point  where 
the  grenade  first  strikes  the  ground  to  the  scratch  line. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  359 

5.     Each  competitor  shall  be  allowed  three  throws,  and  the  best 
four  men  shall  be  allowed  three  more  throws.     Each  competitor  shall 
be  credited  with  the  best  of  all  his  throws. 
14.     HoRSE-RiDiNG  Competitions. 

1.  There  will  be  three  events: 

I.     Military  Competition. 
II.     Prize  Jumping — Individual. 
III.     Prize  Jumping — In    pairs. 
In  each  event  first,  second  and  third  places  will  be  recorded. 

I.       MILITARY    COMPETITION 

2.  Team  competilion. — One  team  of  not  more  than  four  competi- 
tors from  any  one  country,  with  not  to  exceed  two  substitutes  :  the 
first  three  places  to  count.  Individual  competition,  conducted 
simultaneously. 

SPECIAL    REGULATIONS 

3.  Competitors  may  ride  either  private  or  government  owned 
horses.  The  minimum  weight  of  competitors  shall  be  one  hundred 
sixty  five  pounds. 

4.  The  competition  is  divided  into  three  tests  and  must  not  be 
concluded  in  less  than  three  days.  The  Committee  shall  have  the 
right  to  interpose  one  or  more  days  of  rest  between  those  days  on 
which  competitions  are  held. 

5.  Each  rider  may  enter  not  more  than  two  horses,  but  can  only 
use  one  of  them,  and  shall  be  obliged  to  ride  this  one  in  all  the  tests. 
No  outside  help  may  be  received  during  the  progress  of  the  competi- 
tion, except  in  tests  A  and  B,  for  the  purpose  of  shoeing,  veterinary 
and  medical  treatment. 

A     Long-distance  Ride. 

B     Cross-country  Ride  (included  with  A). 

Uniform:  Service,  without  arms. 

Bitting:  optional. 

Saddling:  optional. 

Distance:  55  kilometers;  50  kilometers  on  the  road  and 
during  the  latter  part  of  the  ride,  5  kilometers  on  a  cross-country 
course  of  5  kilometers,  marked  out  with  flags. 

Maximum  time:  For  the  whole  distance,  4  hours,  of  which 
15  minutes  will  be  counted  for  the  cross-country  ride  of  5  kilometers; 
shorter  time,  whether  for  the  whole  ride  or  for  the  cross-country  ride, 
will  not  be  awarded  extra  points. 
C     Prize  Jumping  competition. 

Undress  uniform  without  arms. 

Bitting:  optional. 

Saddling:  optional. 

Obstacles:  15  fixed  obstacles  of  not  more  than  1.3  meters 
in  height.     The  long  jumps  will  not  be  more  than  4  meters  m  length. 

Other  conditions  according  to  propositions  for  the  prize 
jumping  competition  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  (II). 


360  THE    INTER-ALLIED  ;;GAMES    —1919 

PRINCIPLES     FOR     JUDGING 

6.  Long-distance  Ride — This  is  to  be  considered  as  a  test  of 
endurance.  Riders  who  have  covered  the  distance  within  the  maxi- 
mum time  will  receive  10  points.  For  every  minute  or  fraction  of  a 
minute  in  excess  of  this  time,  1  point  will  be  deducted. 

7.  Cross-country  Riding  test— Each  judge  will  give  10  points 
for  the  part  of  the  course  under  his  control,  which  will  be  reduced  in 
each  case  : 

For  refusing 2  points 

For  bolting 2  points 

For  the  horse  faUing 5  points 

For  the  rider  being  thrown 5  points 

For  every  period  of  5  seconds  or  fraction  thereof  in  excess  of  the 
maximum  time  the  total  number  of  points  will  be  reduced  by  2. 

8.  Prize  Jumping  test  (see  illustrations  Competition  I  and 
details) :  To  be  judged  according  to  the  regulations  for  the  Prize  Jump- 
ing competition  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  (II). 

RULES    FOR   DETERMINING  THE   PLACING 

9.  After  each  test  the  points  of  each  competitor  will  be  totalled. 
In  order  to  give  equal  importance  to  the  different  tests,  the  final 

result  will  be  determined  according  to  the  following  principles  : 

The  maximum  number  of  points  possible  for  each  test  will  be  divided 
by  10.  The  number  of  points  attained  by  each  competitor  will  then 
be  divided  in  each  test  by  the  number  thus  obtained  for  the  respec- 
tiye  tests.  This  will  give  a  quotient  varying  between  10  and  0,  which 
will  be  the  number  of  points  of  the  respective  competitors  in  the 
respective  tests. 

The  total  sum  of  the  final  points  in  the  three  tests  will  be  the  final 
number  of  points  of  the  competitor,  and  this  number  will  determine 
the  order  in  the  individual  competition.  The  rider  obtaining  the 
highest  number  of  points  will  be  placed  as  No.  1,  the  one  obtaining 
the  next  highest  number  will  be  placed  as  No.  2,  and  so  on. 

In  the  team  competition,  the  nation  whose  best  three  competitors 
have  obtained  the  highest  total  number  of  points  will  be  the  winner; 
the  nation  obtaining  the  next  highest  number  will  be  second,  and  so  on. 

Example — Cross-Gountry   Riding. 

Judje      Maximum     Deductions      Points  Won 
Points 

1  10  2  8 

2  10  0  10 

3  10  5  5 

4  10  5  5 

5  10  2  8 

6  10  0  10 

7  10  0  10 
7)10                                       7)56 

Avg.  10  8  points 


rop-^eneral  Pershing  takes  a  shot.  J7pper  cerUer  'f/«-G«"^^^l  P<=''*''^,^,;°°S  'I'Sio,^.! 
Romanian  team.  Ppper  center  right^Axaevicans  on  the  range.  Lower  «!"'^^iff«-«Xn.' 
at  the  matches.     Lower   center  rt^A^-U.  S.  pistol  competitors.    i?otom-General  Pershm., 

congratulating  French  team. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  363 

II.       PRIZE    JUMPING    COMPETITION INDIVIDUAL 

1 .  Individual  competition:  Not  more  than  six  competitors  from 
any  one  country  (substitutes  not  to  exceed  three). 

SPECIAL    REGULATIONS 

2.  Competitors  may  ride  either  private  or  government  owned 
horses. 

Each  rider  may  enter  not  more  than  three  horses,  and  may  ride 
one,  two  or  all  of  these  mounts  in  class  II  only. 

The  prize  jumping  competition  will  take  place  on  an  obstacle 
course  in  the  Stadium. 

Dress:  Uniform,  service,  without  arms. 

Bitting  and  saddling:  optional. 

Number  of  obstacles:  15  (see  illustrations  Competition  II  and 
details).  Maximum  height  1.4  meters  (fixed).  The  obstacles  will 
have  a  solid  appearance,  but  will  be  so  constructed  that  essential 
portions  will  give  way  when  struck  with  force.  For  judging  touches 
there  will  be  a  loose  marking  lath. 

Long  jump  obstacles  not  to  exceed  4  meters  in  length. 

Riders  to  cover  the  obstacle  course  at  the  rate  of  400  meters  a 
minute  which  will  be  timed.  Less  time  will  not  be  awarded  additional 
points. 

Competitors  are  not  allowed  to  try  the  jumps  before  the  compe- 
tition. 

Taking  part  in  a  previous  competition  will  not  be  counted  as  a 

trial  of  the  jumps. 

PRINCIPLES   FOR   JUDGING 

3.  Points  will  be  given  for  each  obstacle  on  a  basis  of  10  which 
will  be  reduced  in  each  case  :  d      •  4. 

For  refusing,  the  first  time,  by 2  points 

For  refusing,  the  second  time,  by 4  points 

For  refusing,  the  third  time Eliminated 

For  bolting,  the  first  time,  by 2  points 

For  bolting,  the  second  time,  by .4  points 

For  bolting,  the  third  time Ehminated 

For  the  horse  falling  the  first  time,  by  ...  .  4  points 

For  the  horse  falling  the  second  time Eliminated 

For  the  rider  being  thrown Eliminated 

In  taking  the  high  jumps — 

For  touching  with  fore  legs  by     2  points 

"     hind      "       1  Popt 

"     knocking  down  the  fence  with  the  fore  legs.     4  points 
"     knocking  down  the  fence  with  the  hmd  legs    2  pomts 
"     touching  or  knocking  down  with  both  fore  and  hind  legs, 
only  the  fore  legs  will  be  counted. 
For  long  jumps — 

If  the  horse  lands  with  his  hind  legs  on  the  limit 

mark  on  far  side  of  the  ditch,  by 1  pomt 


364  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

If  the  horse  lands  with  his  hind  legs  inside  the 
limit   mark,    or   touches  the  surface    of    the 

water  with  his  hind  legs 2  points 

If  the  horse  lands  with  his  fore  legs  on  the  Hmit 

mark  on  the  far  side  of  the  ditch 2  points 

If  the  horse  lands  with  his  fore  legs  inside  the 
hmit   mark,  or  touches   the   surface   of  the 

water  with  his  fore  legs 4  points 

In  the  case  of  combined  obstacles  the  above  regulations  apply- 
to  each  one  separately. 

Each  period  of  5  seconds  or  fraction  thereof  in  excess  of  the  maxi- 
mum time  will  incur  a  penalty  of  2  points. 

Any  competitor  riding  the  wrong  way  or  not  taking  the  obstacles 
in  their  proper  order  will  be  disqualified. 

If  any  alteration  in  the  equipment  of  the  horse  takes  place  during 
the  course  of  the  competition,  the  rider  will  not,  for  this  reason,  be 
allowed  another  try  over  the  obstacles. 

No  outside  help  may  be  made  use  of  in  the  course  of  the  competi- 
tion. 

RULES    FOR    DETERMINING   THE    ORDER 

4.  The  competitors  will  be  placed  in  numerical  order,  according 
to  the  number  of  points  obtained,  and  thus  the  one  who  has  obtained 
the  highest  number  of  points  will  be  placed  No.  1,  the  next  one. 
No.  2,  and  so  on. 

In  case  of  two  or  more  competitors  obtaining  the  same  number 
of  points,  the  competition  will  be  continued  between  them  over  obs- 
tacles 2,  3,  12,  13,  10  and  11,  which,  in  case  of  Competition  I, 
will  not  be  increased  beyond  1.3  meters,  and,  in  the  case  of  the 
Prize  Jumping  Competition  II,  not  beyond  1.4  meters.  In  the 
event  of  the  competitors  again  reaching  the  same  number  of  points, 
the  time  occupied  shall  decide  who  is  to  be  declared  the  winner.  The 
principles  for  judging  given  above  shall  be  in  force. 

In  team  competition,  that  nation  will  be  declared  the  winner 
whose  best  three  competitors  have  obtained  the  highest  total  number 
of  points;  the  nation  that  has  obtained  the  next  highest  number  will 
be  second,  and  so  on. 

III.     Prize  Jumping  Competition  — In  Pairs 

Team  Compeiition.  —  Not  more  than  three  teams  of  two  men 
each  from  each  country. 

SPECIAL    regulations 

Same  as  Prize  Jumping  Competition  (Individual). 
Each  pair  of  riders  will  ride  together. 

PRINCIPLES    FOR   judging 

Faults  of  each  horse  to  count. 

Points  to  be  one-half  those  in  Event  II. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


365 


'i^OBO- 


NO.l.  rttPOf. 

ttME. 


NO.  2.  rCNCC. 


NO.  3.  STOtIC  WftU. 

MUR  En  PIERRE. 


NO.  4.  BAlLWaV,OATCS. 
FASSftSE  A  MIWE^U. 


MO.  5.  TGIPLC  BAB 

THIPLE  BARBE 


NO.e.rcrjcc  IN  PiKC.    , 
Bw\mti\tow»«^tRwitiM. 


rtO.7.  nEDOC  AHP  TQP  p/\p. 
MME  MttB^Wt, 


NO  a.^Ncc-DiKc.-hCPoi:. 

B^RRltRC,  fOSSE  ET  IIAtt. 


366 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


N9  9.  rCMCC. 
Babre. 


N?  iO.     BCKK   WftLL  . 
MUR  EW  BRIQUE . 


N9lj.  COUMTCV   COAD.   rCNCt  ON  EiThEC  SIPC 

FASSAat  DE  ROUTE  ^VEC  BARWtRE  DE5  DEUX  COTES 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


367 


368 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


-St/ict      ^^ 
Prize  Jumping  Competition   1 — 15  Obstacles 


Prize  Jumping  Competition  2 — 15  Obstacles 


*?       4^     O       ^      ^ 


Shooting.     Top— Canadian  team.     Center— Belgian  team.     5oHo/h— Portuguese  team. 

24 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  371 

15,  16,  17.     Rowing- 
rules 

1.  Equipment. — All  boats  shall  have  outriggers.  Every  eight- 
oared  boat,  and  every  four-oared  boat  shall  carry  a  coxswain.  No 
coxswain  shall  steer  for  more  than  one  crew. 

2.  Every  boat,  at  starting,  shall  carry  at  the  bow  the  flag  of 
the  nation  it  represents.  Boats  not  conforming  to  this  shall  be 
liable  to  be  disqualified  by  the  umpire. 

3.  Officials. — The  Games  Committee  shall  appoint  one  or  more 
umpires,  and  one  or  more  judges. 

4.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  umpire  extends  over  a  race  and  all 
matters  connected  with  it,  from  the  time  the  race  is  specified  to  start 
until  its  termination,  and  his  decision  in  all  cases  shall  be  final  and 
without  appeal. 

5.  Eligibilily. — No  person  may  be  substituted  for  another  who 
has  already  rowed  or  steered  in  a  heat. 

6.  Clothing. — Every  competitor  must  wear  complete  clothing 
from  the  base  of  neck  to  within  four  inches  of  the  knee-cap,  including 
a  Jersey,  with  sleeves  to  within  four  inches  of  the  elbow. 

7.  Method  of  racing  and  Water  Rules. — Heats  and  stations  shall 
be  drawn  by  lot.  It  shall  be  open  to  all  competitors  to  be  present 
in  such  draw. 

8.  If  there  shall  be  more  than  two  competing  crews  or  scullers, 
they  shall  row  a  trial  heat,  or  heats;  but  no  more  than  two  boats 
shall  contend  in  any  heat  for  any  event. 

9.  In  the  event  of  a  dead  heat  taking  place,  any  competitor  who 
refuses  to  row  again,  as  may  be  directed  by  the  umpire,  shall  be 
adjudged  to  have  lost. 

10.  The  whole  course  must  be  completed  by  a  competitor  before 
he  can  be  held  to  have  won  a  trial  heat  unless  he  is  prevented  from 
doing  so  by  damage  occasioned  by  a  foul.  Boats  shall  be  held  to 
have  completed  the  course  when  their  bows  reach  the  winning  post. 

11.  In  the  event  that  all  boats  entered  are  withdrawn,  with  the 
exception  of  one,  the  crew  of  the  remaining  boat  must  row  over  the 
course  to  be  entitled  to  be  declared  winner  of  the  event. 

12.  Starting. — All  boats  shall  be  measured  and  started  with 
their  bows  level. 

13.  The  umpire  may  act  as  starter,  or  not,  as  he  thinks  fit; 
when  he  does  not  so  act,  the  starter  shall  be  subject  to  the  control 
of  the  umpire. 

14.  The  boat  races  shall  be  started  in  the  following  manner: 
The  starter,  on  being  satisfied  that  the  competitors  are  ready,  shall 
give  the  signal  to  start. 

15.  If  the  starter  considers  the  start  false,  he  shall  at  once  recall 
the  boats  to  their  stations,  and  any  boat  refusing  to  start  again,  or 
persistently  starting  before  the  signal,  shall  be  liable  to  be  disquahfied 
by  the  umpire. 


372  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

16.  A  boat  not  at  its  post  at  the  time  specified  shall  be  liable  to 
be  disqualified  by  the  umpire. 

17.  Course. — A  boat's  proper  course  is  such  a  course  as  will  enable 
it  to  reach  the  winning  post  in  the  shortest  possible  time,  provided 
that  it  allows  ample  water  for  the  other  competing  boat  to  steer  its 
proper  course  on  the  side  on  which  such  competing  boat  started,  when 
such  competing  boat  is  in  a  position  to  enforce  its  right  to  such  water. 
Any  boat  failing  to  keep  its  proper  course  does  so  at  its  peril  in  the 
event  of  a  foul  occurring. 

18.  The  umpire  shall  be  the  sole  judge  of  a  boat's  proper  course 
during  a  race,  and  shall  decide  all  questions  as  to  a  foul. 

19.  The  umpire  may  caution  any  competitor  when  he  considers 
that  there  is  a  probabihty  of  a  foul  occurring  and  may  warn  a  com- 
petitor of  any  obstruction  in  his  course,  but  the  umpire  shall  not  under 
any  other  circumstances  direct  the  course  of  a  competitor. 

20.  Fouls  and  disqualification. — It  shall  be  considered  a  foul 
when,  after  a  race  has  been  started,  any  competitor,  by  his  oar,  scull, 
boat,  or  person,  comes  into  contact  with  the  oar,  scull,  boat,  or  person 
of  another  competitor. 

21.  In  the  event  of  a  foul  occurring  a  competitor  may  claim 
that  the  other  competitor  be  disqualified.  Such  claim  must  be  made 
by  the  competitor  himself,  before  getting  out  of  his  boat,  to  the  umpire 
or  to  the  judge.  The  judge,  upon  such  claim  being  made  to  him, 
shall  take  immediate  steps  to  communicate  the  same  to  the  umpire. 

22.  If  the  competitor  making  the  claim  was  in  his  proper  course 
and  the  competitor  against  whom  the  claim  is  made  was  out  of  his 
proper  course,  the  latter  shall  be  disqualified,  unless  the  foul  was  so 
slight  as  not  to  influence  the  race,  in  which  case  the  competitor  against 
whom  the  claim  is  made  shall  be  disqualified  only  if  he  has  seriously 
encroached  upon  the  proper  course  of  the  competitor  making  the  claim. 
In  cases  under  this  rule  the  umpire  may  reserve  his  decision,  but 
must  give  it  within  a  reasonable  time  after  the  finish  of  the  race. 

23.  The  umpire  in  either  of  the  following  cases  may  of  his  own 
initiative,  and  without  a  claim  being  made,  disqualify  a  competitor 
who  is  involved  in  a  foul  when  out  of  his  proper  course,  provided  he 
does  so  immediately  upon  the  foul  occurring  : 

a.  If  such  competitor  has  in  the  opinion  of  the  umpire 
wilfully  encroached  upon  the  proper  course  of  the  other 
competitor. 

b.  If  the  foul  be  of  such  a  nature  as  clearly  to  influence  the  race. 

24.  In  the  case  of  a  foul  the  umpire  shall  have  power  : 

a.  To  place  the  boats  in  the  order  in  which  they  come  in. 

b.  To  order  the  boats  to  row  again  on  the  same  or  another  day. 

c.  To  restart  the  boats  according  to  his  discretion. 

25.  Every  boat  shall  abide  by  its  accidents,  but  if  during  a  race 
a  boat  shall  be  interfered  with  by  any  outside  boat  or  person,  the 
umpire  shall  have  power,  if  het  hinks  fit,  to  restart  the  boats  according 
to  his  discretion,  or  to  order  them  to  row  again  on  the  same  or  another  day. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  373 

26.  No  boat  shall  be  allowed  to  accompany  or  follow  any  race 
for  the  purpose  of  directing  the  course  of  any  of  the  competitors. 
Any  competitor  receiving  any  extraneous  assistance  may  be  disquali- 
fied at  the  discretion  of  the  umpire. 

27.  The  judge  shall  decide  as  to  the  order  in  which  the  boats 
reach  the  winning  post  and  such  decision  shall  be  final  and  without 
appeal. 

28.  Any  competitor  refusing  to  abide  by  the  decision  of  the 
umpire,  or  to  follow  his  directions,  shall  be  liable  to  be  disqualified. 

18,  19,  20,  21.     Rifle  and  Pistol  Competition. 

RULES 

These  rules  conform  to  those  used  in  last  Olympic  Games  as  nearly 
as  is  practicable  under  the  circumstances,  and  are  as  follows. 

(18.)  Rifle  —  Team  Match.  —  Arms.  —  The  adopted  model  of  the 
national  military  arm  of  any  of  the  competing  countries  may  be  used. 

The  rifle  must  be  without  mechanical  alteration  or  addition. 

Before  the  competition,  the  captain  of  the  shooting  contingent 
of  each  country  shall  certify  that  this  condition  is  observed. 

Fore  and  backsights  must  be  regulation,  not  telescopic  or  magni- 
fying. 

Ordinary  spectacles  may  be  worn  if  desired. 

The  pull  of  the  trigger  must  not  be  less  than  three  pounds. 

The  triggers  will  be  tested  immediately  before  firing  at  each  dis- 
tance. 

Rifle  slings  may  be  used  as  a  support  for  one  arm,  but  in  each 
case  they  must  be  of  a  regulation  military  pattern. 

A  ricochet  will  be  counted  as  a  hit. 

One  team  may  be  entered  from  each  nation;  each  team  to  consist 
of  12  men,  with  a  minimum  of  three  reserves,  but  a  total  of  25  may 
attend. 

After  the  shooting  has  begun  reserves  shall  not  be  permitted  to 
replace  those  competing  except  in  the  case  of  physical  disability  of 
the  member  so  replaced,  which  disability  shall  be  certified  to  by  the 
camp  surgeon. 

The  distances  are:  200,  300,  400,  500  and  600  yards. 

Any  position  may  be  taken  without  artificial  rest,  except  that 
in  all  prone  positions  the  head  shall  be  towards  the  target. 

Each  competitor  shall  fire    two    sighting    shots,    and   ten   shots 

The  order  in  shooting  of  each  team  shall  be  decided  by  its  captain. 

The  assignment  to  targets  shall  be  by  lot. 

No  protection  against  light  or  wind  may  be  employed. 

Any  challenges  must  be  made  before  another  shot  has  been  fired 
at  the  challenged  target. 

The  time  limit  is  one  minute  per  shot  with  a  total  added  allow- 
ance of  twelve  minutes  at  each  range  for  changing  competitors.  This 
time  is  exclusive  of  successful  challenge. 


374 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


The  targets  are  as  follows  : 


Figure  1— Target  for  200,  300  and  iOO  yards 


Figure  2— Target  for  500 
and  600  yards 


All  distances — Revolver 
and  Pistol  competltioii 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  375 

No  allowance  will  be  made  for  a  defective  cartridge  except  in  the 
case  of  a  missfire. 

The  leader  of  the  competition  shall  have  the  power  to  suspend 
the  shooting  on  any  day  should  the  weather  conditions  render  that 
step  necessary,  and  to  flx  another  day  for  the  resumption  of  the 
competition. 

No  two  competitors  may  fire  with  the  same  rifle,  nor  may  a  compe- 
titor change  his  rifle  at  any  single  distance  of  the  competition,  unless 
his  first  rifle  shall  become  unserviceable  through  an  accident. 

No  rifle  may  be  cleaned  and  wiped  out  between  shots  fired  with 
it  at  any  single  distance  in  the  competition. 

The  inner  edge  of  the  shot  hole  shall  determine  the  value  of  the  shot. 

The  highest  aggregate  of  the  scores  at  all  the  distances  shall  deter- 
mine the  winning  team. 

In  the  event  of  a  tie  in  the  final  totals,  the  winning  team  will  be 
selected  according  to  the  following  rule  : 

First  by  considering  the  greatest  number  of  shots  in  the  target. 

Second,  by  the  greatest  number  of  "visuals"  (bullseye),  including 
all  the  black  space  on  the  target. 

Third,  by  the  greatest  number  of  5s,  4s,  3s,  etc.,  for  the  rifle,  and 
of  10s,  9s,  8s,  etc.,  for  the  revolver. 

(19).  Individual  Rifle  Mafc/i.— Distances,  300,  500,  and  600  yards 
slow  fire,  and  200,  300  and  500  yards  rapid  fire. 

The  competition  is  Hmited  to  25  individual  entries  from  each  nation . 

The  targets  to  be  the  same  as  in  the  team  match. 

Any  position  without  artificial  aid  will  be  permitted,  except  that 
in  all  prone  positions  the  head  must  be  toward  the  target. 

Each  competitor  must  fire  10  shots  at  each  range. 

Two  sighting  shots  must  be  fired  at  500  yards  and  600  yards  slow 
fire.     No  other  sighting  shots  shall  be  allowed. 

Ties  will  be  decided  by  the  same  method  as  in  the  team  match. 

Rapid  Fire. — The  time  limit  will  be  one  minute  at  200  yards,  one 
minute  and  ten  seconds  at  300  yards,  and  one  minute  and  20  seconds 
at  500  yards. 

The  competitors  being  on  the  line  and  ready  to  fire,  the  targets 
appear,  remain  in  sight  the  allotted  time,  and  then  disappear.  During 
the  time  the  target  is  in  sight  the  competitor  must  fire,  or  attempt 
to  fire,  his  series  of  ten  shots. 

Any  competitor,  who  begins  firing  when  his  target  appears,  will 
not  be  allowed  to  enter  a  protest  as  to  the  malfunctioning  of  the 
target.  If  he  considers  that  his  target  has  been  slow  in  appearing, 
or  in  any  other  way  puts  him  at  a  disadvantage  due  to  its  operation, 
he  should  not  fire,  but  should  call  the  attention  of  the  range  officer, 
to  the  defect  in  working  the  target.     He  will  then  be  allowed  another 

opportunity  to  fire.  •     r.      •        j;     i    i 

Any  target  with  more  than  ten  hits  on  it  m  rapid  fire  is  a  fouled 
target  and  will  not  be  marked  or  scored,  and  the  competitor  assigned 
to  that  target  will  repeat  his  score. 


376  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

(20)  Revolver  and  Pislol  Team  Ma/cft.— Open  to  one  team  from 
each  nation.  Each  team  to  consist  of  10  men,  with  a  mmimum  of 
two  reserves,  but  a  total  of  25  may  attend.  »^,      .„•   . 

Anv  service  revolver  or  pistol  of  the  type  used  by  any  of  the  Allied 
Troops  between  4  August,  1914,  and  11  November,  1918,  with  open 
fore  and  back  sights,  may  be  used. 

The  trigger  pull  must  be  at  least  four  pounds. 

Distance:  25  and  50  yards  slow  fire,  15  and  25  yards  rapid  fire. 

The  number  of  shots  will  be  10  at  each  range  for  each  member 
of  the  team  for  both  slow  and  rapid  fire. 

No  sighting  shots  will  be  allowed.  Scores  will  be  5  in  groups  of 
10  shots  at  a  time.  In  rapid  fire,  the  group  of  10  shots  will  be  divided 
into  two  series  of  5  shots  each.  The  time  allowance  for  slow  fire, 
5  minutes  for  each  series  of  5  shots. 

Position:  Standing,  with  the  arm  and  hand  free  from  the  body. 

The  inner  edge  of  the  shot  hole  will  determine  the  value  of  the 
shot. 

Procedure  in  rapid  fire:  The  target  appears,  remains  in  sight 
10  seconds,  and  then  disappears.  During  the  time  the  target  is  in 
sight  the  competitor  must  fire  or  attempt  to  fire  his  series  of  5  shots. 
Unfired  shots  shall  count  as  misses. 

Once  a  competitor  has  commenced  to  fire  he  will  not  be  permitted 
to  enter  a  protest  concerning  the  manipulation  of  the  target. 

Target:  This  shall  be  for  all  distances  as  indicated  for  "Revolver 
target"  in  cut. 

Ties:  These  shall  be  decided  by  the  same  method  as  indicated 
herein  for  the  rifle  match. 

(21).  Individual  Revolver  and  Pistol  Match — Entries  shall  be 
limited  to  25  from  each  competing  nation. 

Distances :  25  and  50  yards  slow  fire  and  15  and  25  yards  rapid 
fire.  Twenty  shots  at  each  range  for  each  member  of  the  team  for 
both  slow  and  rapid  fire. 

No  sighting  shots  will  be  allowed. 

Scores  will  be  fired  in  groups  of  10  shots  at  a  time.  In  rapid  fire, 
the  group  of  10  shots  will  be  divided  into  two  series  of  5  shots  each. 

Position:  Same  as  in  the  team  match. 

The  inner  edge  of  the  shot  hole  will  determine  the  value  of  the 
shot. 

Procedure  in  rapid  fire:  Same  as  in  the  team  match. 

Once  a  competitor  has  commenced  to  fire  he  will  not  be  permitted 
to  enter  a  protest  concerning  the  manipulation  of  the  target. 

Target:  Same  as  in  the  team  match. 

Ties:  Same  as  in  the  team  match. 

22.     Swimming. 

1.  Officials. — The  officials  shall  consist  of  one  referee,  not  less 
than  three  time  keepers,  three  judges,  one  starter,  one  announcer,  one 
clerk  of  the  course  and  assistants  when  necessary. 


Shooting.     Top— French  team.     Center— Kuuiuanian  team.    Boitom— Italian  team. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


379 


2.  Breast  stroke. — The  contestants  shall  dive  and  swim  on  the 
breast.  Both  hands  must  go  forward  and  be  brought  backward  simul- 
taneously and  must  so  be  used  throughout  the  race.  The  body  must 
be  kept  perfectly  on  the  breast  and  the  shoulders  kept  on  a  line  with 
the  surface  of  the  water.  The  carrying  of  one  shoulder  higher  than 
the  other  disqualifies  the  contestant  from  that  race. 

The  touch  at  the  ends  of  the  pool  and  at  the  finish  of  the  race 
shall  be  made  with  both  hands  simultaneously. 

If  the  head  be  carried  under  the  water,  it  must  come  up  above 
the  surface  of  the  water  after  each  stroke. 

The  use  of  any  side  stroke  movement  whatsoever,  will  serve  to 
disqualify  the   contestant. 

For  violation  of  any  of  the  above  rules  the  referee  shall  disqualify 
the  contestant. 

3.  Back  stroke. — In  the  back  stroke,  the  contestants  shall  start 
in  the  water  facing  the  starting  end,  with  both  hands  resting  on  the 
rail  or  end  of  the  pool.  The  feet  may  be  resting  against  the  end  of 
the  pool.  At  the  pistol  they  shall  push  off  on  their  backs  and  commence 
and  continue  swimming  on  their  backs  throughout  the  race.  Con- 
testants may  turn  on  their  breasts  just  as  they  reach  the  end  of  the 
pool,  but  must  "coast"  and  not  use  either  arms  or  legs  for  propulsion. 
Both  hands  must  be  placed  on  the  end  or  rail  of  the  pool  at  each  turn 
before  pushing  off,  the  same  as  at  the  start  of  the  race. 

For  violation  of  any  of  the  above  rules  the  referee  shall  disqualify 
the  contestant. 

4.  Relay  races. — The  same  rules  governing  individual  races  will 
apply  to  relay  racing. 

The  contestant  must  touch  the  rail  or  end  of  the  pool  with  one 
or  both  hands  before  the  next  contestant  of  his  team  shall  leave  the 
take-off. 

5.  General  rules. — a.  In  all  races  except  the  back  stroke,  each 
contestant  shall  stand  with  both  feet  on  the  take-off.  Stepping  back 
before  or  after  the  pistol  is  not  allowed  and  shall  serve  to  disquahfy 
the  contestant  from  that  event. 

b.  If  the  contestant  leaves  the  take-off  prior  to  the  firing  of  the 
starter's  pistol,  it  shall  be  considered  a  false  start.  The  starter  shall 
disqualify  any  contestant  who  makes  three  false  starts.  No  substi- 
tution shall  be  allowed  for  such  disqualified  competitor. 

c.  Each  contestant  shall  keep  a  straight  course  parallel  to  the 
other  contestants.  They  shall  be  started  at  least  six  feet  apart  and 
each  one  is  entitled  to  a  straight  lane  of  water  six  feet  wide  from  start 
to  finish. 

d.  Any  contestant  who,  when  out  of  his  own  lane,  shall  touch 
another  contestant,  is  liable  to  disqualification  from  that  event  by  ref- 
eree. Touching  or  swimming  across  or  obstructing  any  contestant  m 
anyway  so  as  to  impede  his  progress  shall  constitute  a  foul.  If  m  the 
opinion  of  the  referee  a  swimmer  has  been  fouled  to  a  degree  that 
endangers  his  chance  of  success,  he  shall  allow  him  to  compete  m  the 


380  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

next  heat  or  final,  and  he  shall  be  eligible  to  take  any  prize  to  which 
his  position  in  the  final  may  entitle  him.  Should  a  foul  occur  m  the 
final  the  referee  shall  order  the  race  reswum.  The  contestant  com- 
mitting the  foul  shall  be  disqualified  from  that  event. 

e  In  all  races  except  the  breast  stroke  and  back  stroke  the 
contestant  must  touch  the  rail  or  end  of  the  pool  with  one  or  both 
hands  before  pushing  off. 

/  In  all  races  except  the  breast  stroke  each  contestant  shall 
have  finished  the  race  when  any  part  of  his  person  reaches  the  end 
of  the  pool  or  finish  line. 

g.  The  choice  of  positions  shall  be  drawn  for. 

h.  In  case  of  a  dead  heat  for  first  [place  the  tie  shall  be  decided 
by  a  swim-off  the  same  day,  or  the  contestant  or  team  refusmg  to 
swim  shall  be  given  second  place. 

i.  For  violation  of  any  of  the  above  rules  the  referee  shall  dis- 
qualify the  contestant. 

23.  Tennis. 

International  Lawn  Tennis  rules  shall  govern. 

1.  Teams  will  consist  of  from  two  to  four  men  each. 

2.  Two  players  shall  be  selected  for  the  singles  competition  and 
one  pair  of  doubles  players  for  the  doubles  competition. 

3.  The  contest  between  competing  nations,  drawn  against  each 
other  by  lot  in  the  elimination  tourament,  shall  consist  of  four  singles 
and  one  doubles  match.  The  team  winning  the  majority  of  these 
five  matches  wins  the  tie. 

4.  The  two  players  of  any  one  country  selected  for  the  singles 
competition  shall  each  play  against  the  two  singles  players  of  the 
other  competing  nation  in  the  tie. 

5.  After  the  singles  matches  once  begin,  in  any  one  tie  no  sub- 
stitution shall  be  allowed  during  that  tie. 

24.  Track  and  Field. 

officials 

The  officials  shall  be:  one  referee,  four  or  more  inspectors  to  assist 
referee,  one  scorer,  one  or  more  assistant  scorers,  one  clerk  of  the 
course  and  assistants,  one  announcer  with  assistants  if  necessary. 

1.  For  track  events — Five  judges  at  the  finish,  three  time-keepers, 
one  starter. 

2.  For  field  events — Nine  field  judges. 

Referee. — The  referee  shall  decide  all  questions  relating  to  the 
actual  conduct  of  the  events  whose  settlement  is  not  otherwise  pro- 
vided for  in  these  rules.  His  decision  shall  be  final  and  without 
appeal. 

In  case  a  race  has  been  drawn  into  heats,  and  no  more  contestants 
appear  than  enough  to  make  one  heat,  the  referee  shall  be  empowered 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  381 

to  see  that  the  race  is  run  in  one  heat;  but  in  all  races  requiring  more 
than  one  heat  he  shall  see  that  no  second  man  shall  be  debarred  from 
a  chance  to  qualify  in  the  finals. 

The  referee  may  appoint  one  of  the  judges  at  the  finish,  head 
judge,  one  of  the  timers,  head  timer,  and  one  of  the  field  judges, 
head  judge,  who  shall  assume  leadership  in  the  duties  of  the  position. 

Inspectors. — The  inspectors  shall  perform  such  duties  as  may 
be  assigned  to  them  by  the  referee,  and  shall  report  to  him  any  vio- 
lation of  the  rules  which  they  observe  or  of  which  they  are  informed. 

Judges  of  finish. — The  judges  at  the  finish  shall  stand  three  at 
one  end  of  the  tape  and  two  at  the  other.  One  shall  take  the  winner, 
another  the  second  man,  another  the  third  man,  another  the  fourth 
and  another  the  fifth,  as  the  case  may  require.  In  case  of  disagree- 
ment the  majority  shall  decide.  Their  decision  as  to  the  order  in 
which  the  men  finished  shall  be  final  and  without  appeal. 

Field  Judges. — The  field  judges  shall  measure,  judge  and  record 
each  trial  of  each  competitor  in  all  events,  whose  record  is  of  distance 
or  height.  Their  decision  as  to  the  performance  of  each  man  shall 
be  final  and  without  appeal. 

There  shall  be  three  officials  in  charge  of  each  field  event.  These 
officials  shall  be  responsible  for  commencing  their  respective  events 
and  for  their  continuance  without  unnecessary  delays.  They  shall 
excuse  a  contestant  from  a  field  event  in  which  he  is  taking  part  for 
a  period  long  enough  to  contest  in  a  track  event,  and  allow  such 
contestant  to  take  his  missed  turn  or  turns  in  said  field  event  within 
a  reasonable  time  after  the  track  event.  They  shall  see  that  reason- 
able opportunities  are  given  to  contestants  who  desire  to  try  in  two 
field  events  that  are  being  contested  at  the  same  time.  To  the  end 
that  there  be  no  unnecessary  delay,  each  competitor  shall  take  his 
trial  or  turn  when  called  upon  to  so  do  by  the  field  judge  having 
charge  of  the  contest  and  if,  in  the  opinion  of  such  field  judge,  the 
competitor  unreasonably  delays  to  do  so,  such  judge  may,  with  the 
consent  of  the  referee,  forfeit  such  trial  and  have  the  same  tallied 
against  the  competitor  as  one  miss  or  failure. 

The  field  judge  shall  see  that  no  weight  is  used  in  any  of  the  weight 
competitions  which  has  not  been  approved  as  conforming  to  the  rules. 

Timekeepers. — There  shall  be  three  timekeepers  for  each  track 
event.  In  case  two  watches  agree,  and  the  third  disagrees,  the  time 
marked  by  the  two  shall  be  the  official  time.  If  all  watches  disagree, 
the  time  marked  by  the  watch  giving  the  middle  time  shall  be  the 
official  time.  Time  shall  be  taken  from  the  flash  of  the  pistol.  Three 
watches  must  record  the  time  on  an  event  for  a  record.  Each  time- 
keeper is  required  to  have  his  watch  tested  by  an  expert  watchmaker 
prior  to  the  meet. 

Clerk  of  course.— The  clerk  of  course  shall  be  provided  with  the 
names  of  all  entered  competitors  and  their  numbers  and  shall  notify 
them  at  least  five  minutes  before  the  start  of  every  event  m  which 


382  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

they  are  entered.  He  shall  be  responsible  for  getting  the  contestants 
out  at  the  proper  time  for  each  event.  He  shall  place  the  men  in 
their  heats  and  give  them  positions  on  the  track  according  to  their 
drawings.  He  shall  assign  such  duties  to  his  assistants  as  he  may 
see  fit. 

Scorer. — The  scorer  shall  keep  a  record  of  the  competitors  and 
point  winners  in  each  event,  with  complete  results.  He  shall  record 
the  laps  made  by  each  competitor,  and  call  them  aloud,  when  tallied, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  contestants. 

He  shall  notify  the  starter  before  the  beginning  of  the  last  lap  in 
each  distance  race,  at  which  time  a  signal  by  gong  or  pistol  shot  shall 
be  given  the  competitors. 

The  assistants  shall  do  such  portions  of  his  work  as  he  may  assign 
to  them. 

Starter. — The  starter  shall  have  entire  control  of  the  competitors 
at  the  marks,  except  as  above  provided  for  in  the  duties  of  the  clerk 
of  course,  and  shall  be  the  judge  of  fact  as  to  whether  or  not  any 
man  has  made  a  false  start. 

He  shall  be  responsible  for  starting  the  track  events  promptly 
after  the  men  have  been  given  their  positions  by  the  clerk  of  the 
course.  He  shall  also  be  responsible  for  any  unnecessary  delay  in 
the  continuance  of  said  events.  He  shall  give  a  signal  by  pistol  shot 
or  gong  at  the  beginning  of  the  last  lap  in  each  distance  race. 

Competitors. — Immediately  on  arriving  at  the  grounds  each  com- 
petitor shall  report  to  the  clerk  of  the  course  and  obtain  his  number 
for  the  event  in  which  he  is  entered.  He  shall  inform  himself  of  the 
times  at  which  he  must  compete,  and  shall  report  promptly  for  his 
events,  without  waiting  to  be  notified.  No  competitor  shall  be  allow- 
ed to  start  without  his  proper  number. 

Inner  grounds. — No  person  whatever  shall  be  allowed  inside  the 
track  except  the  officials  and  properly  accredited  representatives  of 
the  press.  Authorized  persons  shall  wear  a  badge.  Competitors  not 
engaged  in  the  events  actually  taking  place  shall  not  be  allowed 
inside  or  upon  the  track. 

RUNNING. 

Track. — The  measurement  of  a  track  shall  be  twelve  inches  from 
the  inner  edge,  which  edge  shall  be  a  solid  curb  raised  three  inches 
above  the  level  of  the  track. 

Attendants. — No  attendant  shall  accompany  a  competitor  on  the 
scratch  or  in  the  race. 

Starting  signals. —American  system  of  starting  track  and  field 
events  shall  be  official  throughout  the  games.  All  races  shall  be 
started  by  the  report  of  a  pistol,  the  pistol  to  be  fired  so  that  its  flash 
may  be  visible  to  the  timekeepers.  A  snap  cap  shall  be  no  start. 
In  the  case  of  an  unfair  start,  the  starter  shall  recall  the  competitors 
by  a  second  pistol  shot. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  383 

Siarling. — ^When  the  starter  receives  a  signal  from  the  referee 
that  everything  is  in  readiness,  he  shall  direct  the  competitors  to  get 
on  their  marks.  When  any  part  of  the  person  of  a  competitor  shall 
touch  the  ground  in  front  of  his  mark  before  the  starting  signal  is 
given,  it  shall  be  considered  a  false  start. 

Penalties  for  false  starting  shall  be  inflicted  by  the  starter  as 
follows: 

One  meter  for  the  first  and  one  additional  meter  for  the  second. 
Three  false  starts  by  any  contestant  shall  disqualify  him.  No  substi- 
tution shall  be  allowed  for  such  disqualified  competitor. 

Keeping  proper  course. — In  all  races  on  a  straight  track  each 
competitor  shall  keep  his  own  position  on  the  course  from  start  to 
finish.  In  the  100  and  200  meter  dashes,  course  for  contestants  shall 
be  marked  out  with  lime,  or  preferably  by  stakes  protruding  eighteen 
inches  from  the  ground  and  connected  at  the  top  by  cord  or  wire. 

Change  of  course. — In  all  races  other  than  the  straight  track,  a 
competitor  may  change  toward  the  inside  whenever  he  is  two  strides 
ahead  of  the  man  whose  path  he  crosses,  with  the  exception  that, 
after  rounding  the  last  turn  into  the  straightaway  before  reaching 
the  finish,  the  competitor  must  keeep  a  straight  course  to  the  finish 
line  and  not  cross  either  to  the  outside  or  to  the  inside  in  front  of  any 
of  his  opponents. 

Fouling. — Any  competitor  may  be  disqualified  by  the  referee 
for  jostling,  running  across,  competing  to  lose,  or  in  any  way  impeding 
another.  All  competitors  representing  a  team  in  any  one  event  may 
be  disqualified  by  the  referee  by  the  act  of  any  one  of  such  compe- 
titors in  jostling,  running  across,  competing  to  lose,  or  in  any  way 
impeding  another. 

Finish. — The  finish  line  shall  be  a  line  on  the  ground  drawn  across 
the  track  from  finish  post  to  finish  post,  and  the  men  shall  be  placed 
in  the  order  in  which  they  completely  cross  this  line.  For  the  pur- 
pose of  aiding  the  judges  but  not  as  finish  line,  yarn  shall  be  stretched 
across  the  track  at  the  finish,  four  feet  above  the  ground.  It 
shall  not  be  held  by  the  judges,  but  fastened  to  the  finish  posts  on 
either  side  so  that  it  may  always  be  at  right  angles  to  the  course  and 
parallel  to  the  ground.  This  yarn  should  be  "breasted"  by  the  com- 
petitor or  competitors  in  finishing  and  not  seized  with  the  hand. 

Ties. — In  case  of  two  or  more  competitors  running  a  dead  heat 
for  any  places  which  count  for  points  in  a  running  event,  the  points 
shall  be  equally  divided  between  these  competitors. 

HURDLING 

The  110  meters  hurdle  race  shall  be  over  ten  hurdles,  each  1.06 
meter  (3  feet  6  in.)  high.  Each  competitor  must  have  a  separate 
flight  of  hurdles.  The  first  hurdle  shall  be  placed  13.716  meters  from 
the  scratch,  and  there  shall  be  9.144  meters  between  each  two  hurdles. 
The  200  meters  hurdle  race  shall  be  over  ten  hurdles,  each  0.759 


384  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

meter  (2  feet  6  inches)  high.  The  first  hurdle  shall  be  placed  18.29 
meters  from  the  scratch  and  there  shall  be  18.29  meters  between  each 
two  hurdles.  The  hurdles  shall  be  pinned  or  fixed  so  that  the  gates 
are  rigid.  The  bases  of  each  hurdle  shall  be  not  less  than  18  inches 
(456  mm.)  wide.     Length  of  hurdle  shall  be  4  feet  (1.22  meter). 

No  record  shall  be  allowed  in  a  hurdle  race  unless  each  of  the 
hurdles,  at  the  time  the  competitor  jumps  the  same,  is  standing  and 
is  not  knocked  down  by  such  competitor. 

Any  competitor  who  knocks  down  four  or  more  of  the  hurdles 
in  his  race  shall  be  disqualified  in  that  event.  A  competitor  who 
trails  his  leg  or  foot  alongside  any  hurdle  shall  be  disqualified  in  that 
event. 

Any  competitor  who  runs  over  a  hurdle  not  in  his  flight  or  runs 
around  a  hurdle  shall  be  disqualified  in  that  event. 

RELAY    RACING    RULES. 

1.  Two  lines  shall  be  drawn,  one  ten  meters  in  front  of  the  start- 
ing line  and  the  other  ten  meters  behind  the  starting  line.  Between 
these  two  lines  each  runner  must  pass  the  baton  to  the  succeeding 
runner.  The  baton  must  be  actually  passed,  not  thrown:  or  dropped 
by  the  contestant  and  picked  up  by  the  one  succeeding  him.  Failure 
to  do  this  shall  disqualify  the  team  in  that  event.  The  inspectors 
shall  act  as  judges  of  relay  racing.  Their  duties  shall  be  to  see  that 
all  passes  are  properly  made. 

2.  The  same  rules  with  reference  to  fouling,  or  impeding  a  runner 
in  any  manner,  apply  to  relay  racing  as  to  other  running  events. 

3.  No  member  of  a  relay  team,  in  order  to  relieve  his  teammate, 
may  step  outside  the  twenty-meter  zone.  No  man  may  run  two 
relays  in  any  team  in  the  same  race. 

4.  Only  those  are  allowed  to  run  in  the  final  heat  of  relay  race 
who  have  competed  in  the  trial  heats. 

5.  The  relative  positions  of  the  teams  on  the  starting  line  shall 
be  drawn  for,  and  these  positions  shall  be  kept  by  the  teams  at 
each  relay  point  throughout  the  race. 

6.  In  all  relay  races  an  announcement  must  be  made  as  to 
what  distance  each  man  is  to  run  in  his  relay.  Any  man  failing  to 
run  the  distance  required  shall  cause  his  team  to  be  disqualified,,  and 
the  failmg  of  any  one  man  to  run  his  full  relay  shall  cause  the  team 
to  be  disqualified. 

7.  The  baton  shall  be  of  wood,  of  a  length  not  more  than  300  mili- 
™eters  (11.81  mches).  Its  weight  shall  be  not  less  than  50  grams 
(1.769  ounces).     The  circumference  shall  120  milimeters  (4,724  inches). 

JUMPING. 

No  weight  or  artificial  aid  will  be  allowed  in  any  jumping  contest 
except  by  special  agreement  or  announcement.     When  weights  are 


Top—V.  S.  rifle  team.    Bottom— V.  S.  pistol  team. 


25 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  387 

allowed,  there  shall  be  no  restrictions  as  to  size,  shape  or  material. 
Going  over  the  bar  by  diving,  handspring  or  somersault  shall  be 
counted  a  trial  but  is  not  a  jump. 

Running  High  Jump  and  Pole  Vault. — The  jump  and  the  vault 
shall  be  made  over  a  bar  resting  on  pins  projecting  at  right  angles 
not  more  than  three  inches  from  the  uprights.  The  bar  shall  be 
placed  at  right  angles  to  the  path  and  the  uprights  shall  not  be  moved 
during  the  competition. 

The  height  of  the  bar  at  starting  and  at  each  successive  elevation 
shall  be  determined  by  the  officials  in  charge  of  the  event.  Height 
to  be  measured  from  level  take  off  on  the  ground,  to  top  of  cross  bar 
in  the  center  between  the  standards.  Three  trials  are  allowed  at 
each  height.  Each  competitor  shall  make  one  attempt  in  the  order 
of  his  name  on  the  program,  then  those  who  have  failed,  if  any,  shall 
have  a  second  trial  in  regular  order.  A  competitor  may  omit  his 
trials  at  any  height,  but  if  he  fail  at  the  next  height  he  shall  not  be 
allowed  to  go  back  and  try  the  height  he  omitted.  Each  competitor 
shall  be  credited  with  the  best  of  all  his  jumps  or  vaults. 

The  position  of  the  standards  shall  not  be  changed  during  the 
competition. 

High  Jump. — A  line  to  be  known  as  the  balk  line  shall  be  drawn 
three  feet  in  front  of  the  bar  and  parallel  therewith  and  stepping 
over  this  line  in  any  attempt  shall  be  counted  as  a  "balk"  and  two 
successive  balks  shall  be  counted  as  a  "trial"  jump.  Displacing  the 
bar  shall  count  as  a  trial. 

Pole  Vault. — A  line  to  be  known  as  the  balk  line  shall  be  drawn 
fifteen  feet  in  front  of  the  bar  and  parallel  therewith,  and  stepping 
over  this  line  in  any  attempt  shall  count  as  a  "balk."  Two  succes- 
sive balks  count  as  a  "trial".  Displacing  the  bar  or  leaving  the 
ground  in  an  attempt  shall  count  as  a  "trial".  The  poles  shall  be 
unlimited  as  to  size  and  weight,  but  shall  have  no  assisting  device, 
except  that  they  may  be  wound  or  wrapped  with  any  substance  for 
the  purpose  of  affording  a  firmer  grasp,  and  may  have  prongs  at  the 
lower  end. 

No  competitor  shall,  during  his  vault,  raise  the  hand  which  was 
uppermost  when  he  left  the  ground  to  a  higher  point  on  the  pole,  nor 
shall  he  raise  the  hand  which  was  undermost  when  he  left  the  ground 
to  any  point  on  the  pole  above  the  other  hand. 

A  competitor  shall  be  allowed  to  dig  a  hole  not  more  than  one 
foot  in  diameter  at  the  take-off,  in  which  to  plant  his  pole. 

Running  Broad  Jump.— The  competitors  shall  have  unlimited 
run,  but  must  take-off  from  or  behind  the  scratch.  The  scratch  Ime 
shall  be  a  joist  eight  inches  wide,  set  flush  with  the  ground,  otep" 
ping  over  the  scratch  so  as  to  mark  the  ground  m  an  attempt  shall 
be  no  jump,  but  shall  count  as  a  "trial."  Each  competitor  shall  be 
allowed  three  trials,  and  the  best  four  men  shall  have  three  more 
trials  each.     Each  competitor  shall  be  credited  with  the  best  ot  ali 


388  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

his  jumps.  The  measurement  shall  be  from  the  outer  edge  of  the 
joist  to  the  nearest  break  of  the  ground  made  by  any  part  of  his 
person.  A  line  shall  be  drawn  six  feet  in  front  of  the  scratch  line 
to  be  known  as  the  balk  line  and  stepping  over  this  line  in  an  attempt 
shall  count  as  a  "balk;"  two  successive  balks  count  as  a  "trial."  When 
a  competitor  runs  over  the  scratch  line  without  jumping  it  shall  count 
as  a  trial  jump. 

Running  Hop-Step-Jump. — Same  rules  regardmg  scratch  line 
take-off  as  for  running  broad  jump. 

The  competitor  shall  first  land  upon  the  same  foot  with  which 
he  takes  off.  The  other  foot  shall  be  used  for  the  second  landing 
and  both  feet  for  the  third  landing. 

WEIGHT   THROWING. 

Putting  the  Shot. — The  shot  shall  be  a  metal  sphere  weighing 
sixteen  pounds.  It  shall  be  put  from  the  shoulder  with  one  hand, 
and  during  the  attempt  it  shall  not  pass  behind  nor  below  the  shoulder. 
It  shall  be  put  from  a  circle  seven  feet  in  diameter,  four  feet  of  which 
circumference  shall  be  a  toe  board,  four  inches  in  height.  The  circle 
shall  be  divided  into  halves  by  a  line  drawn  through  the  center.  Foul 
puts,  which  shall  not  be  measured,  but  which  shall  count  as  puts, 
are  as  follows: 

1.  Letting  go  of  shot  in  an  attempt. 

2.  Touching  the  ground  outside  the  circle  with  any  portion  of 
the  body  while  the  shot  is  in  hand. 

3.  Touching  the  ground  forward  of  the  front  of  the  circle  with 
any  portion  of  the  body  before  the  put  is  measured. 

The  competitor  must  remain  in  the  circle  until  attempt  is  marked 
(not  measured)  by  the  officials. 

„  Each  competitor  shall  be  allowed  three  puts,  and  the  best  four 
men  shall  each  be  allowed  three  more  puts.  Each  competitor  shall 
be  credided  with  the  best  of  all  of  his  puts.  The  measurement  of 
the  put  shall  be  from  the  nearest  edge  of  the  first  mark  made  by  the 
shot  to  the  point  of  the  circumference  of  the  circle  nearest  such  mark. 

Discus. — The  discus  shall  be  a  smooth  hard  body  of  any  material 
without  finger  holes  or  any  device  that  will  help  to  give  a  grip.  Its 
outside  diameter  shall  be  eight  inches;  its  thickijiess  in  the  center 
shall  be  two  inches,  and  its  weight  shall  be  four  and  one-half  pounds. 

The  discus  shall  be  thrown  from  a  circle  eight  feet  two  inches 
in  diameter.  Foul  throws,  which  shall  not  be  measured,  but  which 
shall  count,  are  as  follows: 

1.  Letting  go  of  discus  in  an  attempt. 

2.  Touching  the  ground  outside  the  circle  with  any  portion  of 
the  body  while  the  discus  is  in  hand. 

3.  Touching  tlie  ground  forward  of  the  front  half  of  the  circle 
with  any  portion  of  the  body  before  the  throw  is  measured. 

The  competitor  must  remain  in  the  circle  until  attempt  is 
marked  (not  measured)  by  the  officials. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  389 

Each  competitor  shall  be  allowed  three  throws,  and  the  best 
four  men  shall  each  be  allowed  three  more  throws.  Each  competitor 
shall  be  credited  with  the  best  of  all  his  throws.  The  measurement 
of  the  throw  shall  be  from  the  nearest  edge  of  the  first  mark  made 
by  the  discus  to  the  point  of  the  circumference  of  the  circle  nearest 
such  mark. 

Javelin  Throw. — The  javelin  shall  be  of  wood  with  a  sharp  metal 
point.  It  shall  have  about  the  center  of  gravity  a  grip  formed  by  a 
binding,  six  inches  broad,  of  whip  cord  and  shall  have  no  other  hold 
than  the  above  mentioned  binding.  The  length  of  the  javelin  shall 
be  not  less  than  eight  feet,  six  inches,  and  the  weight  shall  be  not  less 
than  one  and  three-fourth  pounds. 

The  javelin  must  be  held  by  the  grip,  and  no  other  method  of 
holding  is  permissible. 

The  throwing  shall  take  place  from  behind  a  scratch  line.  The 
thrower  may  place  his  foot,  feet,  hand  or  hands,  upon  the  Hne,  but  if 
with  either  foot  or  hand  he  touches  the  ground  beyond  the  hne  before 
the  javelin  first  strikes  the  ground,  the  throw  is  invahd. 

The  competitors  may  throw  with  either  hand  and  with  or  without 
a  run. 

In  any  throw  in  which  the  shaft  of  the  javelin  strikes  before  the 
point,  the  throw  shall  not  be  measured  but  shall  be  a  trial  without 
result.  The  throw  is  measured  from  the  point  at  which  the  point  o  f  the 
javelin  first  strikes  the  ground  perpendicularly  to  the  scratch  line 
or  the  scratch  line  extended.  The  conditions  governing  the  number 
of  competitors  qualifying  for  the  finals  shall  be  the  same  as  those 
for  the  shot  put. 

MEASUREMENTS. 

In  all  weight  events  and  broad  jumps,  that  portion  of  the  tape 
showing  the  meters  and  centimeters  must  be  held  by  an  official  at 
the  take-off  or  at  the  circle. 

In  the  high  jump  and  pole  vault,  that  portion  of  the  tape  showing 
the  meters  and  centimeters  must  be  held  at  the  cross  bar. 

,TIES. 

In  all  cases  of  ties  in  high  jumping  the  tying  competitors  shall 
have  three  additional  trials  at  a  height  to  be  determined  by  the  judges. 
The  award  shall  be  given  to  the  competitor  who  cleared  the  bar  m 
the  least  number  of  trials.  In  the  event  of  another  tie,  the  same 
procedure  will  be  followed.  ,    „      ■  , 

In  case  of  a  tie  in  the  pole  vault,  the  officials  shall  raise  or  lower 
the  bar  at  their  discretion,  and  those  competitors  who  have  tied 
shall  be  allowed  one  trial  at  each  height. 

In  case  of  a  tie  in  a  contest  decided  by  "measurement  or  distance 
each  of  the  tying  competitors  shall  have  three  additional  tnals   and 
the  award  shdl  be  made  in  accordance  with  the  distances  cleared  m 


390 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


these  three  additional  trials.     In  case  of  a  second  tie,  three  more 
trials  shall  be  allowed,  and  so  on  until  a  decision  is  reached. 

PENTATHLON. 

Each  event  shall  be  conducted  under  the  foregoing  track  and 
field  rules  with  the  exception  that  each  competitor  shall  be  given 
three  trials  in  the  running  broad  jump,  shot  put  and  discus  throw, 
and  shall  be  credited  with  the  best  of  all  his  attempts.  In  the  200- 
meter  dash  and  the  1500-meter  run  he  shall  be  credited  with  his 
actual  time. 

Events  shall  be  scored  as  per  the  official  scoring  tables. 

A  competitor  bettering  the  time  or  distance  set  as  the  one  hundred 
point  mark  in  any  event  shall  be  accredited  proportionately.  No 
mark  less  than  zero  shall  be  given.  Should  any  competitor  fail  to 
compete  in  any  event  he  shall  be  disqualified  and  any  points  he  may 
have  scored  shall  be  cancelled. 

PENTATHLON    SCORING   TABLE. 


200 

DISCUS 

RUNNING 

16-LB 

1500 

3INTS 

METER  DASH 

THROW 

BROAD  JUMP 

SHOT    PUT 

METER  RUN 

Sec. 

Meters 

Meters 

Meters 

Min-Sec. 

1 

33 

11.0 

2.5 

3.0 

6^8 

2 

32 

12.0 

2.6 

3.25 

6—46 

3 

31 

13.0 

2.7 

3.5 

6    44 

4 

30  3-5 

14.0 

2.8 

3.75 

6-^2 

5 

30  1-5 

14.5 

2.9 

4.0 

6—40 

6 

29  4-5 

15.0 

3.0 

4.2 

6    38 

7 

29  2-5 

15.5 

3.05 

4.4 

6    36 

8 

29 

16.0 

3.1 

4.6 

6—34 

9 

28  4  5 

16.5 

3.15 

4.8 

6    32 

10 

28  3-5 

17.0 

3.2 

5.0 

6—30 

11 

28  2-5 

17.5 

3.25 

5.2 

6    28 

12 

28  1-5 

18.0 

3-3 

5.4 

6    26 

13 

28 

18.5 

3.35 

5.6 

6    24 

14 

27  4-5 

19.0 

3.4 

5.8 

6    22 

15 

— 

19.5 

3.45 

6.0 

6    20 

16 

27  3-5 

20.0 

3.5 

6.1 

6—18 

17 

— 

20.25 

3.55 

6.2 

6    16 

18 

27  2-5 

20.5 

3.6 

6.3 

6    14 

19 

— 

20.75 

3.66 

6.4 

6    12 

-20 

27  1-5 

21.0 

3.7 

6.5 

6—10 

21 

— 

21.25 

3.75 

6.6 

6    8 

22 

27 

21.5 

3.8 

6.7 

6—6 

23 

— 

21.75 

3.85 

6.8 

6^1 

24 

— 

22.0 

3.9 

6.9 

6    2 

25 

26  4-5 

22.25 

3.95 

7.0 

6—00 

26 

— 

22.5 

4.0 

7.1 

5    58 

27 

— 

22.75 

4.05 

7.2 

5—66 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


391 


200 

DISCUS 

RUNNING 

16-LB 

1500 

HNTS 

METER    DASH 

THROW 

BROAD  JUMP 

SHOT   PUT 

METER  RUN 

Sec. 

Meters 

Meters 

Meters 

Min-Sec. 

28 

26  3-5 

23.0 

4.1 

7.3 

5    54 

29 

— 

23.25 

4.15 

7.4 

5     52 

30 

— 

23.5 

4.2 

7.5 

5    50 

31 

26  2-5 

23.75 

4.25 

7.6 

5-^8 

32 

— 

24.0 

4.3 

7.7 

5—46 

33 

— 

24.25 

4.35 

7.8 

5-^4 

34 

26  1-5 

24.5 

4.4 

7.9 

5—42 

35 



24.75 

4.45 

8.0 

5—40 

36 



25.0 

4.5 

8.1 

5—39 

37 

26 

25.25 

4.525 

8.2 

5—38 

38 

25.5 

4.55 

8.3 

5—37 

39 



25.75 

4.575 

8.4 

5     36 

40 

25  4-5 

26.0 

4.6 

8.5 

5—35 

41 

26.2 

4.625 

8.6 

5—34 

42 



26  4 

4.65 

8.7 

5—33 

43 



26.6 

4.675 

8.8 

5—32 

44 

25  3-5 

26.8 

4.7 

8.9 

5—31 

45 

27.0 

4.725 

9.0 

5—30 

46 

27.2 

4.75 

9.1 

5    29 

47 



27.4 

4.775 

9.2 

5—28 

48 

25  2-5 

27.6 

4.8 

9.3 

5—27 

49 

27.8 

4.825 

9.4 

5    26 

50 

28.0 

4.85 

9.5 

5—25 

51 



28.2 

4.875 

9.6 

5—24 

52 

25  1-5 

28.4 

4.9 

9.7 

5—23 

53 

28.6 

4.925 

9.8 

5—22 

54 

28.8 

4.95 

9.9 

5—21 

55 

29.0 

4.975 

10.0 

5—20 

56 

25 

29.2 

5.0 

10.1 

5     19 

57 

29.4 

5.025 

10.2 

5—18 

58 

29.6 

5.05 

10.3 

5—17 

59 

29.8 

5.075 

10.4 

5—16 

60 

24  4-5 

30.0 

5.1 

10.5 

5—15 

61 

30.2 

5.125 

10.55 

5 — 14 

62 

30.4 

5.15 

10.6 

5—13 

63 

30.6 

5.175 

10.65 

5     12 

64 

30.8 

5.2 

10.7 

5—11 

65 

24  3-5 

31.0 

5.225 

10.75 

5—10 

66 

31.2 

5.25 

10.8 

5 — 9 

67 

31.4 

5.275 

10.85 

5—8 

68 

31.6 

5.3 

10.9 

5—7 

69 

31.8 

5.325 

10.95 

5—6 

70 

24  2-5 

32.0 

5.35 

11.0 

5—5 
5-4 

71 

32.2 

5.375 

11.05 

72 



32.4 

5.4 

11.1 

5—3 

392 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES     —    1919 


200  DICUS  RUNNING  16-LB  1500 

POINTS    METER  DASH         THROW       BROAD  JUMP     SHOP   PUT      METER  RUN 

Sec.  Meters  Meters  Meters  Mm-Sec. 

73  _  32.6  5.425  11.15  5—2 

74  _  32.8  5.45  11.2  5—1 

75  24  1-5  33.0  5.475  11.25  5—00 

76  —  33.2  5.5  11.3  4—59 

77  _  33.4  5.525  11.35  4—58 

78  —  33.6  5.55  11.4  4—57 

79  _  33.8  5.575  11.45  4—56 

80  24  34.0  5.6  11.5  4—55 

81  —  34.15  5.625  11.55  4—54 

82  —  34.3  5.65  11.6  4—53 

83  —  34.45  5.675  11.65  4—52 

84  —  34.6  5.7  11.7  4—51 

85  23  4-5  34.75  5.725  11.75  4—50 

86  —  34.9  5.75  11.8  4-^9 

87  —  35.05  5.775  11.85  4—48 

88  —  35.2  5.8  11.9  4—47 

89  —  35.35  5.825  11.95  4—46 

90  23  3-5  35.5  5.85  12.0  4—45 

91  —  35.65  5.875  12.05  4—44 

92  —  35.8  5.9  12.1  4—43 

93  —  35.95  5.925  12.15  4—42 

94  —  36.1  59.5  12.2  4—41 

95  23  2-5  36.25  59.75  12.25  4—40 

96  —  36.4  6.0  12.3  4—39 

97  —  36.55  6.025  12.35  4—38 

98  —  36.7  6.05  12.4  4—37 

99  —  36.85  6.075  12.45  4—36 
100  23  1-5  37.0  6.10  12.5  4—35 

MODIFIED     MARATHON     RULES. 

16,000  Meters. 

The  race  shall  be  run  over  roads  or  streets  with  start  and  finish 
in  the  Stadium.  The  first  1000  meters  and  the  last  2000  meters 
shall  be  run  on  the  track. 

No  competitor  either  at  the  start  or  during  the  progress  of  the 
race  may  accept  any  service,  aid  or  assistance  of  any  kind  what- 
soever from  any  person,  under  penalty  of  immediate  disqualification, 
other  than  such  as  may  be  provided  for  by  the  Games  Committee. 

25.     Tug-of-War. 

The  rope  shall  be  of  such  length  as  to  allow  of  a  pull  of  3.5  meters, 
a  slack  of  3.5  meters  at  each  end,  and  a  space  of  1.25  meters  for  each 
competitor.  The  rope  shall  be  at  least  10  centimeters  in  circum- 
ference and  shall  have  no  knots  or  other  holds  for  the  hands.  Only 
such  ropes  shall  be  used  as  are  provided  by  the  Games  Committee. 


Shooting.     Top-Rifle  pits  at  the  Le  Mans  range.    BoHomZa/i-Camp  sta-eet  at  the  range. 
RoLm  rioAi-Sergeant  Stanley  Smith,  winner  individual  rifle  match. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  395 

A  colored  tape  shall  be  affixed  to  the  middle  of  the  rope,  with  two 
other  tapes  of  another  color  fastened,  one  on  each  side,  at  a  distance 
of  1.75  meters  from  each  side  of  the  central  tape.  Into  the  ground 
there  shall  be  driven  a  central  peg  and  in  a  straight  line  with,  and 
on  each  side  of  this,  two  other  pegs  which  shall  mark  the  position 
of  the  side-lines  which  shall  be  at  right  angles  to  the  direction  of  the 
pulling  and  at  a  distance  of  1 .75  meters  from  an  imaginary  line  drawn 
through  the  center  peg.  At  the  start,  the  rope  shall  be  taut,  with 
the  central  tape  over  the  central  peg,  and  all  the  competitors  shall 
stand  behind  the  side  lines.  The  start  shall  take  place  on  the  follow- 
ing words  of  command  :  (a)  Take  Hold,  (b)  Ready,  (c)  Pistol  Shot. 
The  first  position  of  two  opposing  teams  shall  be  decided  by  lot,  for 
the  second  bout  the  teams  shall  change  places;  should  a  third  pull  be 
necessary,  the  positions  will  again  be  decided  by  means  of  drawing 
lots.  The  pull  shall  be  won  by  that  team  that  succeeds  in  drawing 
its  opponent's  side-tape  over  the  first  named  team's  "side  line." 

No  competitor  shall  wear  boots  or  shoes  with  sharp  projecting 
sides  or  points  of  any  kind  whatsoever.  No  kind  of  spiked  shoes  or 
boots  shall  be  used,  nor  may  the  soles  have  any  kind  of  projecting 
additions.  Heel-irons  are  permitted  on  the  shoes  or  boots,  but  they 
shall  be  so  sunk  in  the  heel  that  the  bottom  of  the  heel  of  the  boot 
or  shoe  shall  be  smooth  and  hard.  All  footgear  (shoes  and  boots) 
shall  be  submitted  for  the  approval  of  the  referee  by  the  competitors 
before  the  beginning  of  the  competition. 

Holes  in  the  ground  shall  not  be  made  before  the  start.  The 
pulling  shall  take  place  with  the  front  side  of  the  body  turned  towards 
the  opposing  team  and  with  the  rope  under  the  arm;  the  body  shall 
not  be  turned  from  this  front  position  to  such  a  degree  that  the  line 
of  the  shoulders  passes  beyond  an  imaginary  line  parallel  to  the  rope. 

The  "anchor"  may  hold  the  slack  of  the  rope  in  any  way  he  pleases, 
as  long  as  it  is  not  knotted  around  his  waist.  Turning  is  not  permitted. 
For  violation  of  any  of  the  above  restrictions  by  any  competitor  his 
team  shall  be  immediately  disqualified. 

Each  team  shall  have  the  right  to  be  coached  during  the  compe- 
tition by  one  individual  not  forming  one  of  the  team. 

There  shall  be  an  interval  of  five  minutes  between  the  different 
bouts  taking  place  in  one  and  the  same  competition  between  two 
teams.  A  team  which  has  already  competed  shall  not  take  part  in 
a  fresh  competition  before  the  expiration  of  30  minutes  after  its  last  pull. 

The  competitions  shall  take  place  on  ground  without  sod. 

26.  Water  Polo. 

Rules  of  Federation  Internationale  de  Natation  of  1913  shall  govern. 

27.  Wrestling. 

catch- as-catch-can. 
Size  of  the  ring.— In  all  competitions  the  ring  shall  be  not  less 
than  16  feet  nor  more  than  18  feet  square. 


,396  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Ring  during  progress  of  match. — During  the  matches  the  ring  shall 
be  cleared  of  all  chairs,  buckets,  etc. 

Clear  ring. — No  person  other  than  the  contestants  and  the 
referee  shall,  during  the  progress  of  the  matches,  enter  or  be  in  the 
ring. 

Costume. — The  wrestlers  shall  compete  in  nothing  heavier  than 
light,  rubber-soled  gymnasium  slippers  or  shoes  without  heels  and 
laced  with  eyelets  only,  and  wear  a  well  fitted  supporter,  and  clothing 
which  will  be  passed  upon  by  the  referee.  The  referee  will  also  see 
that  each  wrestler's  finger-nails  are  trimmed  short  and  that  he  has 
nothing  on  his  hands  or  body  likely  to  cause  disaster  or  injury  to  his- 
opponent.  No  bandages  of  any  kind  shall  be  used  on  hands,  arms,, 
or  head. 

Weighing  In. — Each  competitor  must  present  himself  at  nine 
o'clock  a.m.  for  afternoon  bouts  and  three  o'clock  p.m.  for  evening 
bouts  on  the  first  day  in  which  he  competes.  The  weight  registered 
at  the  original  weighing-in  will  be  the  competitor's  official  weight 
for  the  entire  meet. 

Drawing  for  bouts. — Immediately  before  the  competition  each 
competitor,  who  has  weighed-in,  shall  draw  in  person  his  number 
and  compete  according  to  the  drawings. 

Bouts. — a.  The  duration  of  all  bouts  will  be  fifteen  minutes  each 
unless  a  fall  is  registered.  A  fall  terminates  the  bout.  If  at  the  end 
of  fifteen  minutes  no  fall  has  been  registered,  the  referee  may  decide 
the  bout  on  points  of  technique  and  aggressiveness. 

6.  If  a  fall  has  not  been  secured  within  the  first  fifteen  minutes, 
and  the  referee  is  unable  to  decide  he  will  order  a  second  bout  of. 
ten  minutes  after  a  two-minute  rest  period.  If  a  fall  has  not  been, 
registered  in  the  second  period,  the  referee  will  decide  the  match 
on  points. 

c.  If  at  any  time  any  part  of  either  competitor's  body  touches 
the  floor  off  the  mat  enough  to  give  an  advantage  to  either  the  aggressor 
or  the  man  on  defense,  the  referee  shall  order  both  competitors  to. 
the  center  of  the  mat,  and  they  shall  resume  the  same  hold. 

d.  The  competitor  who  has  last  been  defeated  by  the  winner  shall", 
receive  second  prize. 

Holds  ~a.  Any  hold,  grip,  lock,  or  trip  will  be  allowed  except  the 
hammer  lock,  strangle,  full  Nelson,  and  toe  holds.  Striking,  kicking, 
gouging  hair  puHing,  biting,  strangling,  or  anything  that  endangers 
life  or  hmb,  will  not  be  allowed.  •'a  s 

b  If  a  conipetitor  refuses  to  break  any  hold  when  so  ordered 
by  the  referee,  he  may  be  disqualified  by  referee. 

•  ^'^F^^^ft  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  registered  when  both  shoulders  shall  be 
pinned  to  the  mat  at  the  same  time.  A  fall  will  not  count  if  any 
part  ot  either  of  the  competitor's  bodies  is  touching  the  floor  off  the 
mat  enough  to  give  either  competitor  an  advantage  in  offense  or 
defense.     Flying  falls  will  not  be  allowed. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  397 

Seconds. — Each  competitor  shall  be  entitled  to  the  assistance  of 
two  seconds  only  and  no  advice  or  coaching  shall  be  given  to  any 
competitor  by  either  of  his  seconds  or  by  any  other  person  during 
the  progress  of  any  bout.  For  a  violation  of  this  section  a  referee 
may  disqualify  the  competitor  who  is  so  advised  or  coached. 

Officials. — a.  The  officials  shall  consist  of  a  referee,  weigher, 
timer,  clerk  of  wrestling  and  medical  officer. 

b.  The  referee  shall  have  full  control  of  the  competition  and 
his  decisions  shall  be  final  and  without  appeal.  The  weigher  shall 
see  that  each  man  is  weighed-in  stripped,  during  the  prescribed  time, 
and  he  shall  give  the  weight  of  each  competitor  to  the  Clerk. 

c.  The  timer  shall  take  the  time  upon  hearing  the  referee  say  "Go," 
and  shall  ring  a  bell  to  notify  the  referee  of  the  expiration  of  the  time 
of  the  bout. 

d.  The  clerk  of  wrestling  shall  keep  a  record  of  the  names,  weights, 
positions,  drawings,  winners,  etc.,  and  shall  call  each  competitor  to 
the  mat  at  the  beginning  of  each  new  bout. 

e.  The  medical  officer  shall  be  in  attendance  at  all  times  at  each 
meeting  held  under  these  rules. 

A  competitor  may  enter  only  the  class  of  his  own  weight,  unless 
he  is  the  only  entry  in  that  class,  in  which  case  he  may  be  allowed  to 
compete  in  the  next  class  heavier. 

Any  competitor  entering  for  any  weight  and  failing  to  make  that 
weight  at  the  required  time  shall  be  scratched  from  the  list. 

GRECO-ROMAN   STYLE. 

1.  Size  of  ring,  costume,  weighing-in,  weights,  drawings  for 
bouts,  seconds,  officials,  except  as  noted  hereafter  in  paragraph  2, 
shall  be  the  same  as  for  "Gatch-as-catch-can"  wrestling. 

2.  Every  contest  shall  be  decided  by  two  judges  and  a  referee. 
The  referee  wiU  announce  the  decision  of  the  judges  if  they  agree. 
In  case  the  judges  disagree,  the  referee  shall  cast  the  deciding  vote. 

3.  A  bout  will  be  limited  to  twenty  minutes,  provided  no  fall 
is  obtained  within  that  period,  except,  when  no  faU  has  been  obtained 
within  the  twenty-minute  period  and  the  judges  are  unable  to  decide 
upon  a  winner,  they  shall  order  an  extra  bout  of  twenty  minutes.  If, 
during  the  second  bout  of  twenty  minutes,  no  faU  is  obtained,  the 
judges  and  the  referee  shall  make  a  decision  based  upon  points,  the 
decision  going  to  the  wrestler  who  is  most  upon  the  offensive  and  who, 
during  the  bout,  has  his  opponent  the  most  times  in  jeopardy. 

4.  The  best  two  of  three  falls  shall  determine  the  match. 

5.  A  fall  is  obtained  when  a  wrestler's  two  shoulders  are,  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  judges,  upon  the  ground  or  mat  at  the  same  time. 
Pin  falls  only  to  count;  rolling  falls  shall  not  count. 

6.  All  wrestling  shall  take  place  upon  the  mat.  In  case  the 
wrestlers  fall  off  the  mat,  the  referee  shall  cause  them  to  resume 
wrestling  from  the  center  of  the  mat,  the  same  hold  to  be  contmued 
as  was  in  force  when  the  wrestlers  fell  oft  the  mat. 


398 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


7.  The  wrestlers  are  allowed  to  take  hold  from  the  head  and 
not  lower  than  the  waist.  Taking  hold  of  legs,  tripping,  twisting  of 
fingers  or  thumbs,  scratching,  striking,  grasping  ears,  hair,  flesh, 
private  parts,  or  clothes,  are  forbidden.  Any  hold  causing  fear  of 
breakage  or  dislocation  of  a  limb  shall  not  be  allowed.  In  addition, 
the  following  holds  are  barred:  double  Nelson,  hammerlock,  strangle, 
and  half-strangle,  the  hang,  and  the  flying-mare  with  the  palms 
uppermost.  Grasping  with  the  closed  hand  of  any  part  of  the  oppo- 
nent's body  except  his  hands  and  arms  is  forbidden. 

8.  The  use  of  any  of  the  forbidden  holds  or  practices  mentioned 
in  the  preceding  paragraph  constitutes  a  foul. 

9.  Following  the  second  warning  of  a  foul,  the  referee  shall 
decide  the  bout  against  the  man  perpetrating  the  foul. 

10.  Disqualification  may  follow  repeated  failures  to  observe 
warnings  for  forbidden  practices. 

11.  Disqualification  eliminates  the  offender  from  the  entire  tour- 
nament. 

12.  Competitor  may  enter  only  the  class  of  his  own  weight, 
except  that  he  may  enter  in  the  class  next  heavier  if  he  so  elects. 
Any  competitor  entering  for  any  weight  and  failing  to  make  that 
weight  at  the  required  time  for  weighing  in,  shall  be  scratched  from 
the  list. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  399 

OFFICIALS 

The  work  of  selecting  officials  for  the  Inter-Allied  Games  began 
twenty  days  before  the  opening  of  the  meet.  By  communicating 
with  officers  who  had  conducted  meets  in  the  American  Expeditionary 
Forces  and  for  the  Y.M.C.A.,  the  Officer  in  Charge  of  Officials  was 
able  to  compile  a  list  of  names  of  the  men  with  the  American  forces 
best  qualified  to  become  officials. 

The  head  of  each  sport  of  the  Inter-Allied  Games  was  also  asked 
to  submit  the  names  of  competent  officials.  From  these  recommen- 
dations and  the  lists  previously  obtained  the  final  selection  of  officials 
was  made. 

The  language  to  be  used  among  the  officials  was  English.  There- 
fore, nations  unable  to  recommend  officials  who  had  a  speaking  know- 
ledge of  the  language  were  provided  with  interpreters  by  the  Games 
Committee.  These  interpreters  worked  in  conjunction  with  the  offi- 
cials. 

After  the  officials  had  reported,  schools  of  instruction  were  imme- 
diately commenced.  When  the  Games  started  the  officials  were  requi- 
red to  report  each  day  to  the  Officer  in  Charge  of  Officials,  Maj.  Roland 
F.  Walsh,  U.  S.  Army,  one  hour  before  the  scheduled  time  for  their 
respective  events. 

Foreign  officials  from  the  Allied  Nations  were  used  as  judges, 
inspectors,  referees,  umpires  and  the  like.  The  mechanical  operation 
of  the  Games  was  handled  by  American  officials.  The  service  and 
cooperation  of  foreign  officials  was  highly  satisfactory.  All  displayed 
interest  in  their  work,  and  a  true  spirit  of  sportsmanship. 

A  pool  of  substitutes  was  kept  on  hand  at  all  times  in  order  to 
avoid  delay  in  case  a  regular  official  did  not  appear. 

This  section  also  watched  carefully  to  see  that  officers  in  charge 
of  the  various  sports  made  requisitions  and  obtained  the  necessary 
mechanical  equipment  needed  by  officials  in  their  respective  sports 
such  as  stop-watches,  tapes,  whistles  and  scorecards. 

The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  officials  working  in  connection 
with  the  Inter- Allied  Games: 

LIST  OF  OFFICIALS  ACTING  IN  THE  INTER-ALLIED 
GAMES,   PERSHING  STADIUM,  PARIS. 

22  June  to  6  July  1919. 

Referee  honorary:  General  John  J.  Pershing. 

Referee:  Colonel  S.  F.  Dallam. 

Field  manager:  Colonel  Joseph  Thompson. 


400 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Assistant: 

Officer  in  charge 
Track  and  field  events: 
Starter: 

Clerk  of  course: 
Assistants: 


Judges  of  finish: 


Inspectors: 


Timers: 


Captain  R.  G.  Stevens. 

TRACK   AND    FIELD 

Major  A.  D.  Surles. 

2nd  Lt.  J.  D.  Lightbody. 

Major  C.  J.  Miller, 

Major  A.  J.  Comstock, 

1st  Lt.  W.  Campbell, 

1st  Lt.  Matt  Geis, 

Capt.  L.  G.  White, 

Chaplain  C.  J.  Greene, 

Mr.  D.  W.  Thomas,  Y.M.C.A. 

Lt.  Col.  0.  S.  Perry, 

Lt.  Col.  L.  R.  Dice, 

Lt.  Col.  Robt.  Smart, 

Major  J.  W.  Bodily, 

Mr.  Fred  B.  Hagaman,  Y.k.C.A. 

Capt.  de  Bellefon,  France, 

Capt.  Quilgars,  France, 

Capt.  Mercier,  France, 

Sous  Lt.  Delarge,  Belgium. 

Colonel  H.  B.  Hennessy, 

Major  Dean  Hudnutt, 

Capt.  Frank  M.  Gibson, 

Capt.  C.  W.  Burton, 

1st  Lt.  R.  H.  R.  Loughborough, 

Mr.  F.  C.  Hill, 

Chef  de  Bat.  Alain,  France, 

Lt.  Gambley,  France, 

Lt.  Girard,  France. 

Major  Bayley,  Canada, 

Capt.  C.  A.  Palmer,  Canada, 

Capt.  Blaydon,  Canada, 

Capt.  Costa,  Italy, 

Capt.  Carterigna,  Italy. 

Major  Robert  R.  Harper, 

Capt.  R.  A.  P.  Holdesby, 

Capt.  J.  H.  Mclntyre, 

Dr.  Cummings,  Y.M.G.A., 

Mr,  Wm.  Unmack,  Y.M.C.A, 


Top  Ze/i— Norman  Ross  of  America.  Top  rir/M—Ross  of  America  leading  m  first  lap  of 
second  heat  of  800-meter  free  style.  Center  lefi-SUvt  of  400-meter  free  style  finals. 
Center  right^St^Tt  of  second  heat  of  400-meter  free  style.  Bottom  fe/^-Longworth  of  Australia, 
winner  second  heat  of  400-mcter  free  style.  Bottom  rujht—Biddlc  of  America  finishing  hrst 
in  second  heat  100-meter  back  stroke. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


403 


Field  Judges: 


Scorers: 


Surveyor: 
Announcers: 


Callers: 


Measurers: 


Major  C.  C.  Ghilds, 

Major  F.  T.  Payne, 

Major  P.  M.  Shepard, 

Major  C.  K.  Knox, 

Capt.  L.  A.  France, 

Capt.  J.  H.  Cronly, 

Capt.  H.  0.  Finley, 

Capt.  J.  T.  Kibler, 

Lt.  G.  H.  Nelson, 

Lt.  G.  F.  Ferguson, 

Lt.  J.  E.  Dougherty, 

Mr.  J.  Newhall,  Y.M.C.A., 

Capt.  Genet,  France, 

Lt.  Robillard,  France, 

Major  Barbier,  France, 

Lt.  Delaby,  France, 

Lt.  Caste,  France, 

Capt.  Smith,  Belgium, 

Capt.  Woods,  Canada. 

Major  W.  C.  Swain, 

1st  Lt.  A.  J.  Walker, 

1st  Lt.  S.  T.  Dunlap, 

1st  Lt.  A.  J.  Rogers. 

1st  Lt.  H.  J.  Latham. 

Lt.  M.  J.  Donoghue, 

Lt.  A.  R.  Dorris, 
Thos.  Gallagher, 
F.  S.  Wyatt,  Y.M.C.A., 
Thos.   Kelly,  Y.M.C.A., 
F.  L.  Dougherty,  Y.M.C.A., 

Capt.  Allen  H.  Muhr. 

Mr.  James  Clark,  Y.M.C.A., 

Mr.  F.  W.  Carpenter,  Y.M.C.A., 
A.  McCumber,  Y.M.C.A. 
Kenneth  McDougal, 
J.  Allen,  Y.M.C.A., 
H.  Wood,  Y.M.C.A., 
S.  Minter,  Y.M.C.A., 
P.  Lorentz,  Y.M.C.A., 
B.   Hunt,  Y.M.C.A., 


Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 


Mr.  S. 
1st  Lt. 
Mr.  H. 
Mr. 
Mr. 
Mr. 


C. 
C. 
0. 
M. 


Mr. 

Mr.  Geo.  B.  Cole,  Y.M.C.A. 


404  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    lOIQ' 

BOXING 

1st  Lt.  Ben  Steinel. 

Sgt.  Joe  Levin. 

Pvt.  AI.  Herr. 

Capt.  Harry  Sharpe. 

Mr.  James  Bronson,  Y.M.G.A. 

Mr.  L.  Lerda,  Y.M.G.A. ,  France. 

Mr.  F.  Deschamps,  Y.M.G.A.,  France. 

Mr.  Ed.  Shave,  Y.M.G.A. 

Pvt.  James  League. 

1st  Lt.  Harry  Leighton. 

1st  Lt.  Albert  Pellerin,  France. 

Major  Leon  Defigier,  France. 

Major  P.  A.  Beveridge,  Canada. 

Major  N.  A.  Armstrong,  Ganada. 

Capt.  R.  A.  Braydon,  Canada. 

Capt.  Mario  Carasi,  Italy. 

Lt.  C.  J.  Kehaher,  Australia. 

1st  Lt.  Apostolos  Pikios,  Greece. 

1st  Lt.  C.  J.  MaMarre. 

1st  Lt.  Pierre  Makar,  Belgium. 

SWIMMING    AND    WATER    POLO 

Major  J.  S.  McTaggart. 
Major  G.  J.  Downing. 
Capt.  R.  H.  Rogers. 
Capt.  J.  P.  Sullivan. 
1st  Lt.  F.  H.  Furber. 
1st  Lt.  S.  D.  Day. 
2nd  Lt.  C.  D.  Berger. 
2nd  Lt.  H.  M.  Tishborne. 
2nd  Lt.  H.  B.  Conard. 
2nd  Lt.  Walter  Campbell. 
2nd  Lt.  W.  E.  Mikell. 
Capt.  L.  Higgins. 
Mr.  A.  E.  Marriot,  Y.M.G.A. 
Mr.  H.  E.  Hoppen.  Y.M.G.A. 
Mr.  C.  E.  Beckett,  Y.M.G.A. 
Mr.  C.  E.  Peterson,  Y.M.G.A. 
Capt.  Decoin,  France. 
Capt.  Degraine,  France. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  405 

Lt.  Robillard,  France. 
Lt.  Italo  Brenna,  Italy. 
Major  A.  H.  Fisher,  Canada. 
Col.  C.  W.  McLean,  Canada. 

BASEBALL 

Mr.  Al.  Orth,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  Walter  Frambes,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  C.  E.  Robinson,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  R.  0.  Thornton,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  T.  Crawley,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  0.  T.  Doran,  Y.M.C.A. 
Mr.  Dave  Roth,  Y.M.C.A. 

SOCCER 

2nd  Lt.  Fred  Wilson. 

Mr.  A.  Patterson,  Y.M.C.A. 

Capt.  H.  W.  Maloney. 

Mr.  Jack  McKensie,  Y.M.C.A. 

Capt.  Davilat,   Roumania. 

Lt.  Savalesin,  Roumania. 

Lt.  Metiaun,  Roumania. 

Lt.  Alviresch,  Roumania. 

Lt.  F.  Cejnar,  Czecho-SIovakia. 

Lt.   Duthiel,  France. 

BASKETBALL 

2nd  Lt.  C.  K.  Brownell. 

1st  Lt.  N.  B.  Delavan. 

Lt.  F.  T.  Hanchett. 

Lt.  R.  Dunn. 

Mr.  John  L.  Clark,  Y.M.C.A. 

CROSS-COUNTRY   AND    MARATHON 

Capt.  C.  H.  Holcomb. 

Capt.  C.  D.  McLougWin. 

Chaplain  F.  B.  Beal. 

Mr.  J.  A.  Abernathy,  Y.M.C.A. 

Lt.  Neumayer,  France. 

Lt.  Robillard,  France. 

Sous  Lt.  Baissac,  France. 

Lt.  Caste,  France. 

Lt.  Cauvin,  France. 


406  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Lt.  Ganbier,  France. 
Capt.  Grenet,  France. 
Lt.  Pellerin,  France. 
Lt.  Ratti  Alfredo,   Italy. 

RUGBY 

Capt.  Allen  Muhr. 
2nd  Lt.  W.  D.  Fletcher. 
Capt.  Bonnefoi,  France. 
Major  H.  G.  Deeds,  Canada. 

ROWING 

Umpire:  Lt.  Col.  D.  M.  Goodrich. 

Assistants:  Capt.  L.  Higgins. 

Capt.  Allen  H.  Muhr. 
Regatta  Committee  and  Judges  : 

Major  C.  W.   Lewis. 

Lt.  Col.  Marshall,  Australia. 

Major  James  0.  Spence,  Canada. 

Lt.  Moncelon,  France. 

Lt.  Gerbeland,  France. 

Lt.  Hajny,  Czecho-Slovakia. 

Lt.  Bazzi  Mario,  Italy. 

Colonel  Martin,  Belgium. 

Capt.  Fairbain,  England. 

Major  Hardy,  New  Zealand. 

Lt.  Ferreira,  Portugal. 
Timers:  Lt.  W.  A.  Simpson. 

Lt.   Lightbody. 

TUG-OF-WAR 

Capt.  R.  A.  Holdesby. 
Mr.  Thomas  Kelly. 

FENCING 

1 .  The  officials  for  the  Inter-Allied  Fencing  matches  were  chosen 
at  the  time  of  the  competition.  Each  of  the  two  nations  competing 
was  represented  by  two  jurymen,  and  the  four  jurymen  selected  a 
neutral  president.  Many  of  the  following  officers  have  served  as 
presidents  as  well  as  jurymen: 
Belgium — 

Capt.  Van  de  Viel,  Lt.  Feverick, 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  407 

Lt.  Anspach,  Lt.  Calle. 

Gzecho-Slovakia — 

Capt.  Gruss  Lt.  Kroupa. 

France — 

Capt.  Cazahuc,  Adjt.  Spinosi, 

Adjt.  Haller,  Adjt.  Dodivers, 

Adjt.  Pecheux,  Adjt.  Vin. 

Adjt.  Remay. 

Greece — 

Major  Natoris. 

Italy— 

Maj.  Gen.  Geccherini  Capt.  Gesanerno, 

Lt.  Nedo  Nadi.  Signer  Nunes. 

Portugal — 

Col.  Rocha,  Lt.  Gol.  Motta. 

Major  Ventura. 
Roumania — 

Lt.  Baersou. 

American  scorers  and  timekeepers — 

Capt.  K.  J.  Zinck,  Lt.  Eugene  Cook, 

Lt.  G.  R.  Heflin,  Lt.  R.  A.  Knapp. 

L.  M.  0.  Moran. 

TENNIS      TOURNAMENT 

Lt.  Col.  Robert  Smart, 
Capt.  Clarence  Holcomb, 
Capt.  L.  A.  France, 
Capt.  A.  P.  Withers, 
Lt.  G.  L.  Stocking, 
Lt.  Chisholm  Garland, 
Lt.  Lewis  A.  Bond, 
Lt.  George  Faunce  Jr., 
Lt.  0.  J.  Reinthal, 
Lt.  Mortimer  L.  Dietzer, 
Lt.  Fred  T.  Hanchett, 
Lt.  William  C.  Wylie, 
Lt.  John  A.  Krugh, 
Lt.  H.  A.  Leighton, 
Lt.  E.  C.  Goodwin, 
Lt.  William  G.  Williamson, 


408  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Lt.  Herbert. D.  Bowman, 
Lt.  Henry  G.  Sparks, 
Lt.  Raymond  H.  Wright, 
Chaplain  F.  P.  Beal, 
Sgt.  J.  K.  Miller, 
Sgt.  David  Zeisler, 
Sgt.  Chester  L.  Hoover, 
CpL  L.  H.  Behney, 
Cpl.  A.  S.  Johnson, 
Pvt.  Edgar  Tilton, 
Pvt.  H.  L.  Richards, 
Pvt.  H.  J.  Gedney, 
Pvt.  A.  L.  Lindstrom, 
Pvt.  Andrew  B.  Lail, 
Pvt.  A.  T.  Denton. 

HORSE-RIDING 

Assignment  of  officials  for  30  June. 
Long-distance  Ride: 
At  start — 

Starter Col.  H.  P.  Howard. 

Assistant  Starter Major  Wheeler-Nicholson, 

Weighing  Officer Lt.  L.  H.  Tenney. 

Time  Keeper Lt.  Col.  T.  L.  Sherburne. 

Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Lt.  EUiott  Holt. 

Judge Major  d'Auzac  (French). 

Control  Officer Col.  L.  H.  McKinley. 

Statistical  Officer Major  H.  Kobbe. 

Assistant  Statistical  Officer  .  Major  D.  C.  Cabell. 

2  Enlisted  Assistants,  Starter. 

3  Enlisted  Clerks,  Weighing  Officer. 

1  Enlisted  Assistant,  Time  Keeper. 

Railroad  Crossing  No.  1 — 

Time  Keeper Major  N.  Ewing. 

Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Capt.  Jack  Hastie. 
Assistant  Time  Keeper Capt.  d'Estre  (French). 

2  Enlisted  Assistants. 
Railroad  Crossing  No.  2  (Chatenay) — 

Time  Keeper Capt.  W.  W.  Powell. 


Top  m-hongwoTth  of  AustraUa.  Top  right— Biddle  of  America.  <^^"f '^„  ^,'~I";"'^ 
water  polo  team— Ze/<  to  right— Decoin,  Dujardin,  Vanlacre,  Lehn,  J°'^^\^'^'^f'  ^rlnlv 
Center  right-AmeTica,n  water  polo  team— left  to  right-Rosers,  Gardmer,  Douglas,  Manlj, 
Ross,  Scarry,  McDonald.  Bottom  Ze/<— Steadman  of  Australia,  winner 
in  400-meter  free  style.    Bottom  rifffti— Bacigalupo  ot  Italy. 


of     third     heat 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  411 

Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Lt.  W.  B.  Cobb. 
Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Capt.  Gibert  (French). 
2  Enlisted  Assistants. 
Railroad  Crossing  No.  3 — 

Time  Keeper Lt.  J.  H.  Lucas. 

Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Lt.  R.  S.  Clark. 
Assistant  Time  Keeper  ....   Lt.  Jeanne  (French). 
Veterinary  Station  No.  1  (near  Rungis)^ 

Veterinarian Lt.  M.  E.  J.  Evans. 

2  Farriers. 
2  Horseshoers. 

Veterinary  Station  No.  2  (Patte  d'Oie)— 

Veterinarian Capt.  Wm.  D.  Odou. 

2  Farriers. 
2  Horseshoers. 
Water  Point   No.    1— 

Veterinarian Capt.  C.  M.  Cline. 

1  Enlisted  Attendant. 
Water  Point  No.  2.  (At  Finish)— 
1  Enlisted  Attendant. 
Water  Point  No.  3.  (Patte  d'Oie)— 

1  Enlisted  Attendant. 
Finish. — 

Judge MajorMagdalain(French.)  These  officials  to  be 

Assistant  Judge Col.  H.  P.  Howard.  I  from    personnel    at 

Statistical  Officer Major  H.  Kobbe.  \  "^^^""J"  t'^^u^nJs Jn 

Ass.  Statistical  Officer.  Major  D.  C.  Cabell.  )    fx       ^^^  j^g^  qqj^_ 

Weighing-in  Officer  .  .   Lieut.  L.  H.  Tenney.        "j  testant  has  started. 

Time  Keeper Lt.  Col.  T.  L.  Sherburne  J  Not  to  be  included 

Time  Keeper Lieut.  Elliott  Holt.  f  in  total  of  officials 

Time  Keeper MajorWheeler-Nicholson-,  necessary. 

2  Enlisted  Assistants  to  Statistical  Officer. 
2  Enlisted  Assistants  to  Weighing  Officer. 
2  Enlisted  Assistants  to  Time  Keepers. 

Cross-counlry  Ride. 

Start- 
Starter  Col.  A.  F.  Commisky. 

Assistant  Starter Capt.  W.  F.  Safford. 

Time  Keeper Major  D.  J.  Keane. 


412  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Time  Keeper Major  Robt.  R.  Wallach. 

Judge Major  Kahlad  (Arabian). 

Judge Capt.  Raschid  (Arabian). 

Statistical  Officer Col.  Koch. 

Assistant  Statistical  Officer  .  Major  H.  J.  M.  Smith. 
Control  Officer Col.  C.  E.  Stodter. 

1  Enlisted  Assistant. 

1  Enlisted  Assistant  Starter. 

1  Enlisted  Time  Keeper. 

Jump  No.  1 — 

Judge Major  Nativelle, 

Judge Capt.  Safford. 

1  Enhsted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  2 — 

Judge Lt.  P.  S.  P.  Randolph. 

Judge Lt.  Toscano  (Itahan). 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  3 — 

Judge Major  J.  P.  Wheeler. 

Judge Major  Lanck  Sweert  (Belgian) 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  4 — 

Judge Major  John  C.  Mullenix. 

Judge Major  Bonardi  (French). 

1  Enhsted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  5 — 

Jiidge Gmdt.  Radu  (Roumanian). 

Judge Lt.  J.  E.  Pyke. 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enhsted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  6 — 

Judge Major  Waring, 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  413 

Jump  No.  7— 

Judge Major  F.  E.  Tibbetts. 

Judge Capt.  De  Serrezin  (French). 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 

Jump  No.  8 — 

Judge Capt.  W.  S.  Gurley. 

Judge Lt.  Muggiani. 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  9 — 

Judge Vet.  Carpentier  (Belgian). 

Judge Lt.  McCreary. 

1  Enlisted   Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Jump  No.  10— 

Judge Capt.  J.  J.  Waters. 

Judge Lt.  Bertrain  (French). 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 

Jump  No.  11 — 

Judge Major  Loupou  (Roumanian). 

Judge Lt.  Col.  J.  V.  Kuznik. 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 

Jump  No.  12— 

Judge Major  Abbott  Boone. 

1  Enlisted  Runner. 

2  Enlisted  Attendants. 
Finish — 

Control  Officer Lt.  Col.  J.  E.  Shelley. 

Judge Capt.  Cahusac  (French). 

Judge Lt.  Marteau. 

Time  Keeper Major  Walter  Frazier. 

Time  Keeper Lt.  Col.  P.  D.  Carlisle. 

Medical  Service — ■ 

Adbulance  for  the  road. ...  Lt.  Col.  W.  T.  Carstarphen. 


414  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

Dressing  Station,  Patte  d'Oie.  Capt.  0.  J.  Chaney. 
Personnel  and  equipment  to  be  furnished  by 
Commanding  Officer  at  Fort  de  Champigny. 

Assignment  of  officials  for  2,  3,  and  5  July. 

Master  of  Ceremonies Col.  C.  E.  Hawkins. 

Assistant  Master  of  Ceremonies..  .  .  Lt.  Col.  T.  M.  Knox. 

Assistant  Master  of  Ceremonies. . .  .  Major  D.  C.  Cabell. 

Timekeeper Major  Wheeler-Nicholson. 

Timekeeper Capt.  Jack  Hastie. 

Weighing  Officer Lt.  L.  H.  Tenney. 

Assistant  Weighing  Officer Lt.  W.  B.  Cobb. 

Statistical  Officer Lt.  Col.  D.  D.  Gregory, 

Assistant  Statistical  Officer Lt.  Col.  Graham. 

Assistant  Statistical  Officer Capt.  A.  B.  Custis. 

Control  Officer Capt.  W.  F.  Safford. 

Assistant  Control  Officer Capt.  W.  S.  Gurley. 

Medical  Officer Capt.  0.  J.  Chaney. 

Maintenance  and  Repair Lt.   Elliott   Holt,  2  carpenters,  2 

assistant  carpenters  with  tools 

At  each  jump  two  attendants  (with  extra  material  and  equipment 
for  repairs)  and  one  runner  for  service  between  judge  and  statistical 
officer. 

Chief  Judge Genl.  Blague-Belair,   French. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  1 Lt.  Jeanne,  French. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  2 Lt.  Bertrand,  French. 

Judge,  Osbtacle  No.  3 Lt.  Col.  Martin-Franklin,  Italian. 

Judges,  Obstacle  No.  4 Lt.  Col.  Jones,  Italian. 

Major  Mullenix,  U.  S. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  5 Comdt.  Lancksweert,  Belgian. 

Judges,  Obstacle  No.  6 Lt.  Col.  Nativelle,  French. 

Capt.  Gibert,  French. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  7 Maj.  M.  du  Chesnoy,  Belgian. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  8 Comdt.  Bonardi,  French. 

Judges,  Obstacle  No.  9 Maj.  R.  Waring,  U.  S. 

Maj.  Theodor  Radu,  Roumanian. 
Judges,  Obstacle  No.  10 Capt.  Gallina,  Italian. 

Maj.    L.    Zalaiche,    Roumanian. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  11 Capt.  de  Monfort,  Fref^h. 

Judge,  Obstacle  No.  12 Capt.  Challan  Belval,  French. 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 

Judges,  Obstacle  No.  13 Col.  McKinlay,  U.S. 

Gapt.  du  Passage,  French. 

Gapt.  Marteau,  French. 
Judges,  Obstacle  No.  14 Major  Kobbe,  U.S. 

Gapt.  Nourrisat,  French. 

Gapt.  d'Este,  French. 
Judges,  Obstacle  No.  15 Lt.  Col.  Carlisle,  U.S. 

Gapt.  de  Serrezin,  French. 
Substitutes  .. , Major  Boone. 

Major  Smith. 

Major  Wallach. 

Major  Frazier. 

Lti,  Lucas. 

The  International  Jury  of  Appeal  was  as  follows: 

United  States.  Maj.  Gen.  H.  T.  Allen,  U.S.A. 

France Gapt.  Jolibois. 

Italy Col.  Alberti. 

Belgium Col.  Joostens. 

Portugal Lt.  of  Cavalry,  Mario  da  Cunha. 

Roumania....   Col.   George  Comauescu. 
Hedjaz Brig.  Genl.  Noury  Said  Pacha. 

SHOOTING,   d'aUVOURS   RANGE,    LE   MANS,   JUNE    1919. 

Albright,  James  L.  Captain  Inf.  Range  Officer. 

Allen,  Edward  L.  1st  Lieut.  Inf.  Auto  Rifle  Board. 

Atkinson,  D.  D.  1st  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Austin,  J.  M.  Captain  Inf.  Range  Officer. 

Barbee,  James  S.  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Range  Officer. 

Barnard,  D.  D.  1st  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Blackwood,  Owen  M.  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Blank,  Jackson  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Pit  Detail. 

Boucher,  Irving  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Bowen,  Leo  L.  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers 

Bower,  Addison,  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Brady,  David  J.  Major  Inf.  Firing  Line. 

Brees,  Herbert  J.  Colonel  G.  S.  Chief  Range  Officer. 

Brookshire,  Hides  C.  Captain  Inf.  Firing  Line. 

Byerly,  Perry  E.  Captain  Inf.  Range  Officer. 

,  Garter,  GeoTge  H.  2nd  Lieut.  Inf.  Range  Officer. 

Christopher,  H.  1st  Lieut.  Inf.  Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers, 


415 


416 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Christie,  E.  W. 
Clearman,  Vaughn  H 
Coleman,  William  P. 
Coss,  Harry  D. 
Damen,  Howard  W. 
Darby,  G.  B. 

Davis,  Frank, 

Dickson,  Robert  N. 

Diggs,  Robert  L. 

Dilley,  James  M. 

Dindot,  LeRoy  W. 

Estes,  Arthur  J. 

Finley,  R.  W. 

Fleming,  Joseph  L. 

Fleming,  Thomas  J. 

Flood,  James  J. 

Fray,  Albert  N. 

Fredendall,  L.  R. 

Fuller,  H.  E. 

Galey,  S.  D. 

Garey,  Edward  S. 

Gates,  Curtis, 

Geisler,  George  L. 

Gerhardt,  Lewis  D. 

Gibson,  L.  L.  Jr. 

Geister,  Edward  A. 

Gillespie,  Walter  R. 
Gillette,  Wade  G. 
Gillfillan,  Jay  E. 
Grigg,  Norman  D. 
Grimes,  Herman  L. 
Haessler,  Hugo  P. 
Hamilton,  Jesse  P. 
Hann,  A.  P. 
Hayward,  Armond, 
Henoch,  Irwin  H. 
Herrdegan,  A.  C. 
Heraty,  Francis  J. 
Hess,  Winefred, 
Hohl,  L.  E. 


1st   Lieut.  Inf, 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Captain  Engrs. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Lt.  Col.  G.  S. 

Captain  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
Captain  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Captain  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Captain  M.  G. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Lt.  Col.  G.  S. 


Range  Guard. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 
Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 
Range  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Asst.  Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Executive  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. , 

Adjutant. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  OfTicers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det:  No.  2,  Range  Officers. , 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Asst.  to  Executive  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No  .2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Auto  Rifle  Board. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Auto  Rifle  Board.' 


Tov  !«/(— Franco  versus    IT.  S.,  water  polo.     Top  rtfffti— Howard ,    \j. 
player.    Center  left— Ross,  V.  S.,  and  Hardwick,  Australia,  at  turn, 
versus  U.  S.,  water  polo.     Bottom  ZP/<-Sauville  U.  S.,  taking  the  water 

of  1500-meter  final. 


S.,  tackling   French 

Center  right — France 

Bottom  right — Start 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


419 


Holmes,  Richard  S. 
Hopkins,  Russell  C. 
Huff,  Byron  R. 
Hughes,  J.-H. 
Hundley,  John  G. 
Hunt,  Elmer  W. 
Hunt,  Homer  E. 
Hunter,  Roser  L. 
Irwin,  Stewart  F. 
Jackson,  Wyatt,  C. 
Johnson,  William  0. 
Kenyon,  Bradford  H. 
Ketchersid,  Wm.  C. 
Knapp,  U.  S. 
Lane,  F.  Wade, 
Layman,  W.  G. 
Leach,  C.  G. 
Leaks,  N.  G. 
Leidy,  Harold  B. 
Lindgren,  G.  E. 
Longstreet,  W.  A. 
Lord,  Samuel, 
Lowen,  Edwin  H. 
McAndrews,  J.  A. 
McCaine,  Joseph  N. 
McCarthy,  Daniel  J. 
McClanhan,  Phillip  P. 
McCredie,  William  Jr. 
McNally,  Eugene  A. 
McNary,  James  E. 
Macnab,  A.  J.  Jr. 
Markel,  Carl  J, 
Masters,  Mark  F. 
Merritt,  James  A. 
Mohr,  Jacob  C. 
Moore,  Guy  A. 
Moss,  C.  F. 
Motz,  Frederick, 
Mulvey,  Charles  D. 
Murphy,  William  J. 


2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Captain  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Major  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Lt.  Colonel  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Colonel  G.  S. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
Lt.  Col.  Ord. 
Colonel  G.  S. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 


Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Firing  Line. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Auto  Rifle  Board. 

Trans.,  Mtnence,  and  Supplies. 

Pit  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Auto  Rifle  Board. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Ordnance  Officer,  I-A  C. 

Officer  in  Charge  I-A  G. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers, 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers, 


420 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Noble,  Curtis  A. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Norton,  Paul  V. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Oberlin,  Harry  V. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Oliver,  Joseph  L. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Olmstead,  Loren  J. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Owens,  Joseph  T. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Parmelee,  S.D. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Patrick,  Clarence  R. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Patterson,  Arthur  L. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Payne,  Raymond  E. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Pennington,  John  E. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Peterson,  David  R. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Pierce,  George  P. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Pierce,  John  L. 

Captain  Inf. 

Pinkerton,  Wm.  W. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Powell,  James  C. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Powers,  H.  H. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Prey  or,  Allen  T. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Prillaman,  Lafe  P. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Price,  Robert  I. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Pryor,  Norman  C. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Rees,  Garlyle  T. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Reeves,  Maurice, 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Register,  A.  J. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Ratzlaff,  Fred  A. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Richardson,  Thom.  E 

.  2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Richerson,  Archie  E. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Richter,  Charles  H. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Riopor,  H.  P. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Righter,  John  C. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Rinchart,  Barton  T. 

Captain  Inf. 

Roberts,  Gordon  H. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Robinson,  Carl  A. 

Captain  Inf. 

Rose,  Oscar  C. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Rosenberg,  B. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Ruff,  George  G. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Ruhhn,  John  G. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Ryan,  Cornelius  E. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Ryder,  Harry  A. 

2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

Sarcka,  Earl. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Pit  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  1,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Pit  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Det.  No.  2,  Range  Officers. 

Range  Officer. 

Pit  Officer. 

Range  Officer. 

Auto  Rifle  Board. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


421 


Schiftors,  P.  G. 
Scholz,  Arthur  I. 
Shoahan,  F.  E. 
Sholton,  Robert  H. 
Shopler,  Raymond  V. 
Sherwood,  Myron  L. 
Simpson,  James  E. 
Sipe,  Clinton  R. 
Smith,  Andrew  T. 
Smith,  Charles  F. 
Smith,  Edward  W. 
Smith,  Grant  W. 
Smith,  Titus  K. 
Spirco,  William  C. 
Stevens,  F.  G. 
Wallace,  G.  W. 
AVoden,  David  B. 
West,  John  J. 
Whitt,  Josso  E. 
Whitney,  Burt  E. 
Whittemore,  K.  S. 
Williams,  James  B. 
Wolfe,  Byron  A. 
Wolf,  Fred  G. 


1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
Captain  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 
2nd  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 

1st  Lieut.  Inf. 


Det.  No.  1,  Range 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Range  Officer. 
Range  Officer. 
Range  Officer. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Range  Officer. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Range  Officer. 
Det.  No  1,  Range 
Det.  No.  1,  Range 
Range  Officer. 
Det.  No.  2,  Range 
Pit  Officer. 
Det.  No.  1,  Range 
Det.  No.  1,  Range 
Const,  and  repair  of 
Range  Officer. 
Det.  No.  1,  Range 
Firing  Line. 


Officers. 
Officers. 
Officers. 


Officers. 

Officers, 
officers. 
Officers. 
Officers. 

Officers. 
Officers. 

Officers. 

Officers. 
Officers, 
targets. 

Officers. 


422 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 
ROSTER   OF  CONTESTANTS 


AUSTRALIA 

Name 

Rank 

No. 

Bergmeier,  Chas  E. 

Pvt.  1st  CI. 

1183 

Best,  Arthur  F. 

Capt. 

1193 

Bridges,  Alfred  F. 

Sgt.  Maj. 

1214 

Carroll,  Harold,  V. 

Driver 

1181 

Carter,  Ernest 

Sgt. 

1179 

Chalmers,  Robt.  D. 


Lt. 


1185 


Checkett,  H.  W. 

Lt. 

1201 

Coghill,  Gordon 

Capt. 

1197 

Guskey,  R.  M. 

Pvt. 

1171 

Daniel,  V.  W. 

Sgt. 

1167 

Davis  Lyndhurst 

Dexter,  Jack 

Lt. 

80 

Disher,  Clive 

Capt. 

Dolton,  Leslie  A. 

Pvt. 

1191 

Drysdale,  G.  W. 

1196 

Evans,  Albert 

Ptr. 

1209 

Felton,  Alfred 

Flick 

2131 

Flick,  B. 

Pvt. 

1172 

Eraser,  Thos. 

Sgt. 

1184 

Grose,  W.  V. 

Cpl: 

1174 

Hallam,  Fred.  C. 

Cpl. 

1207 

Harding,  J.  F. 

S.Sgt. 

1175 

Hardwick,  Harold  H. 

Sgt. 

78 

Healey,  M.  H. 

Sgt. 

1166 

Hewitt,  Thos.  S. 

Sgt. 

1189 

Event 

Relay  medley  (4  men) 

400  meter  run 

800  meter  run 

110  meter  hurdles 

200  meter  hurdles 

Catch  as  catch  can- 
welterweight. 

100  meter  dash 

200  meter  dash 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

100  meter  dash 

200  meter  dash 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

Relay  medley  (4  men) 

800  meter  run 

1500  meter  run 

Relay  1600  m.  (4  men) 

Boxing  middleweight 

Boxing  heavyweight 

Tug  of  war 

Tug  of  war 

Rowing 

Swimming  100m.  fr. 
St.;  200  m.  br.  str.; 
800  m.  relay  (4  men) 

Rowing 

Cross-country  run 

Hand-grenade  throw 

Boxing  bantamwgt. 

Rowing 

Hand  grenade  throw 

Tug  of  war 

800  m.  run 

Relay  1600  m.  (4 men) 

Tug  of  war 

Boxing  featherweight 

Tug  of  war 

Swim'g.  400  m.  fr.st.; 

800m.fr.  St.;  1500m. 
fr.  St.  ;  800  m.  relay 
(4  men) 

Tug  of  war 

Cross-country  run 

Modified  Marathon 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 
Hibbard,  Colin  S.  Pvt. 


423 


House,  Frederick 
Hume,  Leshe  J. 


Lt. 
Driver 


1195 
1180 


Johnson,  Wm. 

Pvt. 

845 

Kelaher,  G.  J. 
Longworth,  William 

Lt. 
Lt. 

1165 

76 

Lycett,  Randolp 

Romb. 

2001 

Manley,  Clifford 

Sgt. 

1188 

Masters,  G. 
McGill,  A. 
McGill,  Thomas 
Meeske,  WiUiam 

Cpl. 

Driver 

Lt. 

Sgt. 

1176 
1173 

1211 

Mettam,  George 
Morris,  G.  W. 

Gunner 
Staff  Sgt. 

79 

Newall,  Harold 
Palmer,  J.  R. 

Lt. 

Spr. 

1213 

Parsons,  G.  E. 
Patterson,  Gerald  L. 

Driver 
Lt. 

1177 
2003 

Pettybridge,  John  W. 
Robb,  A. 
Scott,  Arthur 
Shumack,  E. 
Smedley,  Albert 
Smith,  G. 
Solomons,  Lewis  ■ 

Spr. 

Sgt. 

Gunner 

L.Cpl. 

Sgt. 

Pvt. 

Driver 

1199 

1168 

1170 

77 

Sorrell,  T.  R. 
Soutar,  Thos.  W. 

Romb. 
L.Cpl. 

1169 
1187 

Running    high  jump 
Running  broad  jump 
Rowing 
100  meter  run 
200  meter  run 
400  meter  run 
Relay     1600    meters 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
Relay  medley 
400  Meter  run 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
Relay  1600  m.  (4  men) 
Tug  of  war 
Swim'g.  400  m.  fr.  st. 

800  m.  fr.  st. 

800m.  relay  (4  men) 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 
Cross-country  run 
1500  meter  run 
Relay  medley  (4  men) 
Tug  of  war 
Tug  of  war 
Rowing 
Wrestling     catch -as - 

catch-can  ;     light 

heavyweight 
Rowing 

800  m.  free  style 
1500  meters  free  style 

rowing 
Wrestling     catch -as - 

catch-can  welterwgt 
Tug  of  war 
Tennis  Singles 
Tennis  Doubles 
Tennis  Team 
Roxing  light  heavy 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Tug  of  war 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Swimming  1 00m .  f  r  .st . 

800m.  relay 
Tug  of  war 
1500  meter  run 


4-24                        THE    INTER-ALLIED 

GAMES    —    1919 

Spencer,  Lionel  R.  V. 

Lt. 

1192  110  meter  hurdles 

200  meter  hurdles 

Springfield,  Sydney 

Driver 

82  Swim'g.  1500m.fr.  St. 

Stedman,  Ivan  C. 

Bomb. 

75  Swim'g.  100m.fr. St.; 
400m.fr.  St.;  800  m. 
relay  (4  men) 

Taylor,  Albert  Wm. 

Sgt. 

1215  Wrestling    catch-as- 
catch-can  lightwgt 

Thomas,  Ronald  V. 

Stall  Sgt. 

2004  Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 

Watson,  Thos  C. 

Spr. 

1204  Boxing  lightweight 

Wood,  Pat  O'Hara 

Capt. 

2002  Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 

Woolfitt,  P.  G. 

Cpl. 

1178  Tug  of  war 

Young,  Charles  P. 

Spr. 

1203  Boxing   welterweight 

BELGIUM 

Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Adriaenssens,  Conrad 

1st  Sgt. 

1  Shooting,  rifle,  pistol 

Anspach,  Paul 

Auditeur 

1086  Fencing,  ind.  epee 
Fencing  team  epee 
Fencing  team  foils 

Balyu,  Felix 

N.  C.  0. 

1149  Football  soccer 

Berckmans,  Charles 

Capt. 

2  Shooting  rifle 

Beylemans, 

Pvt. 

Rowing 

Bogaert,  Leon 

Pvt. 

1278  1500  meter  run 

Boin,  Victor 

Lt. 

68  Water  polo 

Boon,  Auguste 

Cpl. 

1262  200  m.  dash 
Relay  800  m. 
Relay  800m.  A.  of  Oc. 

Bresseleers 

1266  400  meter  run 

Broos,  Auguste 

Cpl. 

1103  Cross-country  run 
Modified    Marathon 

Bultuyck 

Tug  of  war 

(^alle,  Pierre 

Major 

1079  Fencing  team  sabers 

Casiers 

Tug  of  war 

Cerna,  Ferdinand 

Lt. 

2265  Horse    riding      prize 

Chaltin 
Cill 

Lt. 

jumping,  ind. 
Rowing 

Tug  of  war 

Claeys,  Theophile 

Pvt. 

1297  Javelin 

Shot  put,  16  lbs. 

Claus,  Silvain 

Capt. 

Shooting,  pistol 

Top  leftSt^vt  in  finals  of  200-meter  breast  stroke.     Top  H^M-Finlsh   SOO^met^r 
stroke;   Biersack,   TJ.  S.,  and  Sommer,  France,  winner.     Bottom-U.  H.  L.  Berger. 
making  exhibition  dive  from  tree. 


breast 
U.  S., 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


427 


Cludts,  Joseph 


Coelst,  Leon 

Cornells,  Seraphln 
Cuppens,  Joseph 
Darien,  Felix 
De  Brabandere, 


Sgt. 


Pvt. 

Pvt. 
Lt. 
Gapt. 
Lt. 


De  Brucq,  Jules  Pvt. 

De  Gaiffier  de  Hestroy,H.    Lt. 


Deladrier,  Clovls  N.  C.  0. 

Delahaye,  Alphonse  Cpl. 

Delarge,  Frederic  Lt. 

Delarge,  Jean  Lt. 

Delmas,  Frangois  Cpl. 
De  Longuevllle,  Robt.  D. 

Deman,  Frangois  Cpl. 

Deman,  George  Corp. 

Demart,  Emile  Maj. 

Demol,  Joseph  N.  C.  0. 

Demulder,  Sgt. 
Den  Tweck 
D'Oultremont,  Herman        Maj. 


De  Pauw 

Desaever,  Pvt. 

De  Strooper,  Emile  N.  C.  0. 


Deswert,  Edward 

Pvt. 

1284 

Devaux,  Albert 

Pvt. 

1276 

De  Vise 

Pvt. 

Dewin,  Pierre 

Cpl. 

70 

Dirick 


69  100  meters  free  style 
400  meters  free  style 
Water  polo 
1248  Greco-Roman   heavy 
weight 

3  Shooting  rifle 
1146  Football  soccer 
1092  Fencing,  ind.  sabers 

2262  Horse  riding  mil.  com. 
Horse   riding  pairs 

6  Shooting  rifle 
2261  Horseridingmil.com. 
Horse     riding      prize 
jumping,  ind. 
1078  Fencing  foils 

Fencing  team  foils 
71  Swim'g.  400  m.  fr.  st. 
200  m.  breast  stroke 
1296  Javelin 
1272  800  m.  run 

Relay  800m.  A.  of  Oc.  . 

4  Shooting  rifle 
1085  Fencing,  ind.  epee 

74  Water  polo 
1142  Football  soccer 
3  Shooting  pistol 

5  Shooting  rifle 
1144  Football  soccer 

Rowing 
Tug  of  war 

2263  Horse  riding  mil  com. 
Horse  riding  pairs 
Horse     riding     prize 

jumping,    ind. 
1286  110  meter  hurdles 

Rowing 
1093  Fencing  foils 

Fencing  sabers 

Fencing  epee 

Fencing  sabers  team 

Fencing  epee  team 

110  meter  hurdles 

1500  meter  run 

Rowing 

Swim'g.  100m.fr.  St. 
100  m.  back  stroke 

Water  polo 
1256  Boxing  featherweight 


428 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Dumont,  Joseph 
Durand,  Albert 
Dussausoit,  Frangois 
Everaerts,  Edmond 

Feyerick,  Robert 


Fierens,  Aguste 
Fischlin,  Roger 
Fleurix,  Georges 

Frings,  Jean 
Garray,  Joseph 
Gavroy,  Lucien 

Gevers,  Ernest 

Gheude,  Paul 
Gianora,  Georges 
Gillens,  Vincent 


Godding,  Hemi 
Haller,  Jacques 
Hanse,  Emile 
Hegimans, 
Henrard,  Louis 

Henry,  G. 
Holsbeeke,  Jules 
Janssens, 
Janssens,  Charles 
Joux, 
Laame,  Henri 

Laconte,  Oscar 
Lalemand, 
Lambrecht 
Lammens,  Albert 


Lannoo, 

Lefebvre,  Jean  B. 
Lenoir 
Leroy,  Nicolas 


Pvt. 

1249  Boxing  light  heavy  wgt 

65  Water  polo 

Pvt. 

1239  Boxing   welterweight 

Sgt.  Maj. 

84  Swim'g.  200m.  br.  st. 

1500  m.  free  style 

Lt. 

1084  Fencing,  ind.    sabers 

Fencing  ind.  epee 

Fencing  team  sabers 

Fencing  team  epee 

N.  G.  0. 

1135  Football  soccer 

N.  G.  0. 

1132  Football  soccer 

Pvt. 

67  Swim'g.  800m.  fr.  st. 

1500  m.  free  style 

Gapt. 

7  Shooting  rifle 

Pvt. 

1255  Boxing  lightweight 

Pvt. 

1285  Running  high  jump 

Running  broad  jump 

S.Lt. 

1087  Fencing,  ind.  epee 

Fencing,  team  epee 

Lt. 

4  Shooting,  pistol 

1st  Sgt.  Maj. 

8  Shooting  rifle 

N.  G.  0. 

1090  Fencing,  ind.  foils 

Fencing,  ind.  sabers 

Fencing  team  sabers 

Pvt. 

1104  Gross-country  run 

Rowing 

N.  C.  0. 

1136  Football  soccer 

Bgdr. 

Rowing 

Lt. 

1294  Running  broad  jump 

Run'gbr.  jp.  A.  of  Oc. 

85  Swim'g.  1500m.  fr.  st. 

Pvt. 

1274  Modified  Marathon 

Pvt. 

Rowing 

Sgt. 

10  Shooting,  pistol 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Lt. 

2268  Horse     riding     prize 

jumping  ind. 

Major 

6  Shooting  pistol 

Pvt. 

Rowing 

Tug  of  war 

Sgt. 

2005  Tennis  singles 

Tennis  doubles 

Tennis  team 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Pvt. 

1260  Javehn 

Boxing    heavyweight 

Gapt. 

2272  Horse     riding     prize 

jumping  ind. 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


429 


Leyssens,  Jean 

Pvt. 

1277 

Mandeville,  Hector 
Martou,  Firmin 

Pvt. 
Pvt. 

9 
1264 

Masure,  Eduard 
Masuy,  Oscar 

Meysmans,  Henri 

Pvt. 
Comdt. 

Lt. 

10 

5 

11 

1293 

Michause,  Clement 
Michel,  G. 
Michel,  Jules  P. 
Montigny,  Orphile 

1st  Sgt. 

N.  C.  0. 
Lt. 

12 
1141 
1138 
1077 

Morel  de  Westgaver 

Capt. 

2267 

Nauvelaerts, 
Neckx,  Paul 
Nichalaos 
Noujeau,  Francois 
Nuytens, 
Ochs,  Jacques 

Cpl. 
Pvt. 

Pvt. 
Cpl. 
S.Lt. 

13 

86 

14 
1082 

Pain,  Arthur 
Pire,  Germain 
Pirlot 
Piro,  Jules 

Pvt. 
Maj. 

Adj. 

1245 
15 

1150 
11 
16 

1095 

Piron,  Oscar 

N.C.  0. 

Pirotte,  Hubert 

N.  C.  0. 

1081 

Presselers 
Requile,  Mathieu 
Reyman 
Rigouts,  Henri 
Roelens,  Hector 
Saens,  Maurice 

Lt. 

N.  C.  0. 
Pvt. 
N.  C.  0. 

2280 

7 

1295 
17 

1267 

Savonet 

Schaekers,  Jules 
Schaepherders,  Charles 
Schmits,  Pierre 

Pvt. 
Cpl. 
Major 

1263 

1098 
18 
19 

8 

Schuller,  Louis 
Servaes 

Pvt. 

1244 

1500  meter  run 

Relay  medley  (4 men) 
Shooting  rifle 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

A.  Of  Oc. 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  pistol 
Shooting  rifle 
Running  broad  jump 
Running  broad  jump 

A.  of  Oc. 
Shooting  rifle 
Football  soccer 
Football  soccer 
Fencing  ind.  foils 
Fencing  team  foils 
Horse     riding     prize 

jumping  ind. 
Shooting  rifle 
Swim'g  200  m.  br.  st. 
Tug  of  war 
Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  epee  team 
Boxing  bantamwt 
Shooting  rifle 
Football  soccer 
Shooting  pistol 
Shooting  rifle 
Fencing  ind.  sabers 
Fencing  team  sabers 
Fencing  ind.  foils 
Fencing  team  foils 
200  meter  dash 
Shooting  pistol 
Tug  of  war 
Pole  vault 
Shooting  rifle 
400  meter  run 
Medley  relay  (4  men) 
Boxing  welterweight 
Hand-grenade  throw 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  pistol 
Boxing  featherweight 
Tug  of  war 


430 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Smet,  Victor 

N.  C.  0. 

1268  100  m.  dash;  400  m. 
run;  200  m.  hurdles; 
relay  800  m .  (4  men) , 
relay  medley  (4  men) 

Steffens,  Fernand 

Sgt. 

66  Water  polo 

Suain,  Andre 

N.  C.  0. 

1237  Boxing  middleweight 

Tabary, 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Taymans, 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Tom,  Leon 

N.  C.  0. 

1094  Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  team  epee 

Van  Antherpen,  Louis 

Pvt. 

1251  Boxing  middle  weight 

Vandeille 

Tug  of  war 

Vandenborn 

Tug  of  war 

Vanden  Bossche,  Armand 

Sgt. 

20  Shooting  rifle 

Vanden  Bossche,  Albinus 

Pvt. 

21  Shooting  rifle 

Van  de  Velde,  Jacques 

Pvt. 

1137  Football  soccer 

Van  De  Wiele,  Gustave 

Lt. 

1080  Fencing  ind.  foils 
Fencing  team  foils 

Van  Den  Eynde,  Ghas. 

Pvt. 

1235  Boxing  light  heavy 

Van  Der  Cloot 

1143  Football  soccer 

Van  Der  Gracht 

1145  Football  soccer 

Van  de  Wale,  Mathieu 

Gpl. 

25  Shooting  rifle 

Van  Der  Straeten,  Aug. 

Pvt. 

1148  Football  soccer 

Van  Dyck,  Henri 

Corp. 

1271  800  m.    run 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men 
Relay  medley  (4  men 

Van  Eecke 

Tug  of  war 

Van  Goethern 

Pvt. 

22  Shooting  rifle 

Van  Hoey,  Alphonse 

Pvt. 

1280  Modified      Marathon 

Van  Otegem,  Georges 

Lt. 

9  Shooting  pistol 

Van  Velsenaere, 

Capt. 

2270  Horseridingmil.com. 
Horse     riding     prize 
jumping,   ind. 

Verbeeck,  Oscar 

N.  C.  0. 

1133  Football  soccer 

Vercamer,  Georges 

Pvt. 

24  Shooting  rifle 

Verlinden,  Jules 

Sgt. 

23  Shooting  rifle 

Verpoorter 

1097  Hand-grenade  throw 

Verstraeten,  Louis 

Corp. 

1147  Football  soccer 

Vierhaeghen 

N.  C.  0. 

1102  Cross-country  run 

Vignol,  Rene 

Pvt. 

1273  800  meter  run 

Vincent,  Alphonse 

Pvt. 

1257  100  meter  dash 

Vlaeminch,  Honore 

Pvt. 

1300  Discus 

Vlaminck,  Honore 

Pvt. 

1140  Football  soccer 

Washer,  Jean 

Lt. 

2006  Tennis  singles. 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 

Wertz,  Fernand 

Corp. 

1139  Football  soccer 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


431 


Wouters,  Victor 


Wuyts,  Julien 
Wynant,  Jean 
Zoonens,  Auguste 
Zwartebroeck 


Name 

Begg,  J.  A. 
Bare,  C.  M. 
Jackson,  A.  H. 
Morgan,  Lewis 
Penny,  G.  M. 


S.Lt. 


Pvt. 
Pvt. 
Pvt. 


1258  100  meter  run 
200  meter  run 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
73  Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 
1101  Hand-grenade  throw 
1241  Boxing  lightweight 
1134  Football  soccer 


BRITISH  ARMY  OF  THE  RHINE 

Rank  No. 

Gunner 
Lt. 
Gapt. 
Lt. 

Sgt. 


Name 

Allan,  A. 
Arnold,  G.  W. 
Attwood,  Joe 
Balfour,  John 
Barker,  Fred  A. 
Bayley,  W.  H. 
Beaton,  James 
Beggs,  Wm.  E. 
Blades,  Logan  H. 

Blake,  J. 
Brewster,  D.  W. 
Carmel,  Larry 
Garruthers,  Keith  L. 
Chalmers,  Norman  H. 
Clarke,  R. 
Clarke,  R. 
Clayton,  Ralph,  E. 
Cole,  James 
Daly,  Maurice 
Dawson,  N.  A. 
Dewhurst,  Whitney 
Disney,  C.  P. 
Duncan,  S. 
Dyke,  T.  S. 
Edis,  John  F. 
Fleming,  C.  S.  M. 
Forsyth,  Wm.  A. 


CANADA 


Rank 

C.  S.  M. 

Gnr. 

Sgt. 

Lt. 

Sgt. 

Maj. 

Arm.  Q. 

Pvt. 

Gnr. 

Gnr. 

Sgt. 

Pvt. 

Lt. 

Sgt. 

Sgt. 

Gnr. 

Sgt. 

Pvt. 

Gapt. 

Pvt. 

Gapt. 

Cpl. 

Gapt. 

Gapt. 

Lt. 

Sapper 


No. 


Event 

Rowing 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Rowing 


Event 


697  Football  soccer 

676  Boxing  heavyweight 
679  Boxing  welterweight 
50  Shooting  rifle 
Baseball 
696  Football  soccer 
M.  S.        51  Shooting,  rifle 

714  Running  broad  jump 
721  Running  broad  jump 

Pentathlon 
692  Tug  of  war 

698  Football  soccer 
2307  Baseball 

723  110  meter  hurdles 

2299  Baseball 

729  Handerrenade  throw 
694  Tug  of  war 

Baseball 
682  Boxing  featherweight 

Baseball 

Rowing 

2300  Baseball 
Rowing 

699  Football  soccer 

Rowing 

Baseball 

Rowing 
725  Discus 


432 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Francis,  Edward  D.  T. 

Lieut. 

52  Shooting  rifle 

Fraser,  Harry 

Pvt. 

53  Shooting  rifle 

Fripps,  T.  W. 

Gnr. 

687  Tug  of  war 

Garrard,  P.  C. 

Lt. 

46  Swim'g.  100m.fr.  st.; 
800  m.  relay.  (4  men) 

Gilliborn,  W. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Gilpatrick,  Paul  E. 

Pvt. 

2304  Baseball 

Goodhouse,  Fred  J. 

C.  S.  M. 

54  Shooting  rifle 

Gough,  S. 

C.  M.  S. 

700  Football  soccer 

Gunn,  A.  S. 

Lt. 

684  Tug  of  war 

Haliburton,  LeRoy  L. 

C.  Q.  M.  S. 

715  100    meter    dash 
200  meter  dash 
400  meter  run 
relay  800m.  (4  men) 
Running  broad  jump 

Harris,  Edwin  A. 

Spr. 

678  Boxing  middleweight 

Harrowing,  Sidney  E. 

Sgt. 

716  200  meter  dash 

Harvey,  T.  R. 

Cpl. 

Rowing 

Hay,  John 

Sgt. 

55  Shooting  rifle 

Herscovitch,  M.  H. 

Gnr. 

680  Boxing  light  heavywt 

Hitchen,  C. 

Sgt. 

701  Football  soccer  . 

Home,  S.  F. 

Sgt. 

702  Football  soccer 

Howard,  J.  A. 

Pvt. 

726  100  meter  dash 
200  m.  dash 
Relay. 800m.  (4  men) 

Hurd,  Ernest, 

Pvt. 

Baseball 

Hutchinson,  C.  G. 

Sgt. 

703  Football  soccer 

Hutchinson,  Roger  G. 

Major 

56  Shooting  rifle 

Johnson,  A.  P. 

Pvt. 

727  Handg-renade  throw 
Javelin 
Relay  800m.. (4 men) 

Johnson,  Frederick  G. 

Captain 

57  Shooting  rifle 

Kaufman,  Edwin  J. 

Captain 

58  Shooting  rifle,   pistol 

Keeper,  J.  B. 

Cp. 

720  Cross-country  run. . , 
Modified      Marathon 

Klaehu,  Alfred 

Pvt. 

2302  Baseball 

Kyle,  T. 

C.  Q.  M.S. 

704  Football  soccer 

La  Pierre,  H.  E. 

Pvt. 

722  Cross-country  run 
1500  meter  run    . 

Latimer,  R.  C. 

Pvt. 

2303  Baseball 

Machan,  G.  W. 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Marr 

Sgt. 

713  Football  soccer 

Martin,  Fred  R. 

Captain 

59  Shooting  rifle 

Martin,  H. 

Sgt. 

681  Boxing  lightweight , 

Mason,  C.  R. 

Sgt. 

693  Tug  of  war 

Massey,  J.  H. 

Sgt. 

730  Cross-country  run 
Modified      Marathon 

Mayes,  H.  G. 

Lt.  Col. 

2029  Tennis  singles 

PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


435 


Mayson,  B. 

Sgt. 

707 

Mc  Cuaig,  J.  C. 

Major 

McGee,  S.  J. 

Cpl. 

705 

McGrath,  Patrick  S. 

Pvt. 

683 

Mclnnes,  Dugald 

Sgt. 

60 

McLean,  A. 

Gnr. 

686 

McKay, 

Cpl. 

706 

Morris,  William  0. 

Maj. 

61 

Mortimer,  George 

Maj. 

62 

Muir,  G.  S. 

Lt. 

718 

Newman,  Nathaniel 

Col.  Sgt. 

63 

Newsam,  A.  R. 

Capt. 

45 

Norman,  E.  E. 

Lt. 

Odgers,  Richard  B. 

Sgt. 

2296 

O'Neill-Daunt,  Reginald 

Cpl. 

64 

Payne,  Ethelrod  G. 

Pvt. 

65 

Peckham,  Earl  S. 

Pvt. 

2291 

Perkins,  H. 

Sgt. 

47 

Phillips,  C.  T. 

Gnr. 

689 

Poynton,  A,  S. 

Capt. 

Prest,  R.  H. 

Col. 

691 

Rae,  William 

Lt.  Col. 

66 

Richards,  J.  W. 

Pvt. 

708 

Richardson,  Fred 

Maj. 

67 

Rix,  M.  H. 

Lt. 

Robinson,  Clarence  W. 

C.  F. 

Robinson,  F. 

Gnr. 

690 

Robinson,  W.  F. 

Pvt. 

695 

Sanderson,  G. 

Sgt. 

48 

Sheppard,  Victor  C. 

Cpl. 

Simmonds,  William  R, 

Pvt. 

68 

Smith,  Frank  S. 

C.  F. 

Spalding,  Frank 

Lt. 

69 

Spalding,  Victor 

Lt. 

70 

Spouncer,  W.  A. 

Pvt. 

709 

Spraggs,  A.  D. 

Lt. 

St6ckwell,  John  R. 

Pvt. 

71 

Sutherland,  D.  M. 

Lt. 

724 

Swatton,  G. 

B.  M.  S. 

685 

Tate,  Ernest  R. 

Pvt. 

2294 

Taylor,  G. 

Gnr. 

710 

Thompson,  Alexander  T. 

Cpl. 

2309 

Thompson,  D. 

Pvt. 

711 

Football  soccer 
Rowing 
Football  soccer 
Boxing  bantam 
Shooting,  rifle 
Tug  of  war 
Football  soccer 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 
1500  meter  run 
Shooting  rifle 
Swim'g.  100m.fr.  St.; 

800  m.  relay 
Rowing 
Baseball 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 
Baseball 
Swim'g.  400m.fr.  St.; 

800  meter  relay 
Tug  of  war 
Rowing 
Tug  of  war 
Shooting  rifle 
Football  soccer 
Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 
Baseball 
Tug  of  war 
Tug  of  war 
Swim'g.  100m.fr.  St.; 

100m.  bk.  stroke ; 

800  m.  relay  (4  men) 
Baseball 
Shooting  rifle 
Baseball 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 
Football  soccer 
Rowing 
Shooting  rifle 
Discus 

Shot  put,  16  lbs. 
Tug  of  war 
Baseball 
Football  soccer 
Baseball 
Football  soccer 


436 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Vincent,  Joseph  H.  Lt. 

Whittier,  A.  R.  Lt. 

Wilken,  Alan  Gillies  Maj. 

Willis,  T.  Sgt. 

Wright,  William  R.  Pvt. 

Yule,  G.  Gnr. 

Zoellin,  F.  J.  Pvt. 


72  Shooting  rifle 

Rowing 
719  110  meter  hurdles 
712  Football  soccer 

Baseball 
688  Tug  of  war 
728  100  meter  dash 

110  m.  hurdles 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 


CZECHO-SLOVAKIA 


Name 

Rank 

No.                Event 

Balej,  Jan 

Pvt. 

304  Wrestling   Greco-Ro 
man  welterweight 

Beranek,  Joseph 

Corp. 

301  Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man featherweight 

Burianek,  Frank 

Pvt. 

2007  Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 

Cerveny,  Jaroslav 

Pvt. 

319  Soccer  team 

Gipera,  Joseph 

Lt. 

336  Fencing  epee 
Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  sabers  team 

Dostal,  Joseph 

Corp. 

305  Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man light  heavywt 

Fivebr,  Antonin 

Pvt, 

315  Soccer  team 

Fristensky,  Frant. 

Pvt. 

302  Wrestling      catch-as- 
catch-can  middlewt, 

Fristensky,  Gustav 

Pvt. 

307  WresUing   Greco-Ro- 
man heavyweight 

Gruss,  Joseph 

Capt. 

326  Fencing  epee 

Fencing  epee  team 
Soccer 

Halik,  Karel 

Pvt. 

303  Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man welterweight 

Hejda,  Jan 

Rowing 

Hojer,  Antonin 

Pvt. 

312  Soccer  team 

Hungman,  Joseph 

Rowing 

Janda,  Antonin 

Lt. 

538  Soccer  football 

Javurek,  Joseph 

Capt. 

329  Fencing  epee 

Fencing  team  epee 
Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  team  sabers 
Fencing  foils 

Klapka,  Rudolph 

Pvt. 

309  Soccer  team 

Klika,  Milos 

Lt. 

327  Fencing  epee 

Fencing  epee  team 

PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


437 


Kopriva,  Frant. 

Sgt.  Maj. 

306 

Kozeluh,  Josef 

Pvt. 

2008 

Kozeluh,  Karel 

Pvt. 

2009 

Kroupa,  Florian 

Lt. 

328 

Loos,  Leontin 

Lt. 

314 

Madden,  John 

2380 

My  slick,  Jaroslav 

Lt. 

522 

Oplt,  Jaroslav 

Parusek,  Vaclav 

Pesek,  Karel 

Cpl. 

316 

Petr,  Jiri 

Peyr,  Frantisek 

Cpl. 

310 

Pfeifl'er,  Joseph 

Pvt. 

333 

Pilat,  Vaclav 

Pvt. 

Pospisil,  Miroslav 

Sgt. 

Prosek,  Vaclav 

Lt. 

Raca,  Antonin 

Lt. 

Romovacek,  Jiri 

Romovacek,  Vaclav 

Sedlacek,  Joseph 

Pvt. 

Steiner,  Karel 

Pvt. 

Stilip,  Dominik 

Subrt,  Vaclav 

Pvt. 

Svorik,  Otokar 

Lt. 

Vanik,  Jan 

Pvt. 

Vlk,  Karel 

Pvt. 

Wihan,  Jiri 

Zeman,  Jaromir 

Pvt. 

Zemla,  Ladislav 

Lt. 

321 
311 
324 
535 


323 

313 

320 
335 


322 
318 

2021 
2010 


Fencing  foils 
Fencing  sabers  team 
Wrestling  Greco -Ro- 
man light  heavywt 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  epee  team 
Fencing  foils 
Fencing  sabers  team 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Soccer  team 
Rowing 
Soccer  team 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  epee  team 
Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  sabers  team 
Fencing  foils 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Rowing 
Rowing 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Rowing 
Soccer  team 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  epee  team 
Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  sabers  team 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Rowing 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 


438 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


ENGLANE 

Name 

Rank 

No.               Event 

Atkin,  G.  F. 

Sapper 

352  800  meter  run 

Medley  relay  4  men 

Boomer,  Aubrey 

Golf 

Boomer,  Parcy 

Golf 

Boret,  Herbert 

Rowing 

Buston,  Clarence 

Rowing 

Buxton,  Maurice 

Rowing 

Calhoun,  A.  L. 

Sgt. 

772  Shot  put,  16  lbs. 

Campbell,  John 

Rowing 

Dixon,  Arthur 

Rowing 

Farrell,  J.  A. 

Maj. 

1220  100  meter  dash 

Francombe,  W. 

2nd  Lt. 

1223  Medley  relay  (4  men) 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
A.  of  Oc. 
Run'gbr'dj'pA.ofOc. 

Fulford,  Harry 

Golf 

Hall,  B.  W. 

Lt. 

1224  Running  high  jump 
Run'gbr'dj'pA.ofOc. 

Hartley,  Hubert 

Rowing 

Johnstone,  Robin 

Rowing 

LaFolIy  J. 

Golf 

Marks,  W.  W. 

Golf 

Martin-Smith,  0. 

Golf 

Morton, 

Bomb. 

1226  Relay  medley  (4  men) 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
A.  of  Oc. 

Peake,  Harold 

Rowing 

Phillips 

2363  Modified  Marathon 

Puddicombe,  W.  A. 

Lt.  1 

1217  100  m.  dash 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
A.  ofOc. 

Swan,  Alfred 

Rowing 

Tingey,  A. 

Golf 

Tittle,  J.  M. 

Capt. 

1221  400  m.  run  ;  medley 
relay  (4  men);  relay 
800m.(4men)A.ofOc. 

Warren 

Golf 

Weatherby,  A. 

FRANCE 

Golf 

Name 

Rank 

No.             Event 

Aguillaume,  Stephano 

Corp. 

673  Basketball 

Allain,  Auguste 

Pvt. 

150  Shooting  pistol 

Ancel 

Adj. 

542  Fencing  sabers 

Fencing  sabers  team 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


439 


Andre 
Andrieux 


S.  Lt. 


Angelini,  Charles 

Com't  (demob.' 

)    150 

Arguel,  Pierre 

Sgt. 

151 

Arnaud  H. 

Sgt. 

1406 

Aube,  Francis 

Sgt. 

670 

Azimard 

Pvt. 

1381 

Bachet,  Georges 

Sgt. 

151 

Bagay 

Sgt. 

666 

Bainconneau,  Theodore 

394 

Barbarelle 

Cpl. 

Barrelet 

Lt. 

Beaupere,  Maurice 

Sgt. 

152 

Bechard,  Frangois 

Maitre  Pointeur  400 

Bernard,  A. 

Beiwech,  S. 

36 

Belliomet,  Gaston 

Pvt. 

2365 

Besset,  Pierre 

2nd  Lt. 

152 

Boitout,  Emile 

(demob.) 

153 

Bonnet,  A. 

17 

Borde,  Frangois 

Pvt 

412 

Bouchenoire,  Rene 

Pvt. 

154 

Boudiac,  M. 

Bouquet,  Jules 

Pvt. 

390 

Bourgeois,  Georges 

Asp. 

1461 

Bourgeois,  Raphael 

2nd  Lt. 

170 

Bouton, 

Sgt. 

Buchon, 

1416 

Burtin,  Armand 

Pvt. 

1407 

Campagne,  Fernand 

370 

Caste 

Lt. 

1395 

Cassayet,  Aime 

Pvt. 

408 

Cauvin, 

S.  Lt. 

1453 

Gavallo,  Marius 

Cayrefourc,  Edmond 

Pvt. 

415 

Chauvet,  Jean 

Sgt. 

671 

Chayrigues,  Pierre 

Pvt. 

443 

Chevalier,  Salvador 

402 

Chilo 


1363  Pentathlon 

200  meter  hurdles 
570  Fencing  foils 

Fencing  foils  team 

Shooting  rifle 

Shooting  rifle 

1500  meter  run 

Basketball 

Tug  of  war 

Shooting  pistol 

Basketball 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man wlterwgt 

Rowing 

Rowing 

Shooting  rifle 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man- heavyweight 

Golf 

Swim'g  1500m.fr.  St. 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man*bantamweight 

Shooting  pistol 

Shooting  rifle 

SwimmingSOOm.relay 

Rugby  team 

Shooting  rifle 

Golf 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man featherweight 

Hand-grenade  throw 

Shooting  pistol 

Rowing 

200  m.  hurdles 

800  m.  run 

Boxing  light  hvywt. 

Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 

Rugby  team 

Javelin 

Golf 

Rugby  team 

Basketball 

Soccer  team 

Wrestling   catch -as - 
catch-can  heavywt 
1412  Running  broad  jump 

Hop  step  and  jump 


440 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Chocat 
Chretien,  P. 


Pvt. 


Cirard,  Rene 

Pvt. 

Clugnet 

Collin,  Maxime 

Sgt. 

Combarieu, 

Lt. 

Cordier 

Sgt 

Cornereau,  Gaston 

Sgt. 

Costa,  Antoine 

Capt. 

Cottrelle,  Robert 

2nd  Lt 

Coulhon,  Gabriel 

Asp. 

Courbatat,  Marcel 

Cpl. 

Crabos,  Rene 

Pvt. 

Dandelot,  Georges 

Lt. 

De  Castelbajac 

Capt. 

Decoin,  H. 

De  Cernowitz,  Rene 

Capt. 

Decugis,  Max 

Lt. 

Delaby,  Marius 

Lt. 

Delerce 

Lt. 

Delias,  Alban  A. 

Sgt. 

De  Louissardiere,  August. 

Capit. 

Delvart,  Henri 

Sgt. 

Delvart,  Maurice 

Gunr, 

De  Mezamat    de    Lisle,  Capt. 

Count  Leonard 
De  Ponthieu,  Louis 

De  Rivoyre,  Frangois  Lt. 

Des  Montis,  Jacques  Capt. 

De  Soras,  Joseph  Major 

De  St.  Germain  Capt. 

De  Varine,  Bohan  P.  Capt. 

Devaux,  Andre  Adj. 

Devicq  Sgt. 
Devincq,  Emelion 


153 
34 


1397 

467 
543 


558 
358 

154 
2586 

1390 
414 

1446 

155 

3 

156 

2011 


1411 
557 

1413 
361 

2600 

1402 

363 


Shooting  pistol 
Swim'g.SOOm.  fr.  St.; 

1500m.  fr.  st. 

100  m.  dash 

200  m.  dash 
Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 
Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 

(Army  of  Oc.) 
Soccer  team 
Fencing  saber  team 
Rowing 
Rowing 

Fencing  epee  team 
Riding  prize  j  unpin  g 

pairs ;  mil.  com. 
Shooting  pistol 
Running  broad  jump 

(Army  of  Oc.) 
Cross-country  run 
Rugby  team 
Medley  relay 
Shooting  pistol 
Water  polo 
Shooting  pistol 
Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 
Tennis  team 
110  meter  hurdles 
Fencing  epee 
Hop  step  and  jump 
Riding  prize  jumping 
1500  m.  run 
Relay  (4  men)  1600  m. 

400  m.   run 
Riding  prize  jumping 


382  Boxing  featherwt. 
354  Riding  mil.    comp. 
360  Riding  prize  jumping 
353  Reding  mil.   com. 
544  Fencing  epee 

Fencing  sabers  team 
157  Shooting  pistol 
1401  Relay  (4  men)  1600  m. 

400  meter  run 
468  Soccer  team 
454  Soccer  team 


Brugnon  &  M&nset,  French  Doubles  Team.  Gobert  &  Decugis,  French  Doublet  Team. 


Wood  &   Lycett,  Australian  Doubles  Team.      Washburn  &  Mathey,  American  Doubles  Team. 


Kozeluh  Bros.,  Czecho-SIovakian  Doubles  Team.     Mishu  &  Eremie,  Roumanian  Doubles  Team. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


443 


Deydier,  Paul 

Pvt. 

Dillenseger 

Capt. 

Djebellia 

Douchet 

Sgt. 

Dubly,  Raymond 

Pvt. 

Dujardin 

Dumont,  Raoul 

Cpl. 

Dupuis,  Paul 

Capt. 

Durand,  Raymond 

Cpl. 

Durocher, 

Duvanel,  P. 

Elichondo,  Pierre 

Capt. 

Eymeunier 

Pvt. 

Fangause 

Felice 

Lt. 

Ferrey,  Henri 

Fitte,  Ernest 

Sgt. 

Fouthoux,  Pierre 

Pvt. 

FrancqueHe 

Lt. 

Fray,  Andri 

Lt. 

Fray,  Leon 

Demob, 

Gaillard 

Lt. 

Gajan 

Adj. 

Ga  lay,  Paul 

Pvt. 

Gamblin,  Lucien 

Lt. 

Gandon,  Henri 

Demob, 

Gardere 

Adj. 

Gamier 

Sgt. 

Garotin,  Alexandre 

Sgt. 

Gassiat,  Jean 

Gastiger,  Maurice 

Sgt. 

Gastiger,  Pierre 

Cpl. 

GauUier 

Pvt. 

Gauthier, 

Lt. 

Gauthier 

Lt. 

Genet 

Pvt, 

Gentil,  Pierre 

Demob 

Giran 

Sgt. 

Girard 

Girard,  Pierre 

Lt. 

Gobert,  Andre  H. 

Lt. 

462  Soccer  team 
406  Rugby  team 
2143  Marathon 
472  Soccer  team 
453  Soccer  team 
6  Water  polo  team 
Swim'g  100  m.  bk.st. 
1403  Relay  (4  men)  1600  m. 
400  m.  run 

155  Shooting  rifle 

156  Shooting  rifle 
385  Boxing  bantam 

31  Swim'g.  400  m.  fr.  St. 
800m.fr.  St. 
418  Rugby  team 
1382  Tug  of  war 
1370  Tug  of  war 
1452  Running  broad  jump 
Army  of  Oc. 
379  Boxing  lightwgt. 
1428  Running  broad  jump 
425  Rugby  team 

1437  Pole  vault 

157  Shooting  rifle 

158  Shooting  rifle 
1365  Pentathlon 

1438  Pole  vault 
410  Rugby  team 
444  Soccer  team 

158  Shooting  pistol 
563  Fencing  epee 

Rowing 
160  Shooting  rifle 
Golf 

459  Soccer  team 

460  Soccer  team 
1380  Tug  of  war 

1394  Relay  800  m.  {4  men) 
200  m.  dash 
566  Fencing  foils 

Fencing  foils  team 
1369  Tug  of  war 

159  Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 

1412  110  meter  hurdles 
Pole  vault 
159  Shooting  pistol 
2012  Tennis  singles 


444 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Golias,  Gustave 

Golias,  Rene 

Gommier,  M. 

Graveline,  Maurice 

Pvt. 

446 

Gregoire,  John  A. 

Adj. 

1429 

Guizien,  Louis 

Lt. 

18 

Hallard,  R. 

64 

Hamoy,  Henri 

Sgt. 

1454 

Hardy,  Pierre 

Demob. 

161 

Heilbuth 

1444 

Hermant,  G. 

27 

Huet,  Danton 

1389 

Huet,  Gaston 

Sgt. 

1391 

Houdet 

Pvt. 

1374 

Hubert 

Adj. 

545 

Hugues,  Frangois  A. 

Sgt. 

447 

Huguet,  Victor 

568 

Jacob 

Pvt. 

1367 

Jaureguy,  Adolphe 

Pvt. 

413 

Johnson,  Leon 

Demob. 

162 

Jouault 

15 

Joudiou 

392 

Journee,  Paul 

368 

Labansat 

Lt. 

1398 

Labat,  Andre 

Sgt. 

1432 

Lafitte,  M. 

La  Flerere 

Lt. 

1431 

Lajoie,  Jean 

Lt. 

163 

Lakary,  Hamed 

Corp. 

1448 

Lameraud 

23 

Landeau 

Demob. 

161 

Langenove,  Eugene 

Pvt. 

464 

Lannaud 

469 

Larregain,  Paul  L.  M. 

Lt. 

355 

Lasserre,  Rene  F. 

Sgt. 

419 

Laubertrand,  Rene 

Pvt. 

1400 

Laurent 

Sgt. 

1368 

Laurent,  E.  H. 

Sgt. 

556 

Leclerc 

Lt. 

471 

Lecostere 

Pvt. 

1375 

Golf 
Golf 
Golf 

Soccer  team 
Running  broad  jump 
Shooting  pistol 
Swim'g.  200  m.  br.  st. 
Javelin 
Shooting  rifle 
800  meter  run 
Swim'g.  200m.br.  St. 
Modified  Marathon 
Gross-country  run 
Tug  of  war 
Fencing   saber  team 
Soccer  team 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  foils  team 
Tug  of  war 
Rugby  team 
Shooting,  rifle 
Water  polo  team 
Wrestling     catch -as - 

catch-can  lightwgt 
Boxing  heavy wgt. 
Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 

(Army  of  Oc.) 
Running  high  jump 
Golf 

Running  broad  jump 
Shooting,  rifle 
1500  m.  run 
Medley  relay 
Swim'g  100m.  bk.  st. 
Shooting  pistol 
Soccer  team 
Soccer  team 
Riding     mil.     comp. 

prize  jumping  pairs 
Rugby  team 
Relay  (4  men)  1600  m. 
Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 

(Army  of  Oc.) 
Tug  of  war 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  epee  team 
Soccer  team 
Tug  of  war 


PERSHING    STADIUM 

—    PARIS                             445 

Lehu,  P. 

14  Water  Polo  team 

Swim'g  100  m.  bk.st. 

Lesur,  Henri 

Pvt. 

449 

Soccer  team 

Lewden,  Pierre 

Gpl. 

1433 

Running  high  jump 

L'Hermitte,  Rene 

Sgt. 

457 

Soccer  team 

L'Hostis,  Jean 

Lt. 

164 

Shooting,  rifle 

Lippmann 

560 

Fencing  epee  team 

Lise 

Pvt. 

1373 

Tug  of  war 

Loth,  M. 

Golf 

Mahieu,  Jules 

Gapt. 

165 

Shooting,  rifle 

Manco,  Louis 

Pvt. 

420 

Rugby  team 

Mansett,  Georges 

Lt. 

2026 

Tennis  singles 
Tennis  doubles 

Massy,  Arnaud 

Golf 

Mathey,  Risene 

Pvt. 

1434 

Running  high  jump 

Mayaud,  G. 

10 

Swim'  g.  800m.  relay 
Swim'  g.  400m.  fr.st. 

Mazuc,  Fernand  A. 

Demob. 

162 

Shooting,  pistol 

Meister 

22  Water  polo  team 

Meniot,  Oscar 

Lt. 

166 

Shooting,  rifle 

Messerschmitt,  Raome 

Sgt. 

1458 

Shot  put 

Meunier 

1410 

110  m.  hurdles 

Michel,  Geo. 

33 

Swim'g  1500m.  fr.  st. 

Miramont,  Rene 

1464 

Hand-grenade  throw 

Modot,  Joseph 

Capt. 

163 

Shooting  pistol 

Mondielli,  Jean 

Gapt. 

546 

Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  sabers  team 

Moreau 

559 

Fencing  epee  team 

Moreau 

Pvt. 

1424 

Standing  broad  jump 

Moreaux,  Leon 

Gom't. 

164 

Shooting,  pistol 

Nicolas,  Paul  G.  M. 

Pvt. 

451 

Soccer  team 

Nicolai,  Jean 

Lt. 

404 

Rugby  team 

Nivet,  L. 

8 

Swim'g  800m.  fr.  st. 

Paoli 

1377 

Tug  of  war 

Paoh 

1456 

Discus 
Shot  put 

Pecchia,  Joseph 

Sgt. 

165 

Shooting  pistol 

Parot,  Jean 

Corp. 

1459 

Discus 

Pelle,  Henri 

Lt. 

167 

Shooting  rifle 

Pernod,  M. 

4  Water  polo  team 

Swim'g  800m.  relay 

Swim'g  100m.  fr.  st. 

Percy,  Louis 

Demob. 

168 

Shooting  rifle 

Perodon 

Capt. 

547 

Fencing  sabers 
Fencing  sabers  team 

Peronnin,  Henri 

561 

Fencing  epee  team 

Perreau,  Georges 

Sgt. 

166 

Shooting  pistol 

Pinet,  Lucien 

Adj. 

169 

Shooting  rifle 

446 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Piquemal,  Dedier  P. 

Poix 

Pollet,  Villard 
Pons,  Pierre 
Pouilley 

Poulenard 

Proux,  Etienne 

Prunier,  Gamille 

Prunier,  Maurice 
Ragaine,  Etienne 
Ratier,  Rene 
Rault, 

Regnier,  Albert 
Reine 
Renard,  Leon 

Renom,  Jean 
Richard, 
Rieu,  Paul 
Rigal,  IG. 
Roland,  Paul 

Rouches 
Roux,  Georges 
Salain 
Samazeuilh,  Jean 

Schmalzer,  Georges 

Seccaud,  Jean 

Seriaud 

Seurin,  Jean  Rene 


Seyis 

Sommer,  H. 
Strohl,  Emile 
Sturdza,  D.  Gv. 

Stuyler 

Struxiano,  Philipp 
Tardieu,  Jean 


Adj. 

555  Fencing    epee,    team 

epee,  foils,  team  foils 

Pvt. 

Rowing 

Pvt. 

1372  Tug  of  war 

Asst.  Vet. 

405  Rugby  team 

16  Swim'g  800m.  relay. 

100m.   free  style 

1417  200  m.  hurdles 

Medley  relay 

Corp. 

1422  Standing  broad  jump. 

Hop  step  and  jump. 

Sgt. 

396  Wrestling  Greco -Ro- 

man middlewgt 

374  Boxing  welterwgt 

Lt. 

1425  Standing  broad  jump 

Sgt. 

1455  Javelin 

Asp. 

1399  Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 

(Army  of  Oc.) 

Demob. 

170  Shooting  rifle 

Sgt. 

450  Soccer  team 

Capt. 

171  Shooting  rifle 

Shooting  pistol 

Lt. 

569  Fencing  foils 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Pvt. 

416  Rugby  team 

5  Water  polo  team 

Lt. 

365  Milit.     comp.,     prize 

jump'g  pairs 

465  Soccer  team 

Lt. 

Cpl. 

Pvt. 

Sgt. 
Lt. 

Pvt. 


Pvt. 

Lt. 
Maj. 

Corp. 

Pvt. 

Lt. 


2013 

564 

172 

2281 

1396 


1371 

29 

433 

2400 

466 
411 
366 


Tennis  singles 
Tennis  team 
Fencing  epee 
Shooting  rifle 
Hand-grenade  throw 
Relay  (4  men)  800  m. 
Relay  (4  men)  medley 
100  m.  dash 
200  m.  dash 
Tug  of  war 
Swim'g  200  m.  br.  st. 
Rugby  team 
Fencing   epee,    team 

epee,  team  foils 
Soccer  team 
Rugby  team 
Milit.  comp.  pairs 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


447 


Thierry,  Robt. 

Lt. 

407  Rugby  team 

Thbnias,  Marcel 

373  Boxing  middlewgt 

Tinel,  Alexis 

Lt. 

356  Riding  pr. jumping, 
military  comp. 

Tisnes,  Frank 

Capt. 

359  Riding  pr.  jumping 

Trouin 

Pvt. 

1376  Tug  of  war 

Turaglio,  Georges 

Adj. 

669  Basketball 

Vache,  Jules 

Gapt. 

Rowing 

Vaganay 

Pvt. 

Rowing 

Vanhuffel,  Leon 

Adj. 

571  Fencing  foils  team 

Vasseur,  G. 

Capt. 

1379  Tug  of  war 

Vasseur,  Louis 

1457  Discus 
Shot  put 

Vaquer,  Fernand 

Adj. 

Tug  of  war 

Vaudiau,  Pierre 

Gapt. 

409  Rugby  team 

Verain,  Bohan,  P. 

Demob. 

173  Shootine  riile 

Vermeulen,  Jean 

1383  Modifiied  Marathon 
Cross-country  run 

Vignoli 

Corp. 

470  Soccer  team 

Vincent,  Louis 

Lt. 

Viry,  Eugene 

Lt. 

Vogliano,  J. 

Golf 

Wallon,  Robert 

Capt. 

364  Milit.  comp. 

Prize  jumping  pairs 

Ygnard,  Armand 

Sgt. 

GREECE 

174  Shooting  rifle 

Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Adam,  Gonstantin 

Lt. 

206  Shooting  rifle 

Athinaios,  Marin  Basil 

2238  Standing  broad  jum 

Batrinos,  Andre 

2251  Shot  put,  16  lbs. 

Botassis,  Gonstantine 

Capt. 

2200  Fencing  epee 

Calobratsos,  Philopimim 

Cantzas,  Diamantis 

Caracalos,  Spiros 
Castritsis,  Const. 
Chatziandreou,  Georges 
Cogopoulos,  Gonstantin 
Courendis,  Evanguelas 
Darivas,  Anast. 
Demerzis,  Georges 
Demerdzis,  Demetre 


Pvt. 
Pvt. 

Pvt. 

Sgt. 

Lt. 
Sailor 
Gpl. 
Pvt. 

Sgt. 


Fencing  team   sabers 
Fencing  team  epee 

2154  Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man lightwt 

2254  1500  m.  run 

Modified  Marathon 

2199  Cross-country  run 

2219  Soccer 

2231  Soccer 

205  Shooting  rifle 
2230  Soccer 

2234  Running  high  jump 
2229  Soccer 

2232  Soccer 


448 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Dentias,  Demetre 

2153  Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man middlewt. 

Dimitriou,  Stylianos 

Pvt. 

2256  800  m.  run 

Relay  1600m.  (4  men) 

Galafatis,  Georges 

Sgt. 

:  2220  Soccer 

Galanis,  Ghristos 

Cpl. 

2209  Tug  of  war 

Georgantopoylos,  Jean 

Lt. 

2206  Tug  of  war 

Grigoriadis,  Georges 

2213  Tug  of  war 

Hadzidakis,  George 

2nd  Lt. 

204  Shooting  rifle 

Isaas,  Is 

2227  Soccer 

Kagadis,  Evan 

Aspirant 

2208  Tug  of  war    , 

Kaparos,  P.  J. 

Sgt. 

207  Shooting  rifle 

Koltsakis,  Const. 

Pvt. 

2233  Running    high'  jump 

Kosmas,  George  S. 

Pvt. 

208  Shooting  rifle 

Kotoulas,  Demetre 

2211  Tug  of  war 

Kotrotsos,  Dem. 

Cpl. 

2223  Soccer 

Koulouberdas,  Georges 

2258  Modified  Marathon 

Lesieur  dit  Helle 

398  Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man light  heavywt. 

Liondas,  Agamemnon 

Adj. 

2218  Soccer 

Loucakis,  Spiro 

Pvt. 

128  Swim'g  400m.  fr.  st., 

« 

800m.fr.  st., 
1500  m.  fr.  st. 

Mantas,  Miltiades  D. 

Lt. 

209  Shooting  rifle 

Mantelos,  Athanassios 

2198  Cross-country  run 

Moraitinis,  Georges 

2nd  Lt. 

210  Shooting  rifle 

Neofitos,  Nicolas 

Pvt. 

2255  800m.  run,  1500m. run 

Niadas,  Jean 

2210  Tug  of  war 

Nicolakakis,  Jason 

2252  100  meter  dash 
200  meter  dash 
Shot  put,  16  lbs. 

Notaris,  Sotirios 

Lt.  Col. 

2176  Fencing-epee, 
team  sabers, 
team  epee 

Nouikos,  Michel 

Pvt. 

2490  Javelin 

Palavos,  iTheodore 

2197  Cross-country  run 

Panougias,  L, 

2228  Soccer 

Papadopdiilos,  Jean 

2nd  Lt. 

2240  Shot  put,  16   lbs. 

Papagfeorgieu,  George 

Lt. 

•       211  Shooting  rifle 

Papaioannou,  Demetre 

Sgt. 

■  2156  Hand-greiiade  'throw 
Tug  of  war 

Papafillipopoulos  Evan. 

2nd  Lt. 

.  2247  Javelin 

Papathanassiou,  Athan 

2226'  Soccer 

Petra cos,  Alex 

S.Lt. 

,     2207  Tug  of.  war 

Poncreas,  Menelas 

Pvt. 

2237  Hop,  step  and  jump 

Protopoulos,  Andre 

S.  Lt. 

2217  Soccer 

"At  ' 


Top — Start  of  cross-country  run.     Center  left — Vermeulen,  Prance,   winner  of  cross  country 

run  and   modified    Marathon.    Center   right — Vermeulen,    center,   cro.5sing  tape  in  modified 

Marathon.     Bottom — Start  of  modified  Marathon. 

29 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


451 


Psichas,  Pandely 


Reveliotis,  Georges 
Roumellietis,  D.  M. 
Rqumbessis,  Constantin 
Sappas,  Jean  X 
Saridakis,  Pierre 
Scotidas,  Evang. 


Sioris,  Platon  At^anas 
Soulas,  Athanase 

Stavropoulos,  Jean 
Terezakis,  Joseph 
Totomis,  George 
Tragalos,  Loucas 
Trangas,  Constantin 
Triantafillacos,  Triphon 


Lt. 


2nd  Lt. 

Pvt. 

Pvt. 

2nd  Lt. 

Pvt. 

Cpl. 


Warrant  Offlc. 
Pvt. 

Sgt. 

Lt. 

Gad.  Nav.  Av. 

Sgt. 

Sgt, 

S.  Lt. 


Triantafillacos,  Demetre  2nd  Lt. 

Triantafillacos,  Demetre  Lieut. 

Trimis,  George  D.  Lieut. 
Tsagas,  Const. 

Tsagaris,  Spyridon  Pvt. 

Tsailas,  Liberios  Pvt. 

Tsevoukas,  Photios  Pvt. 

Tsipouras,  Nicolas 

Tsolanis,  Panjota 

Tzerachis,  Jean  Aspirant 

Valaoritis,  Aristide  J.  Cpl. 


Vassilounis,  Demetre  Aspirant 

Viches,  Andre  M.  Sgt. 
Vlachopoulos,  Jean 

Vlachaliis,  Denis  T.  Lt. 

Voltaire,  Achille  C.  Pvt. 
Volteras,  Estef 

Vrassivanopoules,  Alex.        Pvt. 

Zalocostas,  Christos  Capt. 


127 


2250 
212 

2287 
203 

2225 

3204 


216 
2246 

2221 
2216 
215 
2222 
2260 
2202 


2243 

213 

214 

2253 

2205 

2257 
2155 
2151 
2150 
2239 

2203 


2244 
201 

2224 
201 
217 

2212 
202 

2359 


Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 

200    meters   br.   st. 

400    meters  free  st. 

800    meters  free  st. 

1500  meters  free  st. 
Discus 

Shooting  rifle 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
Shooting  rifle 
Soccer 
Fencing    epee,    team 

foils,     team    sabers, 

team  epee 
Shooting  rifle 
100m.dash,200m.dash 

relay  800  m .  (4  men) 
Soccer 
Soccer 
Shooting  rifle 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
Fencing    epee,    team 

foils,    team     sabers, 

team  epee 
100  meter  dash 
Hop  step  jump 
Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 
200  meter  dash 
Fencing  sabers 
Fencing   team  sabers 
Modified  Marathon 
Hand-grenade  throw 
Tug  of  war 
Tug  of  war 
Standing  broad  jump 
Relay  800  m.  (4  men.) 
Fencing  epee 
Fencing  team  foils 
Fencing  team  epee 
Pole  vault 
Shooting   rifle 
Soccer 

Shooting  rifle  • 

Shooting  rifle 
Tug  of  war 
Shooting  rifle 
Fencing  epee 


452 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Zarcadis,  Basil  Lt. 

Zirganos,  Eustatchs  S.Lt. 


2201  Fencing  sabers 
2245  Hand-grenade  throw 
Javelin 


Name 
Aguirre,  Arthur 


GUATEMALA 

Rank 
2nd  Lt. 


No.  Event 

575  100  meter  run 


Name 

Farag,  Ahmer 
Fowzi,  Mouhammed 
Izzet,  Ahmed 


HEDJAZ 

Rank 


Capt. 
Capt. 
Lt. 


No. 


Event 


1229  Horseridingmil.com. 
1228  Horseridingmil.com. 
1231   Horseridingmil.com. 


Name 

Aebi,  Ermanno 
Alberindo,  Raffaele 
Alberti,  Guiseppe 


Allegrini,  Pasquale 
Alvisi,  Alessandro 

Amalfi,  Francesco 

Andreoli,  Carlo 
Angelo,  Binaschi 
Antonelli,  Giacomo 

Ara,  Guide 
Arani,  Dario 
Arpe,  Oreste 

Ascani,  Ascanio 
Baccarini,  Vito 
Baldan,  Egidio 
Baldi,  Baldo 

Balena,  Enrico 

Ballau 

Belezza,  Virginio 

Bernardoni,  Guiseppe 


ITALY 

Rank 


Pvt. 

Sgt. 
Sgt. 


Pvt. 
Capt. 

Capt. 

Sgt. 

Lt. 

Maj. 

Lt. 

Capt. 

Pvt. 

Lt. 
Lt. 
Cpl. 
Lt. 

Major 


Sgt. 


No.  Event 

1034  Soccer 
968  Boxing  lightweight 
974  100  m.  dash,  relay  800 
m.(4  men),  relay  800 
(4  men)  A.  of  Oc. 
1000  Hand-grenade  throw. 
953  Horseridingmil.com., 

prize  jump'g  pairs 
948  Horseridingmil.com., 
prize  jump'g  pairs 
2285  Running  high   jump. 
1042  Soccer 
947  Horse  riding  mil .  c  om . 

prize  jumping 
1030  Soccer 

250  Shooting  rifle 

1057  Wrestling  Greco-Rom. 
heavyweight 

251  Shooting  rifle 
959  Basketball 
983  1500  meter  run 

1047  Fencing  team  foils 
Fencing  team  sabers 

252  Shooting  rifle 
1060  Tug  of  war 

58  Swim' g  200  m,  br,  st. 
400  meters  free  st. 
978  400  meter  run 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


453 


Bergamini,  Agusto 

Pvt. 

Betini,  Aldo 

Bettini,  Mario 

Lt. 

Bonini,  Guiseppe 

Pvt. 

Borgia,  Carlo 

Lt'Col. 

Bottura,  Oprando 

Lt.] 

Bruna,  Vittorio 

Bucci,  Amelio 

Major 

Cacciandre,  Guilio 

Capt. 

Caffaratti,  Ettore 

Maj. 

Campus,  Peppy 

Maj. 

Candelori,  Mario 

Lt. 

Capra,  Carlo 

Sgt. 

Carano,  Carlo 

Pvt 

Castelli,  Nino 

Cavenini,  Luigi 

Corp. 

Cesare,  Santanaria 

Pvt. 

Clerici,  Fabio 

Capt. 

Colombo,  M.  L. 

Cp. 

Costa,  Malito 

Pvt. 

Costa,  Vittorio 

Capt. 

Croci,  Georgio 

Sgt. 

DeLorenzi,  Brunol 

Pvt. 

DeRisi,  Gabriele 

Capt. 

Dolfino,  Francesco 

Mar. 

Domenis,  Vitterio 

Carabiniere 

Dones,  Ermino 

Sgt. 

Fabi,  Licurgo 

Lt. 

Fabris,  Sante 

Brig. 

Ferrashi 

Frassinetti,  Francesco 

Pvt. 

Frassinette,  Augostino 

Ficher,  Norberto 

Lt. 

Gargano,  Andrea 

Pvt. 

Ghiringhelli,  Carlo 

Pvt. 

Gressi,  Attilio 

Major 

Guiseppe,  Trivellini 

Sgt. 

Italo,  Rosji 

Capt. 

Kustermann,  Giovanni 

Lucca,  Emilio 

Cpl. 

Luigi,  Bacigalupo 

Lt. 

1037  Soccer 
Rowing 

253  Shooting  rifle 
982  800  meter  run 

Shooting  pistol 
999  Javelin 
Rowing 

254  Shooting  rifle 

949  Horseridingmil.com. 

prize    jumping,  ind. 

951  Horse  riding  mil,  com. 

255  Shooting  rifle 

980  400m.  run,  800m.  run 
1028  Soccer 
1031  Soccer 

Rowing 
1036  Soccer 
1040  Soccer 
Rowing 
Rowing 
59  Swim'g  800  m.  relay, 
800  meter  free  st. 
1001  Pentathlon 
975  100m,dash,200m.dash 
800  meter  relay 
Medley  relay 
996  Javelin 

257  Shooting  rifle 
Shooting  rifle 

258  Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 

259  Shooting  rifle 

260  Shooting  rifle 
1059  Tug  of  war 

63  Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st, 
129  Swim'g  800  m.  relay 

261  Shooting  rifle 

1053  Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man middleweight 
2284  Running  high   jump 

262  Shooting  rifle 

1038  Soccer 
1043  Soccer 

61  Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 

Rowing 
57  Swim'g  800  m.  fr.  st. 
1500  meters  fr.  st. 
800  m.  relay 


454 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Luigi,  Gaudo 

Capt. 

954 

Mantevani,  Ermannio 

Pvt. 

967 

Mareno,  Guiseppe 

Pvt. 

1025 

Maribi 

1064 

Martinenghi,  Carlo 

Pvt. 

1026 

Massa,  Mario 

Pvt. 

60 

Marzzorati,  Enea 

Pvt. 

969 

Menacci,  Guglielmo 

Major 

263 

Messano 

1062 

Moukani 

1061 

Muggiani,  Arrigo 

Lt. 

954 

Muggiani,  Mario 

Sgt.  Maj. 

956 

Musia,  Calisto 

Major 

264 

Nadi,  Aldo 

2nd  Lt. 

1044 

Nadi,  Nedo 

Lt. 

1046 

Negri,  Autenore 

Pvt. 

972 

Negri,  Carlo 

Lt. 

966 

Nespoli,  Arturo 

Sgt. 

976 

Nunes,  Leo  . 

Lt. 

1049 

Olgeni,  E. 

Olgini,  Mario 

Oreste,  Pascivti 

Pvt. 

998 

Orlandi,  Giovanni  B. 

Pvt. 

977 

Pagliani,  Armando 

Cpl.  Maj. 

971 

Pampuri,  Elia 

Pvt. 

1052 

Parodi,  Giovanni 

Pvt. 

1032 

Pasciuti,  Oreste 

Pvt. 

2259 

Pastorini,  Constantino 

Major 

265 

Pecollo,  Battista 

Sgt. 

960 

Pezhoni,  Carlo 

Pvt. 

995 

Piacenti 

1065 

Picello,  Frederico 

Sgt. 

267 

Piero,  Vaglia 

Pvt. 

1056 

Riding  prize  juniping 

Boxing  welterweight 

Cross-country  run 

Tug  of  war 

Cross-country  run 

Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 
200m.br.  St.  400m.  f.s. 
SOOm.f.s.  1500  m.  fr. 
st.  800  m.  relay 

Boxing  bantamwgt 

Shooting  rifle 

Tug  of  war 

Tug  of  war 

Basketball 

Basketball 

Shooting  rifle 

Fencing  foils,  sabers, 
team  foils,  t'm  sabers 

Fencing  foils,  epee, 
team  foils,  t'm  sabers 

Modified  Marathon 

Boxing  middleweight 

100  m.  dash,  200  m. 
dash,  run'g.  br.  jp., 
relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
run'g br.j.  (A.of Oc) 

Fencing  epee 

Rowing 

Rowing 

Hand-grenade  throw 

200  m.  dash, 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men 
A.ofOc.) 

Modified  Marathon 

Wrestling  Greco  -Ro- 
man light  heavywgt 

Soccer 

Javelin 

Shot  put  16  lb. 

Shooting  rifle 

Basketball 

Hop,  step  and  jump. 

Tug  of  war 

Shooting  rifle 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man  featherweight 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


455 


Piersantelli,  Emilio 

Lt.  Col. 

Pietro,  Leone 

Sgt. 

Pontiggia,  M.  0. 

Cpl. 

Porro,  Enrico 

Pvt. 

Porro,  Orturo 

Pvt. 

Puliti,   Oreste 

Sgt. 

Ranghieri,  Walter 

Sgt. 

Righi,  Fulvio 

Capt. 

Salvi,  G.  Ercole 

Lt. 

Salvini,  T.  R. 

Lt. 

Sanguini,  Plinio 

Capt. 

Sandrini,  Renato 

Lt. 

Santena,  Amedeo 

Vice  Brig. 

Santena,  Pacifico 

Maresciallo 

Sardi,  Luigi 

Sgt.  Mai. 

Sarorari,  Feruccio 

Lt. 

Scaturin,  E. 

Serralunga,  Natele 

Cpl.  Mag. 

Sessa,  Guiseppe 

Pvt. 

Silvio,  Raso 

Pvt. 

Simonotti,  Achille 

Col. 

Simonato 

Somma,  Umberto 

Col. 

Spalla,  Ermino 

Sgt. 

Speroni,  Carlo 

Cpl. 

Tarino,  Alfredo 

Sgt. 

Tartaglia,  Carlo 

Terzi,  Felia 

Torlashi,  G. 

Capt. 

Traverla 

Tugnoli,  Guiseppe 

Sgt. 

Ubertalli,  Ruggero 

Maj. 

Urbani,  Dino 

Lt. 

Urio,  Plinio 

Sgt. 

Valle,  Leane 

Capt. 

Vecchio,  Renzo 

Sgt. 

Villa,  Giovanni 

Pvt. 

Visconti 

266  Shooting  rifle 
1039  Soccer 

Rowing 
1055  Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man lightwt 
984  1500  meter  run 
1051  Fencing  foils, 

sabers,    team     foils, 
team  sabers 
1054  Wrestling    Greco-Ro- 
man welterweight 

268  Shooting  rifle 
981  400  meter  run 

800  meter  run 
Rowing 

271  Shooting  rifle 
994  110  m.  hurdles 

269  Shooting  rifle 

270  Shooting  rifle 
1035  Soccer 

272  Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 

273  Shooting  rifle 
957  Basketball 

1041  Soccer 

274  Shooting  rifle 
1063  Tug  of  war 

Shooting  pistol 
965  Boxing  lightheavywt 
973  Modified  Marathon 

Rowing 
1024  Cross-country  run 
1027  Soccer 

Rowing 
1066  Tug  of  war 
997  Hand-grenade  throw 
946  Horseridingmil.com., 

prize  jumping 
1048  Fencing  sabers,  epee, 
team  sabers 
team  epee 
Rowing 
952  Horseridingmil.com. 
1029  Soccer 
1002  110  meter  hurdles 
1058  Tug  of  war 


456 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 
NEWFOUNDLAND 


1919 


Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Marshall,  F;  W. 

Capt 

'• 

576  Wrestling    catch -as - 
catch-can  lightwgt 

NEW 

'    ZEALAND 

Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Coombes,  W.  G. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Croll,  G.  L. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Fry,  J. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Hadfield,  D.  C. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Healey,  G.  A. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Home,  F.  V. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Keddell,  Gerald  Percy 

Sgt. 

645  Running  broad  jump 
110  meters  hurdles 

Lester,  G.  L. 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Lindsay,  John 

Sgt. 

646  200  meter  dash 
100  meter  dash 
Running  broad  jump 

Mason,  Daniel  Leslie 

Sgt. 

648  800  meter  run 

Running  broad  jump 

McRoberts,  J. 

Sgt. 

110  meter  hurdles 

Patterson,  W. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Prideaux,  H.  B. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

White,  A.  T. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Wilson,  G.  H. 

Sgt. 

Rowing 

Wilson,  Harold  E. 

Sgt. 

647  110  meter  hurdles 

Wilton,  James  H.  R. 

Sgt. 

649  400  meter  run 

POLAND 

Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Stachevitch,  Alfred  de 

Capt 

■• 

1298  Fencing  epee,  sabers 

PORTUGAL 

Name 

Rank 

No.                 Event 

Amorin,  J.  Costa 

Lt. 

770  Fencing  foils 

Aquino,  Thomas 

Lt. 

54  Water  polo  team 

Bastos,  Bessibe  R. 

Lt. 

51  Swim'g  1500  m.  fr.st. 
water  polo  team 
800  m.  relay 

Bessons,  Rodrigo 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Branco,  Jose 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Brito,  Raul 

Lt. 

Rowing 

.*   '«=-?' 


S-»^ 


J » i- » 1  I 


fug  of  war.     Top — America.     Upper   center — America  pulling  against  Italy.     Lower  center 
Italy.     Bottom  left — Canada.     Bottom  right — Belgiinn. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


459 


Burney,  Carlos 
€annas,  Dario 
Catarino,  Antonio 
Correia,  Fernando 
Costa,  M.  Ryder 
Da  Silva,  H.  Guilherme 
De  Carvalho,  Joaquin 
De  Carvalho,  Antonio  J. 
De  Noronha,  D.  Eugenio 
Dos  Santos,  Antonio 
Damiao,  Ant.  Ferreira 
Dias,  Jose  S. 
Dias,  Carlos 
Duarte,  Joaquin 


Durao,  Americo 
Farinha,  Fernando 

Ferreira,  Horacio 
Ferreira,  Ant.  Soares  And. 
Ferro,  Jorge 
■Garcia,  Antonio 
■Gouveia,  Gustav  Adolpho 
-Gritchen,  C.  Van 
Jayme,  Diocelciano 
Leal,  A.  Correia 
Lopes,  Mario  Augusto 
Machado,  Daniel  Alberto 
Martins,  Ant.  da  Silva 
Mascarenhas,  Antonio 

Mendenca,  Franc.  P.  Stos 
Montez,  Antonio 
Montez,  Antonio  Duarte 
Motta,  Oscar 

Neupart,  Augusto 
Oliveira,  Luiz 
Osorio,  Antonio 
Paes,  Alfredo  da  Costa 
Paiva,  Jorge 

Rebelo,  Herminio 
Rocha,  Anibal 
Ruivo,  Jose  S. 
Sabbo,  Antonio  V. 


Rowing 

2nd  Lt. 

300  Shooting  rifle 

Cpl. 

304  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

766  Fencing  epee 

Lt. 

130  Water  polo  team 

2nd  Lt. 

Shooting  pistol 

Sgt. 

302  Shooting  rifle 

1st  Sgt. 

303  Shooting  pistol 

Ensign 

317  Shooting  rifle 

Sgt. 

311  Shooting  pistol 

Capt. 

305  Shooting  rifle 

Capt. 

753  Fencing  sabers 

Sgt. 

306  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

53  Water  polo  team 

Swim'g  800  m.  relay 

200  m.   breast  str. 

Lt. 

767  Fencing  epee 

Lt. 

765  Fencing  epee 

team  epee 

Lt.  Col. 

758  Fencing  sabers  team 

Capt. 

308  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Sgt. 

309  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

Shooting  pistol 

Lt. 

771  Riding  milit.  comp. 

Sgt. 

311  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

1303  100m.  dash 

2nd  Lt. 

312  Shooting  rifle 

2nd  Lt. 

313  Shooting  rifle 

Lieut. 

314  Shooting  rifle 

Capt. 

764  Fencing  epee. 

team  epee 

2nd  Lt. 

315  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

1607  Fencing  sabers 

2nd  Lt. 

316  Shooting  rifle 

Capt. 

756  Fencing  sabers 

team  sabers 

Asp. 

Rowing 

Capt. 

754  Fencing  epee 

Lt. 

761  Fencing  epee 

Sgt. 

318  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

763  Fencing  epee 

team  epee 

Capt. 

320  Shooting  rifle 

2nd  Sgt. 

321  Shooting  rifle 

Lt. 

731  Boxing  featherwt. 

Capt. 

752  Fencing  sabers 

team  sabers 

460 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Santos,  Basilio 
Scares,  Antonio 
Sobral,  Carlos 


Ventura,  J.  Veiga 


Lt. 

Sgt. 
Lt. 


Maj. 


55  Water  polo  team 

52  Water  polo  team 

49  Water  polo  team 

Swim 'g  800  m.    relay 

100m.  freestyle 

759  Fencing  epee  team 


ROUMANIA 

Name 

Rank 

No. 

Adamiu,  Illie 

Sous  Lt. 

Alexo,  V.  Vasilo 

Pvt. 

35a 

Alvirescu,  Constantin 

Lt. 

1479 

Amuzcescu,  G.  Giu 

Sgt. 

Atanasui,  Sc. 

Lt. 

1498 

Baciu,  N.  Niculae 

PI.  Maj. 

351 

Balan,  Alexandru 

Pvt. 

2195 

Balanesca,  Jean  R. 

Capt. 

2022 

Baluta,  Joan 

Cpl. 

352 

Bentia,  Gh. 

2nd  Lt. 

2118 

Bocrescu,  Neageu 

Lt. 

1493 

Brabateanu,  Victor 

2nd  Lt. 

2114 

Bucurel,  Constantin 

Sous  Lt. 

353 

Catana,  Octav 

Lt. 

354 

Catargin,  P. 

298 

Cesianu,  Dinui 

S.  Lt. 

1494 

Ciocan,  Gheorghe 

Cpl. 

355 

Constantinescu,  Torr. 

Lt. 

2187 

Cratunescu,  Const. 

2nd  Lt. 

2116 

Cristea,  Nicolae 

S.  Lt. 

2170 

Davila,  Teodor 

Capt. 

1474 

Dima,  Hie 

Sgt. 

2185 

Dimancescu,  Ion 

2nd  Lt. 

2112 

Dimancescu,  Dumitru 

Lt. 

2106 

Dinca,  Stefan  N. 

Cpl. 

356 

Dona,  Dumitrui 

1471 

Dona,  Petre 

Sgt. 

1468 

Draghici,  Aurel 

Lt. 

2111 

Dragomirescu,  Gh. 

Lt. 

2108 

Ene,  Radu 

Cpl. 

2165 

Eremie,  Horace 

Capt. 

2014 

Event 

Shooting  pistol 

Shooting  rifle 

Soccer 

Shooting,  pistol 

Fencing  epee  team,, 
foils,  team  foils 

Shooting  rifle 

Modified  Marathon 

Tennis  singles 

Shooting  rifle 

Rugby 

Fencing  epee, 
team  epee 

Rugby 

Shooting  rifle 

Shooting  rifle 

Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 

Fencing  foils 

Shooting  rifle 

Running  high  jump 

Rugby 

1500  m.  run 

Relay  medley 

Soccer 

Modified  Marathon 

Rugby 

Rugby 

Shooting  rifle 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man heavyweight 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man ligtht  heavywt 

Rugby 

Rugby 

Medley  relay 

Tennis  singles, 
doubles,  team 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


461 


Filip,  Jacob 

Major 

Florea,  Scarlat 

Cpl. 

Florian,  Theodor 

Georgescu,  Constantin 

Lt. 

Georghui,  Dan 

Gapt. 

Ghitescu,  N.  Vasilo 

Major 

Ginita,  Vasile 

Lt. 

Glodariu,  Anibal 

Lt. 

Grigorescu 

Gapt. 

Hillard,  Ernest 

Iconomu,  Barbu 

Lt. 

Iconomu,  Ion 

Lt. 

Iconomu,  Mircea 

Lt. 

Iconomu,  Virgil 

2ndLt 

Iliescu,  Joan 

Lt. 

loregovan,  Saba 

Lt. 

lovanescu,  Ladislau 

Lazar,  Petre  Lt. 

Lecca,  Serge  Gapt. 

Madancovici,  N.  Major 

Maiorescu,  Dumitru  S.  Lt. 

Manole,  Gonstantin  Gapt. 

Manu,  Henry  Lt. 

Mares,  Savu  Lt. 

Marescu,  Nicolae  2nd  Lt. 

Marinescu,  Marin  S.  Lt. 

Marinescu,  Stefan  Lt. 

Metianu,  Eugen  Lt. 

Mihaeseu,  loan  Lt. 

Minescu,  Gonst.  Lt. 

Mishu,  Nicholas  Lt. 

Mocanu,  Aurel  Sgt. 

Moraretu,  Alexandru  Gpl. 

Murarescu,  Vicentiu  S.  Lt. 

Nencuibescu,  N.  Gapt. 

Nicolau,  Gh.  Lt. 

Nicolescu,  Gheorghe  Gapt. 
Niculescu,  Dumitriu 
Petrescu ,  G .  Gonstantin       Lt . 


2123  Riding  Mil.  comp. 

prize  jumping  pairs 
2192  Modified  Marathon 
1487  Soccer 

1480  Soccer 

1492  Fencing  foils, 
team  epee 

357  Shooting  rifle 

1481  Soccer 

2173  400  meter  run 

2174  100  m.  dash 
Javelin 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

1484  Soccer 

2104  Rugby 

2105  Rugby 
2102  Rugby 

299  Swim'g  200  m.  br.st. 
Shooting  pistol 
2190  Shot  put,  16  lb. 
Discus 

Running  high  jump 
87  Swim'g  100m.fr.  st., 
200  m.  br.  str. 
2159  Javelin 
2024  Tennis  singles,  doub. 

2124  Riding  milit.  comp, 

prize  jump,  pairs 
1483  Soccer 

358  Shooting  rifle 
2109  Rugby 

1483  Soccer 
2115  Rugby 

360  Shooting  rifle 

2178  400  m.  medley  relay 
1477  Soccer  team 

361  Shooting,  rifle 

2169  Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 
2015  Tennis  singles, 
doubles,  team 
2167  1500  m.  run 
2164  200  m.  dash 
2186  Running  broad  jump 
1490  Fencing  epee 
1497  Fencing  foils  team 

363  Shooting  rifle 

1485  Soccer 

364  Shooting  rifle 


462 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Petrovici 

Lt. 

2171  200  m.  dash 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

Pojogeanu,  Petre 

Lt. 

2160  Javelin 

Polizu,  Radu 

Capt. 

2101  Rugby  team 

Popesen,  Alex. 

2182  Discus 

Popovici,  Constantin 

1473  Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man   light    hvywt. 

Racovita,  Alexandra 

S.  Lt. 

1496  Fencing  epee 
team  epee 

Radulescu,  Const. 

Lt. 

1482  Soccer 

Ramniceanu,  Mihai 

Capt. 

2126  Riding  prize  jumping 

Roman,  Horia 

Capt. 

1475  Soccer 

Rosea,  Stefan  N. 

Cpl. 

Shooting  pistol 

Sacareanu,  Nicolae 

1488  Soccer 

Salvan,  Virgil 

Lt. 

1465  Boxing  welterweight 

Sasulescu,  Alexandra 

Lt. 

1467  Soccer 

Sava,  Joan  N. 

Cpl. 

Shooting  pistol 

Savu,  Mehil 

Capt. 

1491  Fencing  epee  team, 
foils,  team  foils 

Shmetau,  Rudolph 

Sgt. 

2119  Rugby 

Sontica,  G.  Gh. 

Sgt. 

Shooting  pistol 

Sotir,  Gh. 

2290  Riding  prize  jumping 

Soutzo,  Demitriu 

Col. 

2127  Riding  milit.  comp. 
prize  jumping 

Spulbor,  Jon.  N. 

Cpl. 

Shooting  pistol 

Staicu,  Nicolae 

Sgt. 

2168  1500  m.  run 

Staniu,  Joan 

S.  Lt. 

Shooting  pistol 

Stanoscu,  Virgil 

S.  Lt. 

Shooting  pistol 

Stegarvin 

2329  Cross-country  run 

Stern,  Mihail 

Lt. 

2023  Tennis  Singls.,  dbls. 

Tenescu,  J.  Constantin 

Lt. 

365  Shooting  rifle 

Teodoreanu,  C. 

S.  Lt. 

1499  Fenc'g  foils, tm.  foils 

Ticleanu,  Gh. 

Ad.  S.Log. 

2110  Rugby 

Traian,  Butu 

Lt. 

1478  Soccer 

Tudor,  Gh. 

Plutenier 

362  Shooting  rifle 

Valienato,  Panait 

Pvt. 

2158  100  m.   dash,  200  m. 
hurdles,  relay  800  m. 
(4  men) ,  medley  relay 

Vartolemeu,  Simion 

Capt. 

366  Shooting  rifle 

Vasilescu,  Nicolae 

Sgt.  Maj. 

2183  Discus 

Vicol,  Stefan 

2193  Gross-country  run 

Vidrascu,  Mircea 

Lt. 

2113  Rugby 

Vlasceanu,  J.  Jean 

Sgt. 

367  Shooting  rifle 

Voicu,  Starr 

2188  Cross-country  run 

Vraca,  Nicolae 

2nd  Lt. 

2117  Rugby 

Vulturescu,  Gr. 

Capt. 

2125  Riding  prize  jumping 

Yonoscu,  Virgil 

S.  Lt. 

Shooting  pistol 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


463 


Name 


SERBIA 


Rank 


Arambachitch,  Bogidare 

Atanatzkovitch,  Milenko 

Borota,  Branco  Capt. 

Braditch,  Radoslav 

Briklel  Youlie 

Brikler,  Fragno 

Brucker,  Julie 

Danitchitch,  Stnicha 

Deditch,  Nicola 

Dimitch,  Radnilo 

Dinitch,  Branko 

Gavanaski,  Tocha 

Givanovitch,  Vlast.  T. 

Govedarevitch,  Vitomire 

Gradoievitch,  Mihailo 

Ivkovitch,  Lyoubicha  2nd  Lt. 


Konstantinovitch,  Montch. 
Kopriva,  Frant  Sgt.  Maj. 

Kostitch,  Milan 
Kovatchevitch,  Bogolioube 
-Krstitch,  Alexandre 
Krstitch,  Andrea 
Krstitch,  Dragolioube 
Lazarevitch,  Vladale 
Marinovitch,  Peter 
Marianovitch,  Svetizar 
Markovitch,  Miodrague 
Markovitch,  Nicola 
Markovitch,  Montchilo 
Milochevitch,  Mladin 
Miloikovitch,  Yovan 
Milovanovitch,  Pivota 
Milrta,  Nedic 

Miovitch,  Miloche 
Mitrovitch,  Voukachiche 
Mladenovitch,  Mirko 
Momirovitch,  Douchan 
Mouchketarovitch  Douch. 
Mouritch,  Miloche 
Neditch,  Vassilie 


No.  Event 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 
1  Swim'g  1500m.fr.  St. 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 
2027  Tennis  singles 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 
578  Javelin 

Discus 

Shot  put  16-lbs. 

Sokol  team 
306  Wrestling    Greco-Ro- 
man light  heavywgt. 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 
2016  Tennis  singles, 
doubles,  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 

Sokol  team 


464 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Pavolitch,  Draguicha 

Sokol  team 

Pavlovitch,  Lioubivoie 

Sokol  team 

Pavlovitch,  Miodrague 

Sokol  team 

Peitchitch,  Miloche 

Sokol  team 

Popovitch,  Velimire 

Sokol  team 

Popovitch,  Stanoie 

Sokol  team 

Popovitch,  Bota 

2017  Tennis  singles, 

doubles,  team 

Radovitch,  Douchon 

Lt. 

519  100  meter  dash 

Radovitch,  Alexandre 

Sokol  team. 

Roujitch,  Yovan 

Pvt. 

579  100  meter  dash 

Savitch,  Nocodie 

Sokol  team 

Stanoevitch,  Sava 

Sokol  team 

Stephanovitch,  Yovan 

Sokol  team 

Stevanovitch,  Yladislave 

Sokol  team 

Stoiadinovitch,  Simon 

Sqkol  team 

Stoiitchevitch,  Radoslave 

Sokol  tearn 

Tassitch,  Dragolioube 

Sokol  team 

Tchirovitch,  Milorade 

Sokol  team 

Tzekitch,  Todor 

Sokol  team 

Vassitch,  Dragomire 

Sokol  team 

Yankovitch,  Miodrague 

Sokol  team 

Yourichitch,  Bogidare 

Sokol  team 

Yovanovitch,  Gonstantine 

Sokol  team 

Yvkovitch,  Lioubicha 

Sokol  team 

Zagar,  Zatka 

2028. Tennis  singles 

Zlatko  Geagai 

Sokol  team 

UNITED    STATES 

Name 

Rank 

No.             ■    Event 

Aaron,  Edward 

Gpl. 

2059  Baseball 

Ames,  Waldo  B. 

2nd  Lt. 

859  110  meter  hurdles . 

Anderson,'  Henning 

Gpl. 

2053  Baseball 

Asher,  John' 

1343  Boxing  bantamwgt. 

Barker, 

Lt. 

608  Soccer 

Bartlett,  A.  M. 

Gapt. 

Golf 

Bartol,  J.'G. 

2nd  Lt. 

2142  Fencing, foils  team, 
sabers  team. 

Becker;  Englebert  W. 

Pvt. 

2064  Baseball 

Bender,'  GHas.  A, ' 

Gapt. 

894  Hop   step  jump.   . 

Beveridge;  James 

Sgt. 

.  Go  f 

Beverley,  J.  R. 

1st  Lt. 

400  Shooting  pistol 

Biddle,  S.  M.   ' 

Sgt. 

110  Swim'g;' iOO  m .  fr.  st;. 

100  m.  back  stroke 
.  ..:..   AQO.xn.  free  style  ''^ 

Relay  800  m. 

Biersack,  Henry 

Sgt. 

109  Swim 'g.  200 m.br.sfer. 

-^■'    -  ..^  /  .,  ■  ^. 


30 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


467 


Bird,  Paul 

Corp. 

401 

Bittel,  Edward 

Lt.  Col. 

402  Shooting  pistol 

Brauseu,  Simon  P. 

Cpl. 

2054  Basebal 

Breck,  Henry  C. 

Lt. 

2018  Tennis  singles, 
doubles  team.. 

Brennan,  Matthew  W. 

Sgt. 

936  Basketball 

Bronder,  Geo. 

2nd  Lt. 

905  Javelin 

Brown,  L.  E. 

Sgt. 

940  Basketball 

Butler,  Solomon 

Pvt. 

811   100    meter    dash 
Running  broad  jump 

Byrd,  Richard  L. 

1st  Lt. 

889  Discus 

Campbell,  Floyd  F. 

1st  Lt. 

827  Relay  medley  (4  men) 

Campbell,  Tom 

Sgt. 

828  Relay  1600m.  (4  men) 

Campbell,  Verle  H. 

1st  Lt. 

829  Relay  1600m.  (4  men) 

Caughey,  Edgar 

2nd  Lt. 

912  Shot  put,  16-lbs. 

Chamberlain,  H.  D. 

Lt.  Col. 

1069  Riding  mil.  comp. 
prize  jumping 

Chambers,  Ernest 

Sgt. 

2068  Baseball 

Chenoweth,  Leland  A. 

Sgt. 

400  Shooting  rifle 

Clark,  H.  E. 

Sgt. 

939  Basketball 

Clark,  Edward  L. 

Gun.  Sgt. 

403  Shooting  pistol 

Clock,  Herbert 

1st  Lt. 

1035  Rugby 

Cobb,  A.   ' 

Sgt. 

806  Tug  of  war 

Coe,  Golles  J. 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Collins,  Hugh 

604  Soccer 

Collins,  Wm.  J. 

580  Soccer 

Comeau,  Henry  A. 

Maj. 

2134  Fencing  epee 

Cooke,  H.  E. 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Copeland,  Ed. 

Cpl. 

783  Tug  of  war 

Coppedge,  James  F. 

2nd  Lt. 

401  Shooting  rifle 

Cotton,  Richard  E. 

Capt. 

402  Shooting  rifle 

Coulter,  John  W. 

2nd  Lt. 

1320  Rugby 

Crawford,  William 

581  Soccer 

Crawford,  J.  A. 

1st.  Lt, 

404  Shooting,  pistol 

Crawley,  Theo.  B. 

Sgt. 

403  Shooting,  rifle 

Creel,  Ira 

Sgt.      . 

2066  Baseball 

Cunat,  Joe  H. 

582  Soccer 

Davis,  Hairy 

Lt. 

Golf 

Davison,  E.  L. 

Cpl. 

Golf 

Dean,  Lloyd 

Sgt. 

2058  Baseball 

Dell,  James  W. 

Col.  Sgt. 

405  Shooting  pistol 

Deyfus,  Adam 

Sgt. 

2051  Baseball 

Disbrow,  Harry  M. 

Capt. 

.•■'     404  Shooting  rifle 

Doing,  R.  T. 

Cp.       . 

1162  Basketball 

Dole,  Kenneth  L. 

Capt. 

1306  Rugby 

Dougall,  Robt.  S. 

583  Soccer 

Douglas,  Raymond  E, 

Pvt. 

94  Swim'g.  800  m.  fr.  st. 
Water  polo. 

468                        THE    INTER-ALLIED 

GAMES    —    1919 

Doxtater,  Everett 

Sgt. 

405  Shooting  rifle 

Downer,  J.  W. 

Lt.  Col. 

1071  Rinding  mil.  comp. 
prize  jumping 

Duben,  James 

Cpl. 

2065  Baseball 

Duncan,  James 

1st  Lt. 

911  Discus 

Duncan,  Melvin  E. 

Sgt. 

406  Shooting  pistol 

Eagan,  Edward 

1338  Boxing  middleweight 

Eby,  Earl 

1st.  Lt. 

831  400  meter  run 
800  meter  run 

Erb,  Arthur  L. 

1st  Lt. 

1334  Rugby 

Erwin,  Lucius  S. 

2nd  Lt. 

898  Pole  vault 

Evans,  P.  W. 

Lt.  Col. 

407  Shooting  pistol 

Faller,  Fred 

Cpl. 

850  Modified  Marathon 

Farley,  Cal 

1359  Wrestling    catch-as- 
catch-can  welterwt 

Fay,  John 

Wagoner 

776  Tug  of  war 

Fields,  Stephen  C. 

2382  Tug  of  war 

Fields,  Thos.  S. 

Cpl. 

932  Relay  800  m.  (4  men 
A.  of  Oc.) 

Fish,  Geo.  W. 

1st  Lt. 

1336  Rugby 

Fish,  Manns  J. 

2nd  Lt. 

2062  Baseball 

Fisher,  R.  T. 

2nd  Lt. 

1307  Rugby 

Fitzpatrick,  James  P. 

Cpl. 

1322  Rugby      * 

Fleisher,  Louis  E. 

2nd  Lt. 

2137  Fencing  foils,  team 
foils,  team  sabers 

Floyd,  Florin  W. 

2nd  Lt. 

899  Pole  vault 

Freidman,  Max 

Lt. 

934  Basketball 

Fundy,  John 

1342  Boxing  featherweight 

Fuller,  Wheeler  B. 

2nd  Lt. 

2061  Baseball 

Gale,  Guy  H. 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Gallagher,  Bernard 

584  Soccer 

Gardner,  Harold  F. 

Sgt. 

91  Swini'g.l00m.bk.str. 

800    m.  relay. 

Water  polo  team 

Gardner,  Robert  H. 

585  Soccer 

Garey,  E.  B. 

Lt.  Col. 

408  Shooting  pistol 

Giannakapolis,  Nick 

Cook 

851  Cross-country  run 
Modified  Marathon 

Gray,  Leman 

Sgt. 

406  Shooting  rifle 

Gray,  Wm.  G. 

Pvt. 

832  400  meter  run 

Relay  medley  (4  men) 

Greene,  Geo.  R. 

Mast.  Engr 

1160  Basketball 

Greene,  W.  S. 

Capt. 

Golf 

Griffin,  Lloyd  E. 

1st  Lt, 

409  Shooting  pistol 

Grika,  John  T. 

Sgt. 

407  Shooting  rifle 

Gross,  Jesse 

Sgt. 

2060  Baseball 

Haddock,  Marshall  Jr. 

Pvt. 

814  200  meter  dash 

Hall 

Lt. 

605  Soccer 

PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


469 


Hampson,  John 

609  Soccer 

Hance,  R.  T. 

1st  Lt. 

2136  Fencing  foils,  team 
foils,  team  sabers 

Hanly,  James  T.  B. 

Sgt. 

118  Swim'g  1500m.fr.  St. 

Harant,  L.  J. 

2nd  Lt. 

410  Shooting  pistol 

Hart,  Pearl  0. 

Sgt. 

Golf 

Harwood,  Robert 

2nd  Lt. 

902  Pole  vault 

Haskell,  C.  G. 

Gapt. 

Golf 

Haas,  Carl  F. 

Pvt. 

813  Relay  medley  4  men 

Hausen,  J.  S.  R. 

Pvt. 

1354  Wrestling  Greeco-Ro- 
man  welterwt 

Hauser,  Henry  P. 

Hosp.  Sgt. 

1324  Rugby 

Heelan,  Thomas 

586  Soccer 

Henderson,  D.  L. 

Major 

1074  Riding,  mil.  com., 
prize  jumping 

Hennigan,  James 

Pvt. 

852  Gross-country  run 

Henson,  Lester  V. 

Gy.  Sgt. 

408  Shooting  rifle 

Higgins,  Chas. 

Sgt. 

910  Discus 

Higgins,  James  F. 

587  Soccer 

Hinks,  J.  M. 

2nd  Lt. 

112  Swim'g.  100m.fr. St., 
relay  800  meters 

Hodges,  G.  H. 

Lt.  Gol. 

409  Shooting  rifle 

House,  Meredith  J. 

1st  Lt. 

865  200  meter    hurdles. 

Howell,  Joshua  Zophar 

1st  Lt. 

125  Swim'g.  200  m.br.st. 

Hudson,  Maurice 

599  Soccer 

Hume,  Andy 

602  Soccer 

Humphreys,  James  W. 

Pvt. 

893  Standing  broad  jump 

Hurley,  Harlow 

Lt. 

Golf 

Jefferies,  J.  Amory 

Lt. 

Rowing 

Johnson,  Garl 

Wag. 

775  Tug  of  war 

Johnson,  G.  H. 

Gpl. 

784  Tug  of  war 

Johnson,  James  F. 

1st  Lt. 

411  Shooting  pistol 

Johnson,  Leo  T. 

1st  Lt. 

880  Running  broad  jump 

Johnston,  R. 

804  Tug  of  war 

Johnston,  Victor  W. 

588  Soccer    ' 

Kearns,  Sylvester 

1st  Lt. 

410  Shooting  rifle 

Keeler,  Frank  D. 

Gpl. 

1325  Rugby 

Kelly,  Fred  W. 

2nd  Lt. 

860  110  meters  hurdles 

Kelly,  Michael 

Mesg. 

412  Shooting  pistol 

Kingsland,  Douglas 

Gapt. 

Rowing 

Klem,  Matt 

Go  .  Sgt. 

413  Shooting  pistol 

Knapp,  Harry 

Pvt. 

2057  Baseball 

Kewa  lis,  J.  R. 

Lt. 

933  Basketball 

Kryskow,  Walter 

1355  Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man middlewt 

LaMotte,  C.  K. 

Lt.  Gol. 

414  Shooting  pistol 

Lang,  Robert  G. 

Gpl. 

120  Swim'g. 800m.fr.  St., 
1500  m.  fr.  st. 

470 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Larsen,  Clinton 
Lawless,  Joseph  T. 
Legendre,  Robert  L. 
Leon,  Harry  S. 

Lightfoot,  Vernon  W. 
Littlejahault,  George 

Liversedge,  Harry 

Loftis,  Isaac  D. 
Long,  P.  W. 
MacElernay,  Michal  J. 
MacFarlane,  John  M. 
MacKernan,  Hugh 
Madsen  H. 


Lt. 

1st  Lt. 
Cpl. 
Pvt. 

Pvt. 


1st  Lt. 

Cpl. 
1st  Lt. 


Mahoney,  John  T. 

Sgt.      . 

Manly,  John  F. 

2nd  Lt. 

Mariott,  Wm.  E. 

Sgt. 

Martin,  Bob 

Matheson,  Geo.  E. 

Wag. 

Mathey,  Dean 

Lt. 

Maxfield,  Wallace  C. 

2nd  Lt. 

May,  Wm.  Jr. 

Lt. 

McDonald,  W.  H. 

Cpl. 

McFarren,  G.  B. 

Cpl. 

McHenry,  J.  H. 

Lt. 

McNaught,  Thos.  J. 

McNiel,  Bennie 

McTernan,  Meredith  J. 

Meehan,  Edw.  J. 

1st  Lt. 

Merchant,  B.T. 

Col. 

Meyers,  Walter  A. 

Capt. 

Middendorf,  Henry  S. 

Lt. 

Middleton,  C.  W. 

Capt. 

Millington,  Seth 

1st  Lt. 

Miller,  Ernest  C. 

Cpl. 

Mitropohs,  Peter 

Pvt. 

Monihan,  J.  Wilson 

1st  Lt. 

Moore,  Frederic  H. 

Pvt. 

Moore,  James  P. 

Morse  F.  0. 

Lt. 

Moser,  H.  J. 

Pvt. 

Nelson,  Henry  N. 

2nd  Lt 

870  Running   high   jump 

411  Shooting  rifle 
887  Pentathlon 

817  Relay  800 meters  (A. 
of  Oc.) 
2067  Baseball 
1361  Wrestling     catch-as- 
catch-can  featherwt 
903  Javelin 

Shot  put 
793  Tug  of  war 

415  Shooting    pistol 
607  Soccer 

589  Soccer 
606  Soccer 
603  Soccer 

2138  Fencing  epee 

90  Swim'g.  400in.fr.  St. 
Water  polo. 
2050  Baseball. 
1347  Boxing    heavyweight 

786  Tug  of  war 
2019  Tennis  singles, 
doubles,  team 
914  Discus 
935  Basketball 
97  Water  polo 
799  Tug  of  war 
Rowing 

590  Soccer 

1350  Boxing  lightweight 

601  Soccer 

577  Relay  1600  meters 
1067  Riding  miUtary  com. 
prize  jumping 

412  Shooting  rifle 
Rowing 
Golf 

1326  Rugby 

416  Shooting  pistol 
1360  Wrestling    catch -as - 

catch-can  lightwgt 
116  Swim'g  200m.br.  St. 
1312  Rugby 

591  Soccer 
Golf 

803  Tug  of  war 

417  Shooting  pistol 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


471 


Novak,  Wm. 

Corp. 

Norman,  Abraham  W. 

2nd  Lt. 

Norris,  Robert  R. 

1st  Lt. 

Norton,  Al. 

O'Hara,  Faber 

Pvt. 

O'Neil,  J.  T. 

Pvt. 

Oliver,  William 

Osborne,  Frank  0. 

Osborne,  John  F. 

Pvt. 

Paddock,  Chas. 

2nd  Lt 

Pallatier,  J.  A. 

Sgt. 

Parcaut,  Ralph 

Patterson,  Robert 

Pedan,  Roy  F. 

Sgt. 

Penny,  Louis 

Capt. 

Peyton,  Leland  K. 

Cpl. 

Pierson,  S.  N. 

Lt. 

Polk,  Joe 

Posey,  H. 

Pvt. 

Prehn,  Wm. 

2055 

907 

1327 

1348 

2056 

1328 

592 

593 

872 

822 


938 
1357 


594 
931 

413 


Prem,  Herbert  1st  Lt. 

Pullen,  D.  D.  Col. 

Pullen,  Royal  R.  Capt. 

Purdue,  A.  A.  Pvt. 

Rautenbush,  William  Sgt. 

Raymond,  D.  R.  Capt. 

Reid,  George  H.  Sgt. 
Reynolds,  Lynn 

Rice,  Carl  Sgt. 
Robertson,  Fred 

Rogers,  H.  L.  Maj. 

Rogers,  Herbert  W.  1st  Lt. 

Ross,  Norman  2nd  Lt. 


Rouse,  James  M.  Wag. 


778 
1358 


881 
2132 

418 

419 

598 
873 
600 

88 
,     114 


795 


Baseball 

Pentathlon 

Soccer 

Boxing  lightweight 

Baseball 

Rugby 

Soccer 

Relay  800  m.  (4  men) 

A.  of  Oc. 
100  meter  dash 
200  meter  dash 
800  m.  relay  (4  men) 
Basketball 
Wrestling      catch-as- 

catch-can  light  hea- 

vywt. 

Relay  800m.(A.  of  Oc.) 

Rowing 

Shooting  rifle 

Golf 

Wrestling   Greco-Ro- 
man heavyweight, 
catch -as- catch- can 
heavyweight 

Tug  of  war 

Wrestling  catch-as- 
catch  -  can  middle 
weight 

Hop  step   and  jump. 

Fencing  team  sabers 

Rowing 

Shooting  pistol 

Golf 

Shooting  pistol 

Golf 

Soccer 

Running  high  jump 

Soccer 

Rowing 

Water  polo 

Swim'g  100  m.  fr.  st. 
100m.br.  St., 400m.fr. 
St., 800m.fr.s.,  1500m. 
fr.  St.,  relay  800  m., 
water  polo 

Tug  of  war 


473 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Rudiger,  Geo.  R. 

Sgt. 

Scarry,  John  A. 

1st  Lt. 

Schardt.  Arlie  A. 

1st  Lt. 

Schrader,  C.  A. 

Cpl. 

Scott,  S.  L. 

Maj. 

Scott,  Robert  J. 

Scudder,  Lawrence  T. 

Lt. 

Sears,  Robert 

Lt.  Col, 

Selbie,  Chas.  C. 

1st  Lt. 

Shaw,  Earl  N. 

Cpl. 

Shepard,  Alfred 

Shields,  M.  Lawrence 

Sgt. 

Simpson,  Robert  L 

1st  Lt. 

Slocum,  L.  H. 

1st  Lt. 

Smith,  DeWitt  D. 

Sgt. 

Smith,  Robert  W. 

1st  Lt. 

Smith,  Stanley 

1st  Sgt 

Snavely,  Gordon 

2nd  Lt. 

Snyder,  0.  F. 

Lt.  Col 

Solbert,  0.  N. 

Col. 

Spink,  Phil  M. 

Pvt. 

Spooner,  Lloyd  S. 

1st  Lt. 

Stauffer,  0.  B. 

1st  Lt. 

Stephens,  W.  B. 

Pvt. 

Stevens,  Neil  G. 

Capt. 

Stevenson,  C.  L. 

Lt.  Col. 

Stewart,  Edward  B. 

Corp. 

Stickney 

Storie,  Thomas 

Stout,  Clyde  J. 

2nd  Lt, 

Sweetser,  Arthur 

Capt. 

Sylvester,  Wm.  F. 

2nd  Lt, 

Taulbee,  E.  W. 

Lt.  Col 

Taylor,  B.  F. 

Pvt. 

Taylor,  Geo. 

Sgt. 

TayloB,  Wm.  H. 

andLt, 

Templeton,  R.  C. 

2nd  Lt. 

Teschner,  Ed.  A. 

2nd  Lt, 

Thornburn,  Jas.  H. 


1st  Lt. 


937  Basketball 
103  Water  polo 

921  1500  meter  run 

1314  Rubgy 

420  Shooting  pistol 
595  Soccer 

838  800  meter  run 

414  Shooting  rifle 

421  Shooting  pistol 
797  Tug  of  war 
598  Soccer 

922  1500  meter  run 
Relay  medley 

863  110m.  hurdles 
200  m.  hurdles 

1315  Rugby 

425  Shooting  rifle 

415  Shooting  rifle 

416  Shooting  rifle 

1330  Rugby 

424  Shooting  pistol 
2133  Fencing  foils 
team  foils 

839  400m.  run,  800m.  run 

417  Shooting  rifle 

422  Shooting  pistol 
2141  Fencing    foils,     epee, 

team  sabers 
2031  Tennis  singles 
2242  Riding  military  com., 

prize  jumping 

418  Shooting  rifle 
Boxing  light  heavywt 

1344  Boxing  welterweight 
846  1500  m.  run 

Modified  Marathon 
2030  Tennis  singles.doubles 

864  200  meter  hurdles 
1070  Horseridingmil.com. 

926  Running  broad  jump 

(A.of  Oc.) 
2063  Baseball 
891  Standing  broad  jump 
876  Running    high   jump 
825  100  m.  dash,  200  m. 

dash,  relay  800  m. 

relay    1600  m. 

1331  Rugby 


Top  left — Prize  presented  by  President  Wilson  for  track  and  field  events.  Top  center — Prize 
presented  by  National  Committee  of  Physical  Education,  Sports  and  Social  Hygiene  for 
boxing.  Top  right — Prize  presented  by  General  Pershing  for  Shooting— rifle  team.  Bottom 
upper  left  and  right — Prizes  presented  by  King  of  Italy  for  rowing  eights.  Bottom  center — 
Prize  presented  by  Mr.  Clemenceau.  Bottom  lower  left — Cloisonne  vase  presented  by  H.  E. 
Hoc  Wei  Teh  of  China  to  nation  winning  cross-country  run.  Bottom  lower  right — Silver 
loving  cup  presented  by  H.  E.  Lou  Tseng  of  China  to  the  nation  winning  the  greatest 
number  of  points  in  riding  competition. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


475 


Thomas,  Marcel 

Thompson,  Fred  C.  Chaplain 

Thompson,  S.  H.  Cpl. 

Titus,  Richard  J.  Corp. 

Torkelson,  E.  A.  Lt. 

Twomby,  Irving  F.  2nd  Lt. 
Vermillion,  Bernard  B.  Pvt. 

Vidal,  Gene  L.  2nd  Lt. 

Vidmir,  Geo.  W.  Col. 

Walker,  Wesley  W.  Capt. 

Waller,  C.  W.  Jr.  Maj. 

Walton,  H.   R.  Lt. 

Warren,  David  J.  Cpl. 
Washburn,  Watson  M.  Capt. 

Waters,  Fred  Cpl. 

Walsh,  Harry  S. 

West,  W.  W.  Jr.  Col. 

Westphal,  Wm.  C.  1st  Lt. 


White,  Van  C. 

1st  Lt. 

Wiecek,  Joseph  Jr. 

Sgt. 

Wilder,  Benj.  H. 

2nd  Lt 

WiUiams,  Glen 

Capt. 

Wilson,  Bilhngs 

Wiman,  C.  D. 

Capt. 

Windsor,  Ardis  E. 

Cp. 

Wiseman 

Withington,  Paul 

Ma  . 

Worthington  Harry  T. 

2nd  Lt, 

Wycavage,  D.  C. 

Zuna  Frank  F. 

Cook 

373 
2148 
2145 

419 

826 
1317 

924 

878 

2130 

420 

421 

892 
2020 

426 

596 

1068 

2135 

1076 
422 
423 
423 


424 
2364 


883 
2149 

858 


Boxing  middleweight 

Hand-grenade   throw 

Hand-grenade   throw 

Shooting  rifle 

Relay  800  meters 

Rugby 

Running   broad  jump 
(A.  of  Oc.) 

Pentathlon 

Fencing  team  sabers 

Shooting  rifle 

Shooting  rifle 

Golf 

Standing  broad  jump 

Tennis   singles, 
doubles,  team 

Shooting  rifle 

Soccer 

Riding  mil.  comp., 
prize  jumping 

Fencing    foils,    team 
foils,  epee. 

Riding  prize  jumpg. 

Shooting  pistol 

Shooting  pistol 

Shooting  rifle 

Rowing 

Rowing 

Shooting  rifle 

Wrestling  Greco-Ro- 
man bantamwgt. 

Rowing 

Running  broad  jump 

Hand-grenade  throw 

Cross-country  run 


476 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


LIST  OF  WINNERS,  INTER-ALLIED  GAMES 

BASEBALL 

Series  won  by  U.S.,  defeating  Canada,  3  out  of  4  games. 
1st  Game — 23  June — Won  by  U.S.,  score         5-0 
2nd      "    —27  June—    "       "  Canada,  score    2-1 
Srd      "    —  4  July—    "       "  U.S.,  score       10-0 
4th       "    —  6   July—    "       "  U.S.,  score       12-1,  7  innings. 


United  States. 
Debus,  Adam,  Sgt.,  1st  B. 

Harriot,  William  E.,  Sgt.    2nd  B 
Anderson,  Henning,  Corp.  S.S. 
Brausen,  Simon  P.,  Corp.    3rd  B. 
Novak,  William,  Corp. 
O'Hara,  Faber  J.,  Pvt. 
Knapp,  Harry,  Pvt. 
Dean,  Lloyd,  Sgt. 
Aaron,  Edward,  Corp. 
Gross,  Jesse,  Sgt. 
Fuller,  Wheeler  B.,  2  Lt 
Fish,  N.J.  2nd  Lt. 
Taylor,  George,  Sgt. 
Becker,  Englebert  W 
Duben,  James,  Corp, 
Creel,  Ira,  Sgt. 
Lightfoot,  Vernon  W 


Chambers,  Ernest,  Sgt 


Canada. 

Peckham,  Earle  S.,  Pvt.  C. 

Sheppard,  Victor  C,  Corp.  C. 

Kurd,  Ernest,  Pvt.,  P. 

Tate,    Ernest  R.,  Pvt.  P. 

Clayton,  Ralph  E.,  Gnr.  P. 

Odgers,  Richard  B.,  Sgt.  P. 

Daly,  Maurice,  Pvt.  P. 

Barker,  Fred  A.,  Sgt.  P. 

Chalmers,  Norman  H.,  Sgt.  P. 

Edis,  John,  F.,  Capt.  1st  B. 

Dewhurst,  Whitney  G.,  Pvt.  1st  B. 

Klaehn,  Alfred,  Pvt.  2nd  B 

Wright,  William  N.  Pvt.  S.S. 

Latimer,  Larry,  Pvt.  3rdB. 

Gilpatrick,  Paul,  Pvt.  3rdB. 

Carmel,  Larry,  Pvt.  L.F. 

Smith,  Frank  S.  G.F. 

Robinson,  Clarence  W.  Spr.  C.F. 
Thompson,  Alexander  T.,  Cpl.  R.F. 

BASKET    BALL 

Winner — United  States 
Second — Italy. 


Pvt 


Pvt 


Catch. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

IstB. 

P. 

Catch. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

P. 

Catch. 

P. 


United  States 

937  Ruddiger  1160 

933  Kewallis  939 
936  Brennan  935 

938  Pelletier  940 

934  Friedman  1162 


Italy. 

Greene  2391  Muggiani,  A.P. 

Clarke  2392  Sessa 

May  2393  Baccarini 

Brown  2394  Pecollo 

Doing  2395  Muggiani,  M. 


2396  Bianchi 

2397  Palestra 

2398  Bagnoli 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  477 

BOXING 

Bantamweight — 
Winner —     1209     Evans,  Albert,  Australia 
Runner-up —       969     Marzzorati,  Enea,  Pvt.  Italy 
Featherweight- 
Winner^      382     de  Ponthieu,  Louis,  France 
Runner-up—     1342    Fundy,  John,  United  States 
Lightweight — 
Winner—     1350     McNeill,  Bennie,  United  States 
Runner-up —     1204     Watson,  Thomas  C,  Australia 
Welterweight — 
Winner —      679     Atwood,  J.  Sgt.,  Canada 
Runner-up —       374     Prunier,  Maurice  France 
Middleweight — 
Winner—     1338     Eagan,  Edward,  United  States 
Runner-up —      373     Thomas,  Marcel,  France 
Light  Heavyweight — 
Winner —      965     Spalla,  Erminol,  Sgt.,  Italy 
Runner-up —     1199     Pettybridge.  John  W.,  Spr.,  Australia 
Heavyweight — 
Winner—     1347     Martin,  Bob,  United  States 
Runner-up —     1197     Goghill,  Gordon,  Capt.  Australia 

CROSS    COUNTRY    RUN 

First Vermeulen,  Jean 1383. .  .  France       31  m.  38.8  s. 

Second.  .  .Broos,  Augusto,  Corporal  .  .1103. .  .Belgium 
Third    . .  .  Heuet,  Gaston,  Sgt 1391 . . .  France 

FENCING,    FOILS,    TEAM. 

First,  France,  127  points.  Second,  Italy,  125  points. 

555  Picquemal,  Didier  P.,  Adj.  1046  Nadi,  Nedo,  Lieut. 

566  Gauthier,  Lieut.  1044  Nadi,  Aldo,  2nd  Lieut. 

568  Huguet,  Victor,  Pvt.  1051  Puliti,  Oreste,  Sgt. 

569  Renon,  Jean,  Lieut.  1047  Baldi,  Baldo,  Lieut. 

570  Andrieux,  R.,  Pvt.  1048  Urbani,  Dino,  Lieut. 

571  Van  Huffel,  Leon,  Adjt.  1050  Cesarano,  Frederico,  Capt. 

FENCING,    FOILS,    INDIVIDUAL. 

First     1046     Nadi,  Nedo,  Lieut.  Italy 

Second 555     Picquemal,  Didier,  Adj.  France 

Third    566     Gauthier,  Lieut.  France 


478 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


FENCING, 

First,  France,  17  points. 

555  Picquemal,  Didier,  Adjt. 

556  Laurent,  E.H.,  Sergeant. 
561  Peronnin,  Henri,  Lieut. 

558  Gornereau,  Gaston,  Serg. 
560  Lippmann,  A. 

559  Moreau,  Emile,  Pvt. 


EPEE,     TEAM. 

Second,  Portugal,  10  points. 
760  Goncalves,   Carlos,  Lieut. 
759  Ventura,  J.  Voiga,  Major. 

762  Parodes,  Frederico,  Lieut. 

763  Paiva,  Jorge,  Lieut. 

764  Mascarhenhas,  Antonio,  Gapt. 

765  Farinha,  Fernando,  Lieut. 


FENCING,    EPEE,    INDIVIDUAL. 

First Laurent,  Henri .  .  .  Sgt    556 France 

Second .  .  .  Paiva,  Jorge Lt 763 Portugal 

Third    .  .  .Feyerick,  Robert 1084 Belgium 


FENCING,   SABER,  TEAM. 


1046 

1048 
1050 
1044 
1047 
1051 


First,   Italy,   19  points. 
Nadi,  Nedo,  Lieutenant 
Urbani,  Dino,  Lieutenant 
Gesarano,  Frederico,  Gapt. 
Nadi,  Aldo,  2nd  Lieutenant 
Baldi,  Baldo,  Lieutenant 
Puliti,  Oreste,  Sergeant 


Second,  Portugal,  8  points. 

751  Rocha,  E.  Vieira,  Col. 

752  Sabbo,  Antonio  V.,  Gapt. 

753  Dias,  Jose  S.,  Gapt. 

754  Oliveira,  Luiz,  Gapt. 
756  Motta,  Oscar,  Gapt. 

758  Ferreira,  Horacio,  Lt.  Gol. 


FENCING,    SABER,    INDIVIDUAL. 

First 1090.  .  .Gillens,  Vincent,  N.  G.  0 Belgium 

Second.  . .  .542.  .  .Ancel,  Adjutant France 

Third    .  .  .  (  336.  .  .Gipora,  Joseph,  Lieut Gzecho-SIovakia 

I  547.  .  .Perodon,  Gaptain France 

FOOTBALL,  SOCCER. 


First,  Gzecho-SIovakia,  3  points. 

309  Peyer,  Frantisek,  Corporal 

310  Klapka,  Rudolf,  Private 

313  Steiner,  Karel,  Private 
312  Hojer,  Antonin,  Private 

311  Pospisil,  Miroslav,  Sgt. 

314  Loos,  Valentin,  Aspirant 

315  Fivebr,  Antonin,  Private 

316  Pesek,  Karel,  Corporal 
323  Sedlacok,  Josef,  Private 
538  Janda,  Antonin,  Sgt. 


Second,  France,  2  points. 
449  Lesur,  Henri,  Private 
457  L'Hermitte,  Rene,  Sergeant. 
436  Renier,  Albert  R.,  Pvt. 
451  Nicolas,  Paul  G.M.,  Pvt. 

443  Ghayrigues,   P.,  Pvt. 
462  Deydier,  Paul,  Pvt. 
453  Dubly,  Raymond,  Pvt. 

444  Gamblin,  Lucien,  Lieutenant 
460  Gastiger,  Pierre,  Corporal 
459  Gastiger,  Maurice,  Sergeant 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


479 


321  Pilat,  Vaolav,  Private 

322  Vanik,  Jan,  Pvt. 

324  Prosek,  Vaclav,  Aspirant 

319  Cerveny,  Jaroslav,  Private 
318  Vlk,  Karel,  Private 

320  Subert,  Vaclav,  Private 
2380  Madden,  John 

326  Gruss,  Joe,  Captain 


446  Graveline,  Maurice,  Pvt. 

447  Hugues,  Frangoise  A.,  Sgt. 
464  Langenove,  E.,  Pvt. 

454  Devica,  Emilien,  Private 


FOOTBALL,     RUGBY. 


First,  France,  8  points. 

412  Bordes,  Frangois,  Pvt 

408  Cassayet,  Aime,  Pvt 

415  Cayrefoure,  Edmond,  Pvt 
414  Crabos,  Rene,  Pvt 

406  Dillenseger,  Rene,  Captain 

418  Elichondo,  Pierre,  Captain 
425  Fauthoux,  Pierre,  Pvt 

410  Galiay,  Paul,  Pvt 

413  Jaureguy,    A.,  Pvt. 

419  Lasserre,  Rene  Felix,  Sgt. 

404  Nicolai,  Jean,  2nd  Lt. 

405  Pons,  Pierre,  Asst.  Vet. 

416  Rieu,  Paul,   Pvt 

433  Strohl,  Emile,  2nd  Lt. 

411  Struxiano,  Phillip,  Pvt 

407  Thierry,  Robert,  Lt. 

409  Vaquer,  Fernand,  Adjutant 

420  Manco,  Louis,  Pvt 


Second,  United  States,  3  points. 
1303  Cleck,  Herbert,  1st  Lt. 
1320  Coulter,  John  W.,  2nd  Lt. 

1306  Dole,  Kenneth  L.,  Captain 
1334  Erb,  Arthur  L.,  1st  Lt. 
1336  Fish,  George  W.,  1st  Lt. 

1307  Fisher,  R.  T.,  2nd  Lt. 

1322  Fitzpatrick,  James  P.,  Corp. 

1324  Hanser,  Henry  P.,  Hosp.  Sgt 

1325  Keeler,  Frank  D.,  Corp. 

1326  Millington,  Seth,  1st  Lt. 
1312  Moore,  Frederic  H.,  Pvt. 

1327  Norris,  Robert  R.,  1st  Lt. 

1328  O'Neil,  J.  T.,  Pvt 
1315  Slocum,  L.  H.,  1st  Lt. 

1330  Snavely,  Gordon,  2nd  Lt. 

1331  Thoburn,  James  H.  1st  Lt. 
1317  Twombey,  Irving  F.,  2nd  Lt. 
1314  Schrader,   Charles   A.,    Corp. 


GOLF 

Four-Ball  (18  holes)— Team  Competition. 
First,  France. 

Members  of  Team: 
2336  Golias,  R. 
2339  Cavallo,  Marius 
2331  Gommier,  R. 
2335  Bomboudiac,  J. 
2334  Lafitte,  E. 
2333  Dauge,  M. 


480  THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 

2330  Massy,  Arnaud 
2338  Gossiat,  J. 
Singles  (36  holes) — 

First Massy,  Arnaud, 2330 France. 

Score,  5  up,  4  to  play 
Strokes,  112  in  32  holes 

Runner-up Dauge,  M 2333 France. 

Strokes,  116  in  32  holes 

HORSE-RIDING      COMPETITION 

Military  Competition — Team  (I). 
First,  France. 

Total  points  of  1st,  2nd,  and  3rd  Competitors,  88.707 

Members  of  Team: 

353  Major  Joseph  de  Soras  Points    29.708 

355  Lieut.  Paul  Larregain  "         29.541 

354  Lieut.  Frangois  de  Rivoyre  "         29.458 

356  Lieut.  Alexis  Tinel  "         29.208 
Substitutes: 

357  Captain  Guy  Pinon 

358  Captain  Antoine  Costa 
Second,  America. 

Total  points  of  1st,  2nd.  and  3rd  Competitors  88.541 
Members    of    Team: 

1069  Lt.  Col.  H.  D.  Chamberlain Points  29.625 

1070  Lt.  Col.  E.  W.  Taulbee "  29.583 

1067  Colonel  R.  T.  Merchant "         29.333 

1068  Colonel  W.W.  West,  Jr "         28.917 

Substitutes: 

1071  Lt.  Col.  J.  W.  Downer 

1072  Lt.  Col.  R.  E.  Anderson 
Third,   Italy. 

Total  points  of  1st,  2nd,  and  3rd  Competitors 87.832 

Members  of  Team: 

949  Captain  Giulio  Cacciandra Points  29 .  541 

952  Captain  Leone  Valle "  29 .333 

948  Captain  Francesco  Amalfi "  28.958 

946  Major  Ruggero  Ubertalli "  28.583 


Presentation  of  medals  l.y  General  PershinR.  Toy  Zc/'— Prentli  riding  team  recen-iiig  midals. 
Tov  right-^MnioT  Morel,  Belgium,  receiving  medal.  Center  left— Giiptiiin  Citno  Lacciandra, 
lUly,  receiving  cup.  Ceiiler  rir//ii— General  Wolf  presenting  winners  m  shooting  competition. 
Bottom  left— General  Wolf  reviving  team  tr.iphy  Xoi-  shooting.  Bottofn  right— G^-nevai  1  ershing 
shaking  hands  with  Blwood  S.  Brown,    Y.  M.  C.  A.    Athletic  Director. 


31 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  483 

Substitutes: 

951  Major  Ettore  Caflaratti 
947  Major  Giacomo  Antonelli 
Winners  of  individual  place  in  Military  competition. 

First        353  Major  Joseph  de  Soras France  .   Points  29.708 

Second  1069  Lt.  Col  H.D.  Chamberlain..  America       "       29.625 
Third     2267  Ct.  Ed.  Morel  de  Westgaver  Belgium.       "       29.625 
Prize  Jumping — Individual  (II). 

First        946  Maj,  Ruggero  Ubertalli.   Italy Total  Points  239 

(Riding  Treviso). 

Second  2123  Maj.  Filip  Jacob Roumania.  Total  Points  238 

(Riding  Beby). 
Third       946  Maj.  Ruggero  Ubertalli.    Italy.  .  .  .   Total  Points  237 
(Riding  Ernani). 

Prize  Jumping — In  Pairs  (III). 

First      I  ^'^^  ^^J-  ^^^'°™°  Antonelli.  Italy  ..  1    ^^^^j  p^.^^^  ^36 
(  953  Capt.AlessandroAlvisi  .    Italy  ..  \ 

Second    ^^^  ^^J-  ^''SS''''  Ubertalli.    Italy  ..  j  p^^^^^  ^^ 

aecona  j  g^^  j^^.    ^^^^^^  Caffaratti.  .    Italy  ..  i 

Third     I  358  Capt.Antoine  Costa  ...   France   I    Total  Points  231 
I  353  Lt.  Paul  Larregain  ....   France   ) 

ROWING,    SINGLES    SCULLS 

First      Hadfield,  D.  C,  . .  Sgt New  Zealand.  7  min.  54  sec. 

Second  Giran, Sgt France 

Third     Withington,*Paul,  Maj United  States 

ROWING,    FOUR-OARED    SHELLS 

First,  France,  7  min.  26  2-5  sec.  Second,  United  States. 

Stroke,  Bouton,  Sgt.  Stroke,  Withington,  Paul,  Maj. 

3,  Vaganay,  Pvt.  3,  Wiman,  C.  D.,  Capt. 

2,  Cordier,  Sgt.  2,  Wilson,  BiUings,  Capt. 

Bow,  Barrelet,  Lt.  Bow,  Cooke,  H.  E.,  Lt. 

Cox.,  Barberalle,  Cpl.  Cox.,  Gale,  Guy  H.,  Lt. 

ROWING,  EIGHT-OARED  SHELLS 

First,    England,    6    min.    26  3-5.  Second,  Australia 

Stroke,  Hartley,  Hubert  Stroke,  Disher,  Clive,  Capt. 


484 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


7,  Buxton,  Clarence 
6,  Buxton,  Maurice 
5,  Dixon,  Arthur 
4,  Campbell,  John 
3,  Swan,  Alfred 
2,  Peake,  Harold 
Bow,  Boret,  Herbert 
Cox.,  Johnstone,  Hobin 


7,  Mettam,  George,  Gunner 
6,  House,  Frederick,  Lt. 
5,  McGill,  Thomas,  Lt. 
4,  Scott,  Arthur,  Gunner 
3,  Davis,  Lyndhurst 
2,  Newall,  Harold,  Lt. 
Bow,  Robb,  A.,  Sgt. 
Cox.,  Smedley,  Albert,  Sgt. 


SHOOTING 

Army  Rifle — Team  Competition. 

First,  America, 

Members  of  Team: 

401  Coppedge,  James  F.,  2nd  Lt 

415  Smith,  Robert  W.,  1st  Lt 

406  Gray,  Leman,  Serg 

416  Smith,  Stanley,  1st  Sgt 

403  Crawley,  Theo.  B.,  Serg 

419  Titus,  Richard  J.,  Corp 

408  Henson,  Lester  V.,  Gy.  Serg 

404  Disbrow,  Harry  M.,  Capt 

412  Meyers,  Walter  A.,  Capt 

417  Spooner,  Lloyd  S.,  1st  Lt 

420  Walker,  Wesley  W.,  Capt 

425  Williams,  Glen,  Serg 

Second,  France, 

Members  of  Team: 

164  L'Hostis,  Jean,  Lt Points 

168  Percy,  Louis,  Demob        

163  Lajoie,  Jean,  2nd  Lt 

156  Durand,  Raymond,  Corp 

162  Johnson,  Leon,  Demob  

155  Dupuis,  Paul.,  Capt 

175  Colas,  Demob 

161   Hardy,  Pierre,  Demob 

165  Mahieu,  Jules,  Capt 

150  Angelini,  Charles,  Major 

171  Renard,  Leon.,  Capt 

157  Fray,  Andri,  2nd  Lt 


Points     2651 


230 

227 
227 
226 
225 
222 
221 
219 
217 
217 
215 
207 
2416 


Points 


219 
215 

214 
208 
207 
206 
206 
199 
192 
191 
183 
175 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  485 

Third,  Canada, Points  2351 

Members  of  Team: 

62  Mortimer,  George— Major Points  216 

67  Richardson,  Fred — Major "  213 

69  Spalding,  Frank,  Lt "  206 

61  Morris,  William  0.,  Major "  205 

72  Vincent,  Joseph  H.,  Lt "  202 

60  Mclnnes,  Dugald,  Serg "  195 

56  Hutchinson,  Roger  G.,  Major "  193 

52  Francis,  Edward  D.  T.,  Lt "  190 

Newman,  Nathaniel,  Col.  Sgt "  185 

59  Martin,  Fred  R.,  Capt "  185 

55  Hay,  John,  Serg "  184 

57  Johnson,  Frederick  G.,  Capt "  177 

Army   Rifle — Individual  Competition: 

First      416  Smith,  Stanley,  1st  Serg Points  275 

Second  408  Henson,  Lester  V.,  Gy.  Serg "  266 

Third     419  Titus,  Richard  J.,  Corp "  263 

Pistol  Competition — Individual: 

First      412  Kelley,  Michael,  M.E.S.G Points  669 

Second  419  Raymond,  D.  R.,  Capt "  648 

Third     401  Bird,  Paul,  Corp "  647 

Pistol  Competition — Team. 

First,  America,   Points  4080 

Members  of  Team: 

419  Raymond,  D.  R.,  Capt Points  427 

412  Kelley,  Michael,  M.E.S.G "  421 

407  Evans,  P.  W.,  Lt.  Col "  413 

411  Johnson,  James  F.,  1st  Lt "  413 

401  Bird,  Paul'  Corporal "  412 

409  Griffin,  Lloyd  E.,  1st  Lt "  411 

405  Dell,  James  W.,  Col.  Serg "  409 

400  Beverley,  J.  R.,  1st  Lt "  400 

402  Bittel,  Edward,  Lt.  Col "  389 

414  LaMatte,  C.  K.,  Lt.  Col "  385 

Second,  France Points  3828 

Members  of  Team: 

155  DeCastelbajac,  Capt Points  413 

158  Gandon,  Henri,  Demob "  412 


486 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


172  Vaudiau,  Pierre,  Capt "  393 

161  Barbillat,  Major "  393 

167  Renard,  Leon.,  Capt "  391 

165  Pecchia,  Joseph,  Serg "  387 

160  Guizien,  Louis,  Lt "  380 

162  Mazuc,  Fernand  A.,  Demob "  372 

164  Moreaux,  Leon.,  Major "  354 

157  DeVarino,  Bohan  P.,  Capt, "  333 

Third,  Italy Points  3369 

Members  of  Team: 

265  Sarorari,  Ferruccio,  Tene Points  384 

260  Piersantelli,  Emilio,  Tene.  Col    "  366 

264  Sanguini,  Plinio,  Capit "  354 

262  Santena,  Amedeo,  Vice  Brig "  353 

250  Ascani,  Ascanio,  Sott.  Ten "  349 

267  Somma,  Omberto,  Col "  330 

251  Borgia,  Carlo,  Tene.  Col "  329 

263  Santena,  Pacifico,  Maresc "  329 

266  Samanotti,  Achillo,  Col "  311 

261  Ruffo,  Giuseppe,  Tene.  Col "  265 


United  States  64.6  sec. 
Australia. 


United  States     1  m.  31.4  s. 


SWIMMING 

100  Meters,  Free  Style- 
First       114  Ross,  Norman,  2nd  Lieut..  . 
Second     77  Solomons,  L.  T.,  Driver.  .  .  . 
Third       75  Stedman,  Ivan  C,  Bomber 

100  Meters,  Back  Stroke— 

I^irst  114  Ross,  Norman,  2nd  Lieut..  . 

Second  91  Gardiner,  H.M.,  Sergeant  .  .        "  " 

Third  14  Lehu,  Daniel,  Private France. 

200  Meters,  Breast  Stroke- 
First        29  Sommer France 

Second  109  Biersack,  Henry,  Sergeant  .  United  States 

Third       64  Hallard,  Richard,  Private  ..  France. 

400  Meters,  Free  Style- 
First       114  Ross,  Norman,2nd  Lieut..  .  .  United  States 

Second     76  Longworth,  W.,  Lieut Australia. 

Third       75  Stedman,  Ivan  C,  Bomber  .  " 


3  m.  24.4  s. 


5  m.  40.4  s. 


Athletes  receiving  medals  from  General  Pershing.  Upper  Zr/i— Butler,  winner  in  the  broad 
jump.  Upper  riyht — Norman  Boss,  the  American  swimming  champion.  Center  left — Spalla, 
Italy,  and  Martin,  U.  S.  Center  right — A  line  of  U.  S.  winners.  Loiver  left— R\ido\ph  Klapka, 
one  of  the  Czecho-Slovakian  soccer  champions.  Lower  rif/Ai— Baseball  players  receiving  medals. 


PERSHING    STADIUM 


PARIS 


489 


800  Meters,  Free  Style- 
First      114  Ross,  Norman,  2nd  Lieut.. 
Second     76  Longworth,  William,  Lieut 
Third       78  Hardwick,  H.  H.,  Sergeant 

1500  Meters  Free  Style- 
First       114  Ross,  Norman,  2nd  Lieut.. 
Second     78  Hardwick,  Harold  H.,  Serg 
Third       57  Bacigalupo,  Luigi,  Lieut. . . 
800  ]kleters  Relay,  Free  Style- 
First,  Australia. 
78  Hardwick,  Harold  H.,  Sgt. 

75  Stedman,  Ivan  C,  Bomber 

76  Longworth,  William,  Lieut. 
80  Dexter,  J.,  Private 

Third,  Italy. 
57  Bacigalupo,  Luigi,  Lieut. 

59  Costa,  Malito,  Private 

60  Massa,  Mario,  Private 
126  Frassanetti,  Angostino,  Pvt. 

Time:  10  min.  11.2  sec 


United  States  12  m.  34  s. 
Australia. 


United  States  24  m.  22.4  s. 

Australia. 

Italy. 


Second,  United  States. 
114  Ross,  Norman,  2nd  Lieut. 
112  Hinks,  J.  M.,  2nd  Lieut. 
110  Biddel,  S.  M.,  Sergeant 
91  Gardiner,  H.  S.,  Sergeant 


Singles:  Winner 
Runner-up 

Doubles:  Winners 
Runners-up 


Teams:  Winners 


Runners-up 


TENNIS 

2012  Gobert,  Andre  H.,  Lieut.  .  . 
2002  O'Hara-Wood,  Pat,  Capt.  .. 
2002  O'Hara-Wood,  Pat,  Capt.  .. 

2001  Lycett,  Randolph,  Bomb.  .. 
2020  Washburn  Watson,  Capt.  . . 

2019  Mathey,  Dean,  1st  Lieut.  . . 

2002  O'Hara-Wood,  Pat.,  Capt.  . 
2001  Lycett,  Randolph,  Bomb  . . . 

2003  Patterson,  Gerald  L.,  Lieut . 

2020  Washburn,  Watson,  Capt.  . 
2019  Mathey,  Dean,  1st  Lieut.   .  . 


TRACK   AND    FIELD 

100-Meter  Dash- 
First        822  Paddock,CharlesW,  2nd  Lt.  U.S.A. 
Second     825  Teschner,  Edw.  A.,  2nd  Lt.  U.S.A. 
Third       726  Howard,  J.  A.,  Private  . .  .  Canada 


France 

Australia 

Australia 


United  States 

Australia 

I) 

United  States 
)i  " 


10.8  sec. 


490 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


200  Meter  Dash- 
First        822  Paddock,  Gh.  W.,  2nd  Lt.. 
Second     825  Teschner,  Edw.  A.,  2nd  Lt 
Third       646  Lindsay,  John,  Sergeant  .. 

400  Meter  Dash- 
First        831  Eby,  EarlA.,  IstLt.  ...   U. 
Second     839  Spink,   PhiHp   M.,  Private. 
Third       649  Wilton,  James  H.  R.,  Sgt  . 

800  Meter  Run- 
First        648  Mason,  Daniel  L.,  Sgt 

Second     831  Eby,  Earle  A.,  1st  Lt 

Third       839  Spink,  Philip  M.,  Private  . 

1500  Meter  Run- 
First        846.  Stout,  Clyde  J.,  2nd  Lt. .  .  . 
Second  1406  Arnaud,  Henri,  Sergeant  . . 
Third       722  LaPierre,  H.E.,  Private  ..  . 

Modified  Marathon — 
First       1383  Vermeulon,  Jean,  Private  . 
Second     850  Faller,  Fred,  Corporal  .... 
Third     1389  Heuet,  Danton 

110  Meter  High  Hurdles- 
First        863  Simpson,  Robert  I.,  1st  Lt. 
Second     860  Kelley,  Fred  W.,  2nd  Lt  .. 
Third       647  Wilson,  Harry  E.,  Sergeant, 

200  Meter  Low  Hurdles — 
First        863  Simpson,  Robert  I.,  1st  Lt. 
Second     864  Sylvester,  Wm.  F.,  2nd  Lt 
Third       863  House,  Meredith,  1st  Lt.  .. 

Running  High  Jump — 

First        870  Larsen,  Clinton,  1st  Lt 

/  1432  Labat,  Andre,  Sergeant.  . 
Second  873  Rice,  CarlV.,  Sgt.Major.. 
(  876  Templeton,  R.  L.,  2nd  Lt. 
Running  Broad  Jump — 
First  811  Butler,  Solomon,  Private. .  . 
Second  883  Worthington,  HT.,  2nd  Lt. 
Third       880  Johnson,  Leo  T.,  1st  Lt.  .  . 


U.S.A. 

New  Zealand. 

S.A. 
New  Zealand. 

New  Zealand. 

U.S.A. 

U.S.A. 
France 
Canada 

France 

U.S.A. 
France 

U.S.A. 

New  Zealand. 

U.S.A. 


21.6  sec. 


50  sec. 


1  m.  55.4  s. 


4  m.    5.6  s. 


55  m.  11.8  s. 


15.2  sec. 


25.8  sec. 


U.S.A. 

1.864  meters 

France 

) 

U.S.A. 

1.827  meters 

U.S.A. 

7.557  meters 

?J 

7.264       " 

?! 

6.62 

PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS  491 

Standing  Broad  Jump  — 
First        891  Taylor,  William  H.,  2nd  Lt  U.S.A. 
Second     893  Humphries,  James  W.,  Pvt       " 
Third     1424  Moreau,  Emile,  2nd  CI.  Pvt  France 

Rumning  Hop,  Step  and  Jump — 
First        881  Prem,  Herbert  L.,  IstLt...   U.S.A. 
Second     894  Bender,  Charles  A.  Gapt... 
Third       897  Madden,  John  E.,  Capt.  .  . 

Pole  Vault- 
First        899  Floyd,  Florin  W.,  1st  Lt.  .   U.S.A. 
Second     898  Ervin,  Lucius  S.,  2nd  Lt.  . 
Third       902  Harwood,  Robert,  2nd  Lt.. 

Throwing  the  Javelin — • 
First        905  Bronder,  George  E.,  2nd  L.  United  States  55.816  meters 
Second     903  Liversledge,  Harry,  1st  Lt.        " 
Third     2245  Zirganos,  Eustathios,  2nd  Lt.  Greece 

Throwing  the  Discus — 
First        910  Higgins, Charles  Sgt.,  United  States 
Second     889  Byrd,  Richard  L.,  1st  Lt... 
Third       911   Duncon,  James,  1st  Lieut..        " 

Putting  the  Shot  (16  lbs)— 
First        912  Caughey,  Edw.  R.,  2nd  Lt.  United  States  13.776  meters 
Second     903  Liversledge,  Harry,  IstLt...      "  13.576       " 

Third       915  Maxfield,  Wallace.  C,  2d  Lt       "  12.873       " 

Hand-Grenade  Throw — 
First      2148  Thompson,  Fred  C.  Chap.  United  SI 
Second  2145  Thompson,  S.  H.       Corp. 
Third     2149  Wycavage,  D.  C.       Sgt. 

Pentathlon — 
First        887  Legendre,  Robert  L.,  Corp.  U.S.A. 
Second     878  Vidal,  Gene  L.,  2nd  Lt. . . . 
Third     1363  Andre,  George,  Sgt France 

800  Meter  Relay  Race- 
First,  America,  1  min.  30.8  sec.  Second,  Canada. 
822  Paddock,  Charles  W.,  2ndLt.       726  Howard,  J.  A.— Private 
814  Haddock,  Marshall,  Jr..,  Pvt.       715  Haliburton,  R.— C.Q.M.S. 
826  Torkelson,  Howard  T,  Pvt.         728  Zoellin,  F.  J.— Private 
825  Teschner,  Edward  A.,  2ndLt.       727  Johnson,  0.  P.— Private 


3.400  meters 

3.270 

)J 

3.098 

J? 

14.081  meters 

13.542 

J) 

13.479 

n 

3.675  meters 

3.575 

J  J 

3.45 

)7 

55.816  meters 

53.87 

J  J 

48.689 

71 

40.883  meters 

40.038 

J1 

36.112 

11 

tates. 

74.929  m. 

11 

73.915     " 

11 

66.552    " 

Total  Points    461 

11 

431. 

2 

11 

398.4 

492 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES    —    1919 


Third, 

1179  Carter,  Ernest,  Sgt. 

1180  Hume,  Leslie  J.,  Driver 

1600  Meter  Relay  Race- 
First,  America,  3  min.  28.8  sec. 

828  Campbell,  Thomas,  Sgt. 

829  Campbell,  Verle  H.,  1st  Lt. 
577  Meehan,  Edward  J.,  2nd  Lt. 
825  Teschner,  Edward  A.,  2nd  Lt 

Third, 

1401  Devaux,  Andre,  Adj. 

1402  Delvart,  Henri,  Sgt. 

Medley  Relay  Race — 
First,  America,  7  min.  43.4  sec. 
813  Haas,  Carl  F.,  Private 
832  Gray,  William  C,  Private 
827  Campbell,  Floyd  F.,  1st  Lt. 
922  Shields,  M.  Lawrence,  Sgt. 

Third, 
1396  Seurin,  Jean  R.,  Private. 
1417  Poulenard, 


Australia 

845  Johnson,  William,  Private 
1181   Carroll,  Harold  V.,  Driver. 

Second,  Australia. 
2399  Chalmers,  R.  D.,  Lt. 
845  Johnson,  WiUiam,  Pvt. 
1180  Hume,  Leslie  J.,  Driver 
1184  Eraser,  Thomas,  Sgt. 
France 

1403  Dumont,  Raoul,  Corporal 
1400  Laubestrand,   R,  Private 

Second,  Australia. 
1180  Hume,  Leslie  J.,  Driver 
1179  Carter,  Ernest,  Sergeant 
1183  Bergmeier,  Chs.  B.,  Private 
1188  Manley,  Chfford,  Sergeant 
France. 

1446  Dandelot,  G.,  Mai.  de  Logis. 
1408  Lakary,   Hamed,  Corporal 


TUG    OF    WAR 


First,  America. 
804  Johnston,  R.  H.,  Mast.Engr.  2366 

775  Johnson,  Carl  J.  L.,  Wagoner  2367 

776  Fay,  John  W.,  Wagoner.  2368 
778  Posey,  Harley,  Private  2369 
786  Mathesen,  George  E.,  Wag.  2370 
795  Rouse,  James  N.,  Wagoner  2371 
797  Shaw,  Earl  H.,  Corporal  2372 
799  McFarren,  George  B.,  Corp.  2373 
806  Gobb,  Alfred  R.,  Sergeant  2374 
803  Moser,  H.  R.  J.,  Private  2375 
238  Fields,  Stephen  C,  Sgt.  2376 
784  Johnson,  Chester,  H.,  Corp.  2377 
793  Loftis,  Isaac,  Corporal  2378 
783  Copeland  Edmund,  Corporal  2379 


Second,  Belgium. 
Baltynck,  Leopold,  Sgt. 
Den  Tweck,  Alidor,   Private 
Van  Eecke,  Helairi, 
Vandewille,  Victor, 
Nicolaes,  Alphonse, 
Servaes,  Isidore, 
Vandenborn,  Jean, 
Casiers,  Camille, 
Lambrecht,  Jules,  1st 
Cill,  Leon,  Sgt.  Major. 
Reymen,  Henri,  Private 
DeCuyper,  Arthur,  Private 
Van  Humbeeck,  Hector,  Sgt. 
Hoever,  Albert,  Sergeant 


PERSHING    STADIUM    —    PARIS 


493 


WRESTLING,     CATCH-AS-CATCH-CAN 

Bantamweight — 
Winner     1362     Slinger,  Frank. 

(No  other  contestants). 
Featherweight — 

Winner     1361     Littlejahault 
Runner-up     1215     Taylor,  Albert  W.,  Sgt. 
Lightweight — 
Winner     1360     Mitropolis,  Peter 
Runner-up       576     Marshall,  F.  W.,  Capt. 
Welterweight — 
Winner     1359     Farley,  Cal. 
Runner-up     1214     Bridges,  Alfred  F.,  S.  M. 
Middleweight — 
Winner     1358     Prehn,  William 
Runner-up     1213     Palmer,  John  R.,  Spr. 
Light  Heavyweight — 
Winner     1357     Parcaut,  Ralph 
Runner-up     1211     Meeske,  William,  Sergeant 
Heavyweight — 
Winner       402     Salvator,  Chevalier 
Runner-up     1356     Polk,  Joe 


U.S.A. 


United  States 
Australia 

United  States 
Newfoundland 

United  States 
Australia 

United  States 
Australia. 

United  States 
Australia 

France 
United  States 


WRESTLING,      GRECO-ROMAN 

Bantamweight — 
Winner     2364     Wisenan 
Runner-up     2365     Behomet 
Featherweight — 
Winner     1256     Dierck 
Runner-up     1056     Vaglio,  Pierre,  Pvt. 

Lightweight — 
Winner       301     Beranek,  Joseph,  Corp. 
Runner-up     1055     Porro,  Enrico,  Private. 

Welterweight — 
Winner       303     Halik,  Karol,  Private. 
Runner-up     1253     Savonet 


United  States 
France 

Belgium 
Italy 

Gzecho-Slovakia 
Italy 

Gzecho-Slovakia 
Belgium 


494 


THE    INTER-ALLIED    GAMES 


1919 


Middleweight — 
Winner     1251     Van  Antwerpen 
Runner-Up    1053     Gargano,  Andrea,  Pvt. 

Light  Heavyweight — 
Winner       306     Kopriva,  Frant,  Sgt.  Major. 
Runner-Up       305     Dostal,  Joseph,  Corporal. 

Heavyweight — 
Winner       400     Bechard,  Frangois,  Mtre  Point. 
Runner-Up     1248     Goels 

WATER    POLO 


Belgium 
Italy 

Serbia 
Gzecho-SIovakia 

France 
Belgium 


First,  Belgium. 

65  Durant,  Albert,  Sergeant 

66  Steffans,    Fernand,  Sergeant 

67  Fleurix,  Georges,  Private 

68  Boin,  Victor,  Lieutenant 

69  Gludts,  Joseph,  Sergeant 

70  Dewin,  Pierre,  Gorporal 

71  Delahaye,  Alphonse,  Corporal 

72  Everaerts,  Edmond,  Sgt.  Maj. 

73  Wyts,  Julien,  Private 

74  Deman,  Frangois,  Corporal 


Second,  France. 
6  Dujardin,  P. 

4  Pernod,  M. 
3  Decoin,  H. 

5  Rigal,  G. 

14  Lehu 

22  Neistei,  G. 

15  Jouault,  H. 

10  Mayand,  Y.,  Private 

12  Jorre,  Private. 
8  Niver,  Private 

13  Rodier,  Lieut. 


SPECIAL    EVENTS,    ARMIES    OF    OCCUPATION. 

Running  Broad  Jump — 

First        897  Madden,  John  E.,  Captain   U.S.A.   6.615  meters 

Second     976  Nespoli,  Arturo,  Sergeant   Italy      6.466       " 

Third     1430  Coulon,  Aspirant France  6.237       " 

800  Meter  Relay  (Track)— 
First,  France,  1  min.  33.6  sec.  Second,  Italy. 

1400  Laubestrand,  R.,  Private       976  Nespoli,  Arturo,  Sergeant 

1397  Girard,    Rene,  Private  975  Crool,  Giorgio,  Sergeant 

1398  Labanoat,  Raoul,  Ml  d  Logis  977  Orlandi,  Gio.  Battist,  Private 

1399  Rault,  Pierre,  Aspirant.         974  Alberti,  Guiseppe,  Sergeant 

Third,  America. 
932  Fields,  Thomas  S.,  Corporal     817  Leon,  Harry  S.,  Private 
931  Pedan,  Roy  F.,  Sergeant        872  Osborne,  John  F.,  Private 


Top  left-Fvesontation  of  medals.  Top  riaW-Americun  '^f'^\^''^^J^;i-,^t^^^, 
trophie..  Center  Ze/i-Soccer  trophy  won  by  Cz.cho-Slovakian  tram.  Center^  ngM  Mm 
U.S.,recpiving  medal.     Bottom  Ze/<-Maxfield,  U.  S.,  receiving  medals.     Bottom  ng/it     iundy, 

XJ.   S.,  receiving  medal. 


Lowering  the  flag  on  the  last  day.